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For Medical Practitioners
Fast Facts on Generic Drugs Information for patients.
Abramson, John. Overdo$ed America: the broken promise of American medicine. New York, NY. Harper Collins, 2004.
Angell, Marcia. The truth about the drug companies: how they deceive us and what to do about it. New York, NY. Random House, 2004.
Avorn, Jerry. Powerful medicines: the benefits, risks, and costs of prescription drugs. New York, NY. Knopf, 2004.
Brody, Howard. Hooked: ethics, the medical profession, and the pharmaceutical industry. New York, NY. Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007.
Brownlee, Shannon. Overtreated: why too much medicine is making us sicker and poorer. New York, NY. Bloomsbury, 2007.
Cohen, Jay. Over dose: The case against the drug companies. New York, NY. Penguin, 2001.
Critser, Greg. Generation Rx: how prescription drugs are altering American lives, minds, and bodies. Mariner Books, 2007.
Cundiff, David. Whistleblower doctor: The politics and economics of pain and dying. 2011.
Elliott, Carl. Better than well: American medicine meets the American dream. New York, NY. W.W. Norton, 2003.
Elliott, Carl. White coat, black hat: Adventures on the dark side of medicine. Boston, MA. Beacon Press, 2010.
Faloon, William. Pharmocracy: How corrupt deals and misguided medical regulations are bankrupting America and what to do about it. Mount Jackson, VA. Praktikos Books 2011.
Fox, Stephen R. The mirror makers: a history of American advertising and its creators. New York, NY. Morrow, 1984.
Goldacre, Ben. Bad pharma: How drug companies mislead doctors and harm patients. New York, NY. Faber and Faber, 2012.
Goldacre, Ben. Bad science: Quacks, hacks, and big pharma flacks. New York, NY. Faber and Faber, 2008.
Goldacre, Ben. I think you’ll find it’s a bit more complicated than that. London, UK. Fourth Estate, 2014.
Goozner, Merrill. The $800 million pill: the truth behind the cost of new drugs. Berkeley, CA. University of California Press, 2004.
Gotzsche, Peter. Deadly medicines and organized crime: How big pharma has corrupted healthcare. London, UK. Radcliffe Publishing, 2013.
Greene, Jeremy A. Prescribing by numbers: drugs and the definition of disease. Baltimore, MD. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.
Healy, David. Pharmageddon. Berkeley, LA. University of California Press, 2012.
Healy, David. The antidepressant era. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press, 1997.
Healy, David. Let them eat Prozac: the unhealthy relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and depression. New York, NY. New York University Press, 2004.
Hobereman, John. Testosterone dreams: Rejuvenation, aphrodesia, doping. Berkeley, CA. University of California Press, 2005.
Kassirer, Jerome P. On the take: how America’s complicity with big business can endanger your health. New York, NY. Oxford University Press, 2005.
Kilbourne, Jean. Can’t buy my love: how advertising changes the way we think and feel. New York, NY. Simon & Schuster, 1999.
Kilbourne, Jean. Deadly persuasion: why women and girls must fight the addictive power of advertising. New York, NY. Free Press, 1999.
Moynihan, Ray. Selling sickness: how the world’s biggest pharmaceutical companies are turning us all into patients. New York, NY. Nation Books, 2005.
Moynihan, Ray & Mintzes, Barbara. Sex, lies and pharmaceuticals: How drug companies plan to profit from female sexual dysfunction. Vancouver, CA. Greystone Books, 2010.
Mundy, Alicia. Dispensing with the truth: the victims, the drug companies, and the dramatic story behind the battle over Fen-Phen. New York, NY. St. Martin’s Press, 2001.
Payer, Lynn. Medicine and culture: varieties of treatment in the United States, England, West Germany, and France. New York, NY. Henry Holt and Company, 1996.
Reidy, Jamie. Hard sell: the evolution of a Viagra salesman. Kansas City, MO. Andrews McMeel, 2005.
Rodwin, Marc. Medicine, money & morals: PhysiciansÕ conflicts of interest. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press, 1993.
Tone, Andrea & Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel. Medicating modern America: Prescription drugs in history. New York, NY. New York University Press, 2007.
Washburn, Jennifer. University, Inc.: the corporate corruption of American higher education. New York, NY. Basic Books, 2005.
Washington, Harriet. Deadly monopolies: The shocking corporate takeover of life itself—and the consequences for your health and our medical future. New York, NY. Doubleday, 2011.
Therapeutics Letter Independent publication on rational drug therapy published by the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics at the University of British Columbia.
Australian Prescriber Independent review of drugs and therapeutics published by the National Prescribing Service.
Conflict of Interest
Sah S, Loewenstein G, Cain DM. The burden of disclosure: increased compliance with distrusted advice. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2013 Feb;104(2):289-304.
Sah S. Conflicts of interest and your physician: psychological processes that cause unexpected changes in behavior. J Law Med Ethics. 2012 Fall;40(3):482-7.
Loewenstein G, Sah S, Cain DM. The unintended consequences of conflict ofinterest disclosure. JAMA. 2012 Feb 15;307(7):669-70.
Choudhry NK, Stelfox HT, Detsky AS. Relationships between authors of clinical practice guidelines and the pharmaceutical industry. JAMA 2002;287:612-7.
Yank V, Rennie D, Bero LA. Financial ties and concordance between results and conclusions in meta-analyses: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2007;335:1202-5.
Direct to Consumer (DTC) Promotion
Dominick L. Frosch DL, Krueger PM, Hornik RC, Cronholm PF, Barg FK. Creating demand for prescription drugs: a content analysis of television direct-to-consumer advertising. Ann Fam Med 2007;5(1):6-13.
Gellad Z and Lyles K. Direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals. Am J of Med. 2007;120:475-480.
Kravitz RL, Epstein RM, Feldman MD, Franz CE, Azari R, Wilkes MS, Hinton L, Franks P. Influence of patients’ requests for direct-to-consumer advertised antidepressants: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005 Apr 27;293(16):1995-2002.
Zachary WM 3rd, Shepherd MD, Hinich MJ, Wilson JP, Brown CM, Lawson KA. Relationship between direct-to-consumer advertising and physician diagnosing and prescribing. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2002 Jan 1;59(1):42-9.
Marshall J and Aldhous P. Patient groups special: swallowing the best advice? New Sci. 2006 Oct 27;2575:18-22.
Moynihan R, Heath I, Henry D. Selling sickness: the pharmaceutical industry and disease mongering. BMJ. 2002 Apr 13;324(7342):886-91.
Moynihan R. Henry D. The fight against disease mongering: generating knowledge for action. PloS Med. 2006 Apr 3(4):e191. Epub 2006 Apr 11.
Docs and Pharma
Andersen M, Kragstrup J, Søndergaard J. How conducting a clinical trial affects physicians’ guideline adherence and drug preferences. JAMA. 2006 Jun 21;295(23):2759-64.
Korenstein D, Keyhani S, Ross JS. Physician attitudes toward industry: a view across the specialties. Arch Surg. 2010 Jun;145(6):570-7. doi: 10.1001/archsurg.2010.75.
Campbell E, Gruen R, Mountford J, et. al. A national survey of physician–industry relationships. NEJM 2007 Apr 26;356(17):1742-50.
Carroll AE, Vreeman RC, Buddenbaum J, Inui TS. To what extent do educational interventions impact medical trainees’ attitudes and behaviors regarding industry-trainee and industry-physician relationships? Pediatrics 2007;120:e1528-35.
Lexchin J. Interactions between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: what does the literature say? CMAJ 1993;149(10):1401-7.
Lexchin J. Of Money and trust in medical care. The Academia-Industry Symposium MSM 2007: Medical Practice and the Pharmaceutical Industry and ever the duo shall meet. MSM 2007 Jan-Dec;5:7-10.
Mansfield P, Lexchin J, Wen L, Grandori L, McCoy C, Hoffman J, et. al. Educating health professionals about drug and device promotion: advocates’ recommendations. PLoS Med. 2006 November;3(11):1988-1991.
Mather C. The pipeline and the porcupine: alternate metaphors of the physician-industry relationship. Soc Sci Med. 2005 Mar;60(6):1323-34.
Oldani MJ. Thick prescriptions: toward an interpretation of pharmaceutical sales practices. Med Anthropol Q. 2004 Sep;18(3):325-56.
Ross J, Lackner J, Lurie P, et. al. Pharmaceutical company payments to physicians: early experiences with disclosure laws in Vermont and Minnesota. JAMA 2007 Mar 21;297(11):1216-1222.
Segovis CM, Mueller PS, Rethlefsen ML, et al. If you feed them, they will come: a prospective study of the effects of complimentary food on attendance and physician attitudes at medical grand rounds at an academic medical center. BMC Med Educ 2007;7:22.
Sierles FS, Brodkey AC, Cleary LM, et al. Medical students’ exposure to and attitudes about drug company interactions: a national survey. JAMA 2005;294:1034-42.
Wazana A. Physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: is a gift ever just a gift? JAMA. 2000; 283:373-380.
Greene JA. Pharmaceutical marketing research and the prescribing physician. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:742-8.
Mintzes B, Lexchin J, Sutherland JM, Beaulieu MD, Wilkes MS, Durrieu G, Reynolds E. Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives and Patient Safety: A Comparative Prospective Study of Information Quality in Canada, France and the United States. J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Apr 5.
Chimonas S, Brennan T, Rothman D. Physicians and drug representatives: exploring the dynamics of the relationship. JGIM 2007 Feb;22(2): 184–190
Fugh-Berman A, Ahari S. Following the script: how drug reps make friends and influence doctors. PLoS Med 2007 Apr 24; 4(4): e150.
Pegler S and Underhill J. Evaluating promotional material from industry: an evidence-based approach. The Pharmaceutical Journal. 2005 March 5;274(7339): 271-274.
Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Teaching information mastery: evaluating information provided by pharmaceutical representatives. Fam Med. 1995 Oct;27(9):581-5.
Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Separating the wheat from the chaff: identifying fallacies in pharmaceutical promotion. J Gen Intern Med. 1994 Oct;9(10):563-8.
Steinman M, Harper, M, Chren M, et. al. Characteristics and impact of drug detailing for gabapentin. PLoS Med 2007 Apr 24;4(4): e134.
Zipkin DA, Steinman MA. Interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and doctors in training. A thematic review. J Gen Intern Med. 2005 Aug;20(8):777-86.
Kesselheim AS, Avorn J. The role of litigation in defining drug risks. JAMA 2007 Jan 17;297(3):308-311.
Krumholz HM, Ross JS, Presler AH, Egilman, DS. What have we learnt from Vioxx? BMJ 2007 Jan;334(7585):120-123.
Moore TJ, Cohen MR, Furberg CD. Serious adverse drug events reported to the Food and Drug Administration, 1998-2005. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1752-9.
Anekwe TD. Profits and plagiarism: the case of medical ghostwriting. Bioethics. 2009 Feb 10. [Epub ahead of print].
Fugh-Berman A. The corporate coauthor. J Gen Int Med 2005;20(6):546-548.
Fugh-Berman A, Dodgson S. The ethics of publication planning in the pharmaceutical industry. Open Medicine 2008;4(5):e40-43.
Fugh-Berman A, Melnick D. Off-label promotion, on-target sales. PLoS Medicine 2008;5 (10): e210.
Gotzsche PC, Hrobjartsson A, Johansen HK, Haahr MT, Altman DG, Chan AW. Ghost authorship in industry-initiated randomised trials. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e19.
Gøtzsche PC, Kassirer JP, Woolley KL, Wager E, Jacobs A, Gertel A, Hamilton C. What should be done to tackle ghostwriting in the medical literature? PLoS Med. 2009 Feb 3;6(2):e23.
Healy D. In the grip of the python: conflicts at the university-industry interface. Sci Eng Ethics. 2003 Jan;9(1):59-71.
Matheson A. How industry uses the ICMJE guidelines to manipulate authorship–and how they should be revised. PLoS Med. 2011 Aug;8(8):e1001072. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001072.
McHenry LB, Jureidini JN. Industry-sponsored ghostwriting in clinical trial reporting: a case study. Account Res. 2008 Jul-Sep;15(3):152-67.
Moffatt B, Elliott C. Ghost marketing: pharmaceutical companies and ghostwritten journal articles. Perspect Biol Med. 2007 Winter;50(1):18-31.
Ross JS, Hill KP, Egilman DS, Krumholz HM. Guest authorship and ghostwriting in publications related to rofecoxib: a case study of industry documents from rofecoxib litigation. JAMA. 2008 Apr 16;299(15):1800-12.
Glaser BE, Bero LA. Attitudes of academic and clinical researchers toward financial ties in research: a systematic review. Sci Eng Ethics. 2005 Oct;11(4):553-73.
Khan SN, Mermer MJ, Myers E, Sandhu HS. The roles of funding source, clinical trial outcome, and quality of reporting in orthopedic surgery literature. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2008 Dec;37(12):E205-12; discussion E212.
Lundh A, Sismondo S, Lexchin J, Busuioc OA, Bero L. Industry sponsorship andresearch outcome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Dec 12;12:MR000033. doi:10.1002/14651858.MR000033.pub2. Review. PubMed PMID: 23235689.d
Bennett CL, Lai SY, Henke M, Barnato SE, Armitage JO, Sartor O. Association between pharmaceutical support and basic science research on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Sep 13;170(16):1490-8.
Als-Nielsen B, Chen W, Gluud C, Kjaergard LL. Association of funding and conclusions in randomized drug trials: a reflection of treatment effect or adverse events? JAMA 2003;290(7):921-8.
Ashar BH, Miller RG, Getz KJ, Powe NR. Prevalence and determinants of physician participation in conducting pharmaceutical-sponsored clinical trials and lectures. J Gen Intern Med 2004;19:1140-5.
Bhandari M, Busse JW, Jackowski D, et.al. Association between industry funding and statistically significant pro-industry findings in medical and surgical randomized trials. CMAJ 2004; 170: 477-480.
Lexchin J, Bero LA, Djulbegovic B, Clark O. Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. BMJ. 2003;326:1167-70.
Melander H, Ahlqvist-Rastad J, Meijer G, Beermann B. Evidence b(i)ased medicine–selective reporting from studies sponsored by pharmaceutical industry: review of studies in new drug applications. BMJ. 2003;326:1171-3.
Shah, AA and Thomas FE. Commercial influence on psychiatric drug studies. Psychiatric Times. 2006 May; 71-73.
Sismondo S. How pharmaceutical industry funding affects trial outcomes: Causal structures and responses. Soc Sci Med 2008;66:1909-14.
Sismondo S. Pharmaceutical company funding and its consequences: A qualitative systematic review. Contemp Clin Trials 2008;29:109-13.
Moynihan R, Bero L, Ross-Degnan D, Henry D, Lee K, Watkins J, Mah C, Soumerai SB. Coverage by the news media of the benefits and risks of medications. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jun 1;342(22):1645-50.
Adair RF, Holmgren LR. Do drug samples influence resident prescribing behavior? A randomized trial.Am J Med. 2005 Aug;118(8):881-4.
Boltri JM, Gordon ER, Vogel RL. Effect of antihypertensive samples on physician prescribing patterns. Fam Med 2002;34:729-31.
Chew, LD, et al. A Physician Survey of the Effect of Drug Sample Availability on Physicians’ Behavior. J Gen Int Med. 2000;15: 478-483
Groves KEM, Sketris I, Tett SE. Prescription drug samples–does this marketing strategy counteract policies for quality use of medicines? J Clin Pharm Ther 2003;28:259-71.
NEW! AccessRx is a project of the DC Department of Health, the George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health, and PharmedOut, which analyzes gifts made by the pharmaceutical industry to physicians and other health care providers in the District of Columbia. Below, please find pdfs of the past three special reports on the project's findings:
U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) – February 2011 Full Report on Prescription Drugs: Trends in Usual and Customary Prices for Commonly Used Drugs
Why Not the Best? Results from the National Scorecard on U.S. Health System Performance, 2008. The Commonwealth Fund Commission on a High Performance Health System.
Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs A public information project administered by Consumers Union.
COI in medical education.
American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard 2008 Conflict of interest policies at academic medical centers.
AHRQ Compendia for Coverage of Off-Label Uses of Drugs and Biologics in an Anticancer Chemotherapeutic Regimen A review of drug compendia.
Lifting the Veil of Secrecy: Corporate Support for Health and Environmental Professional Associations, Charities, and Industry Front Groups. A 2003 report from Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI)
Drug promotion: what we know, what we have yet to learn: Reviews of materials in the WHO/HAI database on drug promotion EDM Research Series no. 32 (102 pages)More at WHO site Selection and Rational Use of Medicines. Norris P, Herxheimer A, Lexchin J, Mansfield P. World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI), 2004.
(Free paper copy available on request from WHO: e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org)
Educational Initiatives For Medical and Pharmacy Students About Drug Promotion: an International Cross-sectional Survey (pdf 3.75 MB) Mintzes B. World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI), 2005. Free paper copy also available on request from WHO: e-mail email@example.com
Getting Doctors to Say Yes to Drugs: The Cost and Quality Impact of Drug Company Marketing to Physicians. Blue Cross Blue Shield Association. Millenson, ML. Accessed September 2, 2006.
Profiting from Pain: Where Prescription Dollars Go. July 2002. Families USA Publication 02-105. More at Families USA Prescription Drug Publications.
Big Pharma Behaving Badly: A Survey of Selected Class Action Lawsuits Against Drug Companies, Fourth Edition. January 2005. Prepared for Families USA by Patrick Cafferty, Miller Faucher, and Cafferty, LLP. More at Families USA Prescription Drug Publications.
CSE’s White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications. Editorial Policy Committee (2005-2006), Council of Science Editors (CSE). 2006.
Kaiser Family Foundation National Survey of Physicians Part II: Doctors and Prescription Drugs, March 2002. Additional Findings were released in 2006.
Kaiser Family Foundation Prescription Drug Trends Fact Sheet.
US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Guide to Clinical Practice for 2006. Free in pdf, print, or downloadable PDA format.
New drug treatment reports from the U.K. National Prescribing Center (part of the National Health Service)
The Number Needed to Treat (TheNNT.com) conveys the benefit and harm of therapies and is an excellent resource for both physicians and patients.
Dollars for Docs: What Drug Companies are Paying Your Doctor A ProPublica database – Search for your doctor’s name to see if they’ve received drug company money.
WHO Drug Promotion A World Health Organization database that contains more than 2000 abstracts from 1970-2002.
Conflict-of-Interest Database Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) Integrity in Science database includes conflict of interest information on individuals and organizations.
Drug Industry Document Archive (DIDA) Searchable database of internal industry documents and other papers concerning the marketing of Neurontin (gabapentin); also documents on the marketing of Vioxx (rofecoxib) from public records.
The Centers for Reviews Dissemination (CRD) Primarily funded by the National Health Service (U.K.), the CRD includes the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) which contains abstracts of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
Database before March 31, 2015
Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database
DrugWatch.com Offers extensive information about medications and drugs currently on the market or previously available. It includes prescription and over-the-counter medications and details about side effects.
Frequently Asked Questions on Ghostwriting for Experts, Reporters, and Laymen Project on Government Oversight
Therapeutics Initiative “provides physicians and pharmacists with up to date, evidence based, practical information on rational drug therapy” and publishes the Therapeutic Letter, a freely available, independent publication on rational drug therapy.
RxFacts Independent Drug Information Service Objective drug information. Clinical topics include:
Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) Dozens of state-funded evidence reports on drugs.
Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) Evidence reports and research reviews on various diseases and conditions.
Office of Medical Applications of Research (OMAR), now the Office of Disease Prevention (ODP), National Institutes of Health (NIH) previously listed NIH State-of-the-Science Consensus Statements.
Specific drugs at the FDA
Guidances the FDA’s current thinking on various topics
Thoreau-FDA.com FDA staffers express drug safety concerns.
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Independent organization in the U.K. that provides national guidance on the promotion of good health and the prevention and treatment of ill health.
Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. Lots of learning and teaching tools, including glossaries of terms and slideshows on Teaching Evidence Based Health Care; Graphical Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology; Implementing Evidence Based Practices; Statistics in Homeopathic Doses and Teaching about Diagnosis.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides statistics, publications, and additional information on disease conditions. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) (free subscription)
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) contains reports and data on national and local health statistics.
World Health Organization (WHO) the United Nations health agency has extensive publications and resources on international health, specific diseases, and drug information.
National Electronic Library for Health (NeLH) provides access to MeReC, Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin, Bandolier, and other sites. Some resources (Cochrane reviews) are available only in the U.K.
The Cochrane Collaboration Systematic reviews of hundreds of medical therapies. Full reviews require subscription, but abstracts are free.
The Centers for Reviews and Dissemination Primarily funded by the National Health Service (U.K.), the CDRD includes the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) which contains abstracts of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
offers a documentary, information, and educational modules on the drug approval process, marketing strategies, ethical dimensions, and strategies to improve prescribing.
National Physicians Alliance, now Doctors for America Founded by former leaders of AMSA, the NPA seeks “to restore physicians’ primary emphasis on the core values of our profession: service, integrity, and advocacy…and to ensure equitable, affordable, high quality health care for all people.”
No Free Lunch “Just say no to drug reps.” Physicians and medical students who “believe that pharmaceutical promotion should not guide clinical practice.” Information, news, resources, and essays; NFL also invented the “Pen Amnesty” program.
Healthy Skepticism An international non-profit organization that “aims to improve health by reducing harm from misleading drug promotion.” The site contains a web library of over 7300 items. Adwatch analyzes selected drug ads.
Health Care Renewal Summaries, commentary and links to news stories about integrity in science and medicine, drug promotion, institutional and corporate scandals.
Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) Integrity in Science Project A conflict-of-interest database that includes individuals and groups. A CSPI listserve provides weekly information about conflicts of interest in science. Subscribe to the CSPI listserve.
Includes sources of independent information on drugs, slideshows, and downloadable stickers used to cover up drug company logos.
Demanding Evidence, Foregoing Industry Bias (De-Fib) New site from University of Rochester medical students.
Health Action International: An international group that “works to increase access and improve the rational use of essential medicines.”
See more blogs
Ghostwriting and Pharmaceutical Company Payments Links to industry documents, articles, payments to physicians and organizations, and corporate integrity agreements.
Unbiased Resources Drugs and other therapies.
Fast Facts on Generic Drugs Information for patients.
Drug Ad Bingo An exercise for physicians-in-training on how to recognize sales techniques in pharmaceutical ads.
An Introduction to Information Mastery (powerpoint) Mark H. Ebell, Department of Family Practice, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University. A course on Information Mastery, Evidence-Based Medicine, and critical appraisal of the medical literature.
Selected documents on the marketing of Vioxx, for a Congressional hearing held on May 05, 2005 by the Committee on Government Reform, Minority Office, on The roles of the FDA and pharmaceutical companies in ensuring the safety of approved drugs, like Vioxx
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guidance for Industry on Industry-Supported Scientific and Educational Activities. Federal Register / Vol. 62, No. 232 / Wednesday, December 3, 1997 / Notices/64093. Additional Guidances from CDER.
Office of the Inspector General has the OIG Compliance Program Guidance for Pharmaceutical Manufacturers. Federal Register / Vol. 68, No. 86 / Monday, May 5, 2003 / Notices / 23731.