CHOOSING THE TWELVE APOSTLES
Read the following scriptures and try to place them in chronological order.
_____ Matthew 3:13-16; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22.
_____ Matthew 4:1-11; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-12.
_____ Matthew 9:9-13; Mark 2:13-17; Luke 5:27-32.
_____ Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 2:14-20; Luke 5:1-11.
_____ Matthew 10:1-4; Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-16.
_____ John 1:29-51.
_____ John 3:22-4:3.
Based on these scriptures:
What was the association between John the Baptist and Peter, Andrew, James, and John?
What was the association between Peter, Andrew, James, and John?
Do you think they may have been Jesus' first disciples?
Which disciples do you think were with Jesus at the Wedding feast described in John 2:1-11.
What was their occupation?
Why did Jesus appoint the apostles as a special group?
The Betrayal: Mark 14:10-11,18-20,42-46.
The Replacement: Acts 1:6-2:4. Acts 9:1-20. 1 Corinthians 1:1; 9:1-5.
Did Judas forfeit his position as an apostle when he betrayed Jesus?
Who was God's choice to replace Judas?
CHOOSING THE TWELVE
I. John the Baptist and the Messianic hope. Mark 1:1-5
A. John the Baptist: Great crowds and excitement
B. Disciples: Interested in the Messiah.
C. Jesus' baptism.
II. Loose association: the first meetings. John 1:35-51
A. John the Baptist and his disciples.
B. Jesus is introduced.
C. Two of John's disciples seek out Jesus.
1. Andrew and the anonymous one.
2. Andrew gets Peter
D. Jesus finds Philip.
1. Philip is from the same town as Andrew and Peter.
2. Philip and Nathaniel.
E. Jesus makes and baptizes disciples. John 3:22-4:3.
1. John's decline.
III. Formal discipleship: The call to follow.
Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:16-18; Luke 5:1-11.
IV. Appointed as Apostles.
1. Disciple. Greek mathetes, one who follows one's teachings, that is, indicating thought accompanied by endeavor, thought followed by action.
2. Apostle. Greek apostolos, one sent forth. From apo, from and stello, to send.
3. These men were first Jesus' disciples, followers of his teachings. Then they were designated apostles, those sent out to proclaim Jesus' teachings to others.
B. Why were they appointed? Mark 3:13-15; Matt. 10:1-4; Luke 6:12-16
1. That they might be with him (they absorb his teaching).
2. That he might send them out to preach (they proclaim his teaching).
C. The Instructions. Matthew 10:5-11:1
1. Where to go: to the lost sheep of Israel, NOT to the gentiles or the Samaritans.
2. What was the message? "The kingdom of heaven is near."
3. What should they do? Heal the sick, raise the dead, drive out demons.
4. The preparation.
Don't take any money.
Don't take any extra clothes.
Don't take a suitcase.
Don't stay at a hotel. Stay in someone's home in each town that you visit.
Why do you think they were given these instructions?
What were they supposed to do if they were not welcomed?
5. The Warnings.
What did Jesus say would happen to them?
What was their response supposed to be?
Don't worry about what to say; the Spirit will speak through you.
The apostles had miraculous guiding of the Spirit. What can we do today to assure that the Spirit is speaking through us?
Have the word of God well planted in our mind and in our heart.
D. Jesus' activity.
What did Jesus do while the twelve were on their journeys?
He went to teach and preach in the towns of Galilee.
E. The Return. Luke 9:1-11.
They return and report to Jesus what had happened.
THE LISTS OF THE
Of the first group, three seemed to have a special relationship with Jesus. Only Peter, James, and John were permitted to see the raising of Jairus' daughter, the Transfiguration, and Jesus' agony in Gethsemane (Mark 5:37; 9:2; 14:33).
I. Peter with Jesus.
A. Walking on water. Matthew 14:22-33.
B. The great confession. Matthew 16:13-19.
1. Peter taking the lead, speaking out.
2. The names.
Peter - petros, a stone.
Rock - petra, a large rock, bedrock.
3. Keys of the kingdom.
C. The transfiguration. Matthew 17:1-8.
1. Peter's statement.
2. God's response.
D. The denial. Matthew 26:31-35, 69-75.
E. The restoration. John 21:15-17.
II. Peter as a leader in the church.
A. Peter is the first to proclaim the gospel to the Jews After Jesus' ascention.
B. Peter and the Gentiles - Reaching out, pushing away.
1. Reaching out. Peter was first to preach the gospel to the Gentiles. Acts10:9-43.
2. Pushing away. Galatians 2:11-16.
C. Peter's travels.
1. Corinth. 1 Cor. 1:12.
2. Asia Minor. 1 Peter 1:1.
3. Rome. 1 Peter 5:12-13 ("Babylon").
With Mark in Rome. Other historical references:
Mark wrote down Peter's preaching.
Peter and Paul founding the church in Rome.
1 Peter probably written in Rome in the mid 60's AD.
D. Peter's martyrdom. John 21:18-19.
1. Tradition says Peter spent his last years in Rome where he was crucified upside down.
2. Peter's own testimony. 2 Peter 1:12-18. Peter writes as if he anticipates that the end of his life on earth is near.
JAMES, SON OF ZEBEDEE
Scriptures naming Andrew:
Matthew 4:18; 10:2.
Mark 1:16-31; 3:18; 13:1-3.
John 1:40-44; 6:1-13; 12:20-25.
What was Andrew's hometown. Where is it located?
What was Andrew's occupation?
What was the relationship between Peter, Andrew, James, and John?
Between Andrew and Phillip?
Three times in scripture Andrew brings someone to meet Jesus. Who were they?
Selected scriptures naming James, son of Zebedee.
Mark 3:17; 10:35-45.
Jesus had two apostles named James. Who is the third James that is mentioned prominently in the New Testament?
What additional name did Jesus give to James and John? Why do you think he did so?
What was James' response when the Samaritan town rejected the messengers that Jesus sent?
What request did James and John make to Jesus about positions in the kingdom?
What happened to James, son of Zebedee? How did he die? When?
I. Variety of gifts. 1 Corinthians 12:1-11.
A. The apostles were men of different temperaments and different gifts provided by the Holy Spirit, just like us.
1. Peter was an outspoken leader with the boldness to speak to large crowds .
2. Andrew was gifted with the boldness to speak privately with individuals.
A. From Bethsaida (John 1:44) meaning "house of fishing", near Capernaum, on the NW side of the Sea of Galilee.
B. Peter and Andrew were brothers.
C. Peter and Andrew owned a house together. Mark 1:29
1. Talk about extended families in one house.
D. His name means "man", "manly", or "brave".
III. Conversion. John 1:35-40.
A. Once John the Baptist pointed Jesus out to Andrew, it is clear he had a great desire to get to know Jesus.
IV. Andrew's Personal Work. In three different episodes in the gospels, Andrew brought people to Jesus.
A. He brought his brother. John 1:41-42.
1. At the beginning of Jesus' ministry.
B. He brought a boy. John 6:1-11.
1. One year before the crucifiction.
C. He brought gentiles. John 12:20-33.
1. Less than one week before the crucifiction.
V. Andrew's position among the twelve.
A. Even though he was Peter's brother, Andrew was not part of the inner circle of Peter, James, and John.
B. He was often referred to as "Andrew, Peter's brother".
VI. Andrew after the Gospels. Little is known about him.
A. Tradition says Andrew was martyred in Greece. He was crucified on an X shaped cross because he did not consider himself worthy to be crucified on the same shaped cross as Jesus.
JAMES, SON OF ZEBEDEE
A. From Galilee near Capernaum.
B. Brother of John, the Apostle.
C. Son of Zebedee.
D. Fisherman by trade.
II. His zeal for judgement. Luke 9:51-56
A. Sons of Thunder. Anger? Zeal? Boldness?
III.. His excessive ambition. Matt. 20:20-28; Mark 10:35-45
A. Asking for the Right and Left hand seats.
1. This would make them second and third in command. This is not about physical position, but about authority.
2. Still expecting a material kingdom.
B. The CUP and the BAPTISM.
1. You don't know what you ask.
2. Are you able?
3. Yes, we are able.
C. Jesus' prediction.
1. They will indeed be martyred (James) and suffer great persecution (John).
2. This does not qualify them for the chief seats.
D. God has determined those who will sit in these positions.
1. Determined in advance by God's foreknowledge.
2. Vs. 41-45. The key to position in the kingdom of God is humble service, not power and political intrigue.
IV. His early martyrdom. Acts 12:1-2
A. King Herod's intent to persecute Christians.
1. Herod Agrippa I, grandson of Herod the Great.
2. Why the persecution? He was recently (41 AD) given control of Judea by the Roman Emperor and he may have been trying to impress the Jewish religious leaders. "When he saw that this pleased the Jews" (v. 3)
3. Why James? Was he an outspoken, visible leader like Peter?
B. James "put to death with the sword".
4. About 44 AD.
5. With the sword: beheaded or pierced through. Clement of Alexandria says he was beheaded.
JOHN AND PHILIP
Peter, Andrew, James, and John were fisherman. What physical characteristics would you expect to find on a fisherman's body?
What special task did Jesus give John at the time of his crucifiction?
John 18:12-16. Who was the disciple who was "known to the high priest"?
What did he do to assist Peter?
Who was the first apostle to reach the tomb after Mary Magdalene reported that the stone had been moved?
Who was with Peter when he was arrested and taken before the Rulers of the Jews?
Who was sent to Samaria when the apostles heard that they had accepted the Lord?
Luke 3:1; 6:14.
John 1:43-48; 6:5-7; 12:21-22; 14:8-9.
Acts 1:13; 6:5; 8:5-40; 21:8.
How many Philip's are mentioned in the New Testament.
How were each of them associated with the Church? What were their positions?
John 1:43-48. What happens the first time we hear about Philip the apostle?
Do you think Jesus had met Philip before this day?
What does Philip do after Jesus invites him to follow?
What did Philip believe about Jesus at this time? How do you know?
When is the last time that we here about Philip the Apostle in the New Testament?
JOHN, SON OF ZEBEDEE
I. The physical appearance of the apostles.
Pete, Andrew, James, and John were fishermen. What physical characteristics would you expect them to have?
II. A special relationship with Jesus and with Peter.
A. One of the three of the inner circle.
B. Peter and John were the ones whom Jesus asked to prepare the passover meal. Peter and John seem to have been a pair. Luke 22:8
C. Reclined next to Jesus at the last supper. John 13:23
D. Followed the arresting party and went into the courtyard of the high priest.
1. Helped Peter get in. John 18:15-16
E. The only apostle named as being at the cross.
1. The only apostle that Jesus spoke to, Asking John to take care of Jesus' mother. John 19:25-27
2. He must have been close to the cross. Matthew and Mark say only that Jesus uttered a loud cry and gave up his spirit. John records the words, "It is finished". John 19:28-30
F. On resurrection day, John outruns Peter to the tomb. John 20:1-8
G. Peter and John in the book of Acts.
1. Acts 3-4, healing of the lame man and arrest.
2. Acts 8, Investigating the conversion of the Samaritans.
III. John's later life and ministry.
A. Irennaeus, a native of Asia Minor, who knew Polycarp, a disciple of John, says John lived at Ephesus until the time of Trajan, who became Emperor in AD 98.
1. Ephesus was a city on the western coast of Asia Minor.
2. At some point in the early 90's John was exiled to Patmos, where he wrote the Book of Revelation.
3. Ephesus was near Patmos.
4. Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Revelation.
5. He was apparently released from Patmos at some point.
6. As far as we know, he died of natural causes.
IV. 2 John and 3John: Personal letters. A glimpse at life as a Christian under persecution.
A. 2 John
1. Verses 1 & 13. "The chosen lady and her children" and "the children of your chosen sister" clearly refer to local churches. This language was used for protection during an era of severe persecution.
2. Verse 12. John is anticipating a personal visit.
B. 3 John.
1. "The elder" John was known as "the elder" during this period.
2. Gaius was most likely a person, possibly an elder in a church.
3. "The friends here" and "the friends there". Other church members with John and Gaius.
4. Verse 7. "The name". Jesus, again being cautions with words because of the persecution.
5. Verse 14. Anticipating a personal visit.
I. Philips in the New Testament
How many Philip's are named it the New Testament?
How were each of them associated with the Church?
What were their positions?
A. The Apostle.
B. The evangelist. Acts 6:3-5; 8:5; 21:8
C. The tetrarch. Luke 3:1-2 (Herod's brother)
II. Philip the Apostle. Seeing ourselves in the Apostles.
A. Jesus seeks out Philip to travel with him. John 1:43-46. Jesus is seeking for us to walk with him too.
B. Philip seeks out Nathaniel. We desire that others know about Jesus.
C. Philip at the feeding of the multitude. John 6:5-7. Hung up on material things, lacking faith.
D. Philip and the greeks. John 12:21-22. We don't always know what we should do.
E. Philip at the last supper. John 14:6-11. He still doesn't get it! Do we??
"Lord, show us the Father, and that will be enough for us."
1. "Seeing is believing". Jesus was always talking about the Father, but the disciples never did "see" him. OR did they?
2. "Philip, how can you say 'show us the father'? Don't you know that anyone who has seen me has seen the Father?"
3. For the one who says "seeing is believing", Jesus is the answer. He is the absolute, perfect revelation of the father. (Heb. 1:3)
4. How would an invisible creator best reveal himself to his creatures so that they would understand him the best? Become one of them!
III. Later life: The best tradition says he was an evangelist in Asia Minor. The nature of his death is not known. Eusebius (Church historian in about 320 AD) says Philip was burried at Hierapolis in western Asia Minor.
I. Who was this person?
A. John names Nathanael as a disciple of Jesus at the beginning of his ministry (John 1:45-51) and after the resurrection (John 21:1-3).
1. Nathanael means "God has given" or "gift of God".
B. The synoptic gospels and Acts name Bartholomew as an apostle.
1. Bartholomew means "son of Tolmai".
C. Are they the same person? How do we know?
1. The synoptic gospels never mention Nathanael.
2. John never mentions Bartholomew.
3. The synoptic gospels all name Bartholomew with Philip in the list of apostles.
4. Acts names Bartholomew in the same group with Philip.
D. Nathanael may have been his first name and Bartholomew his surname.
1. Nathanael son of Tolmai.
II. What do we know about Nathanael?
A. Nathanael's skepticism. When he was told about Jesus he said: "Can anything good come out of Nazareth?" What did he mean by that?
1. He did not just accept Jesus' claims, he was skeptical.
2. He knew the scriptures. He knew that the Messiah was supposed to come from Bethlehem, not Nazareth.
B. Nathanael's Character. Jesus said: "An Israelite indeed, in whom is no deceit."
1. An Israelite indeed. Literally, "An Israelite truly" (Alethos). A true Israelite is a faithful, spiritual one. The opposite would be the Pharisees who were outwardly following the rituals, but were inwardly dead.
2. In whom is no deceit. Dolos means to bait, snare, deceive. Nathanael was a straightforward, honest person. Again, the opposite of the Pharisees.
C. Jesus knew about Nathanael because he saw him under the fig tree.
1. Because of extended families living in small houses, the fig tree had become a place where a person could get away and get some private time for thought, meditation, and prayer.
2. Jesus was watching Nathanael. He is watching us.
3. Jesus knew his thoughts. He knows our thoughts.
4. He knew Nathanael. He knows us.
D. Nathanael's confession. "Rabbi, you are the son of God. You are the King of Israel."
1. Nathanael was an honest, spiritual seeker of the truth, and he knew he had found it.
2. He found someone he could relate to, someone like him, honest and true.
E. "You will see greater things than these." "Angels ascending and descending upon the son of man." Possible explanations:
1. Jesus' ascension to heaven included angels.
2. Still in the future - the second coming or after.
3. Jacob's ladder in Genesis 28:10-15. Jesus is the fulfilment of this vision because he connects Heaven and earth. "All the peoples of the earth will be blessed through you and your offspring." (Verse 14)
III. What happened to him?
A. Tradition says he was martyred.
I. Who was Thomas?
A. "Thomas" means "the twin."
B. Thomas is also called Didymus in John 11:16; 20:24; 21:2. "Didymus" means "double" or "twin" and comes from a root word meaning twice.
C. Significance? Was he a twin? No one knows.
II. His courage in a confusing time. John 11:1-16.
A. The disciples' fear of returning to Judea. Verse 8.
B. Lazarus has fallen asleep. The disciples would look for any excuse not to return to Judea.
C. Lazarus is dead. It was clear that they could not convince Jesus to stay away from Judea, so Thomas says: "Let us also go, that we may die with him."
1. Courage tinged with morbidity.
3. Lack of faith?
III. He misunderstands Jesus statement. John 14:1-6
A. "I'm going to prepare a place for you. You know the way to the place where I am going". Jesus makes a spiritual statement but Thomas misunderstands it as a physical statement.
B. Jesus makes it clear what he meant. "I am the way..."
IV. His honest questioning. John 20:19-29.
A. The mystery: why wasn't Thomas there?
B. Showing his hands and side.
C. The disciples tell Thomas, but he is skeptical.
1. His attitude is a common one today. Seeing is believing.
D. This time Thomas is there.
E. Jesus appears again, shows Thomas his hands and side and says "Stop doubting and believe".
F. Thomas' response: "My lord and my God.
1. He just had to see for himself to be convinced.
2. Jesus' blessing. Thomas believed because he saw for himself. But many generations since have believed by faith, not being able to see the resurrected Jesus in person. This includes US.
V. Thomas' challenge to future generations. If you are an honest doubter and will honestly investigate the claims of Jesus, you may also be convinced to believe in Jesus. Thomas has had many twins throughout the ages.
I. Who was he?
A. Matthew, Levi (Mark and Luke)
1. Matthew: Gift of Yahweh.
2. Levi: Joined.
B. Tax Collector.
2. He and his friends were considered outcasts.
3. Tax collectors considered to be corrupt.
4. Matthew was a customs house official. They could stop people, search them, pierce their bags with long, sharp iron rods looking for contraband.
5. They were known for their corruption. They paid a set fee to Rome and were free to collect whatever more they could from the people.
6. Matthew had a good location on a trade road between Damascus and Jerusalem just outside Capernaum. All merchants on that road would pay import taxes to Matthew. He also received a fisherman tax from the fishermen on the Sea of Galilee. Peter, Andrew, James, and John would have paid a tax to Matthew.
II. Matthew's call. Matt. 9:9.
A. Did Matthew know Jesus before this official call? If Jesus' method was similar for all of his disciples, yes. He was acquainted with Peter, Andrew, James, and John for several months before he officially called them. I can picture Jesus stopping by the tax booth and conversing with Matthew on several occasions. Was the banquet the first time Jesus had been in Matthew's house? We do not know from scripture, but possibly he and Matthew had met and talked.
B. Jesus was willing to reach out and make one of that culture's most despised people one of his key Apostles.
III. The banquet. Matt.9:9-13; Mark 2:14-17; Luke 5:27-32.
Who were the guests at the banquet? Jesus, disciples, tax collectors, "sinners".
Who else was present? Pharisees, disciples, common people.
Describe the nature of these banquets, and the physical layout and circumstances.
A. Celebration of his new life committed to Jesus.
B. Goodby to his old life and associations.
C. Matthew wanted to expose his friends and acquaintances to Jesus.
D. Jesus and the pharisees.
1. The pharisee's question: Why does Jesus eat (associate) with these people?
2. Who do the pharisees ask? Why? Get the picture. Jesus and the other guests would be reclining at the table. The others, who were not invited guests but bystanders, would have been standing around the fringes of the courtyard to listen to the conversations at the table. This would be a mixed crowd, probably with pharisees and disciples of Jesus standing in groups near each other.
3. Jesus overheard this conversation and responded.
4. "It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick." (NIV) The pharisees thought they were spiritually healthy. Jesus is the spiritual doctor. He needs to treat the spiritually sick, "sinners".
5. "But go and learn what this means: 'I desire mercy, not sacrifice.' " (NIV) Hosea 6:1-6. Mercy toward your fellow man is more important than religious ritual. Knowledge of God (true inward knowledge) is more important than religious ritual. Note that this is not denying the validity of sacrifice and burnt offering for the Jews at that time. He is saying that mercy and knowledge of God are more important. He is also saying that the sacrifice is of no value to your salvation if you do not have mercy and knowledge of God. Jesus is the fulfillment of this scripture. He is the sacrifice. He demonstrated the highest level of mercy - the ability to forgive sins. As the God -Man, he displays God in a way that allows us to know him personally.
6. "For I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners." (NIV) As religious leaders of the people of God, the Pharisees failed their mission. They elevated themselves as righteous and condemned and despised the sinners. Jesus, on the other hand, was perfectly righteous, but offers love, mercy, and forgiveness to the sinners who would come to him.
7. What can we learn from this about our interaction with and our responsibility toward those today who are not believers? Those who are in the church but have slipped into sinful behavior?
IV. Matthew's Gospel.
What talents and abilities would Matthew have as a tax collector which would be useful to Jesus for his ministry and mission? Ability to provide detailed written documentation.
A. Note that the gospel of Matthew records more of Jesus actual words than the other synoptic gospels. He may have written down some of Jesus' sayings while he was alive.
B. Possibly the first gospel written.
C. Possibly written in Aramaic (Hebrew).
V. What happened to him?
A. Tradition: Ethiopia and Persia.
B. Death: Unknown.
JAMES SON OF ALPHAEUS
SIMON THE ZEALOT
I. James son of Alphaeus.
A. Matthew's Brother? Mark 2:14. We just don't know.
B. Son of Mary wife of Clopas?
1. At the cross: Compare Matt. 27:55-56, Mark 15:40-41, John 19:25.
2. At the tomb: Compare Matt. 28:1, Mark 16:1, Luke 24:10.
3. Son of Alphaeus; Son of Mary wife of Clopas. Is this a contradiction or a problem? NO. Either Clopas and Alphaeus are the same person or Alphaeus was her first husband and Clopas was her second.
II. Judas Thaddaeus
A. Matthew 10:3 (KJV): "Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus"
B. Mark 3:18: Thaddaeus.
C. Luke 6:16; Acts1:13: "Judas of James"
D. John 14:22: "Judas (not Iscariot)"
E. Brother of Jesus? Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3; John 7:55. NO. Judas was a very common name.
F. John 14:21-24. Judas' question. Read John 14:1-24.
The disciples are still thinking in terms of an earthly ruling Messiah who would make himself known to the whole world, but Jesus is launching an invisible kingdom in which He and the Father will live in the hearts of those who obey.
III. Simon the Zealot.
A. Zealot. A political movement that resented Roman rule and sought to bring independence for Israel. They grew out of the Maccabean movement. They were known to use rebellion and terrorism to accomplish their goals. They may have started the rebellion that led to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. Barabbas, the prisoner who was released instead of Jesus may have been a Zealot.
B. He is mentioned only in the four lists of the apostles. Matt.10:4; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13. We don't know anything else about him from the scriptures.
C. Tradition says he preached the gospel in various places outside of Palestine, and that he was martyred. If these traditions are true, Jesus changed Simon from a political zealot to a spiritual zealot.
I. Who was Judas?
A. Son of Simon Iscariot. John 6:71; 13:26.
B. Judas: Hebrew origin, Judah.
C. Iscariot: Hebrew origin Ish Kerioth, man of Kerioth. Based on Joshua 15:25, a town in southern Judah.
D. Most likely Judas was from the tribe of Judah and lived in Southern Judah.
II. The Plan for betrayal.
A. What kind of person was Judas? John 6:70-71; 12:1-6.
1. He was a wolf in sheep's clothing all along. John says he was a thief.
2. The modern idea that Judas was sympathetic to Jesus' mission and was just trying to force Jesus to declare his messiahship sooner just is not supported by the Bible.
B. Luke 22:1-6. (Matthew 26:1-16; Mark 14:1-11)
1. Judas volunteers, he is not recruited.
2. The chief priests were very happy at this fortunate situation.
3. This was the perfect situation for the chief priests. They needed to arrest Jesus when the great crowds were not around. Now they had an insider to help them, someone who could lead them to Jesus in a quiet, remote area.
4. Judas did it for money.
C. The role of the Devil in Judas' betrayal of Jesus.
1. John 6:70-71. Jesus said, "Have I not chosen you, the Twelve? Yet one of you is a devil!" (NIV)
2. John 13:2. "The Devil having put it into the heart of Judas...to betray Him." (NKJV) Greek kardian, Cardiac. This would indicate that the Devil actively influenced Judas.
3. John 13:27. "Now after the piece of bread, Satan entered him. Then Jesus said to him, 'What you do, do quickly.'" (NKJ). Also Luke 22:3.
4. It is clear that Satan, the devil, played a central role here, but did he override Judas' free will and force Judas to betray Jesus? Because I believe in human free will, I do not believe that the devil can control a person unless that person first freely invites him in to their heart. I believe that Judas freely decided to betray Jesus and then Satan took the opportunity to exercise his influence over Judas.
5. Was Judas demon possessed? The Bible usually clearly states that a person is demon possessed or has a demon, etc. I do not think that Judas was demon possessed. I think he was strongly, but voluntarily, under the influence of Satan.
III. Jesus' announcement. John 13:21-30.
A. Jesus was very troubled about the betrayal.
B. The disciples are surprised by Jesus' statement.
C. Even Judas pretends to play along. Matt. 26:21-25.
D. Even after Jesus says clearly who it is, and after Judas has left them, the disciples still do not realize what is going on.
IV. The betrayal. Matthew 26:46-50; Mark 14:42-46; Luke 22:47-48; John 18:1-9.
A. Judas had to lead them to the place where Jesus would be.
B. Judas had to point out to them which one was Jesus.
V. Judas death.
A. Judas' regret.
1. Matthew 27:1-3. Once Judas realizes that Jesus will be put to death, he has remorse.
B. Judas' death.
1. Matthew 27:3-5. Judas hanged himself.
2. Acts 1:18-19. Judas fell, his body burst open, and his intestines spilled out.
3. There is no contradiction here. Matthew is describing the actual method of death. Acts is describing what happened to Judas' body after his death. Judas' body was left hanging because no one wanted anything to do with him. Either the rope broke, or the branch broke. The decomposing body fell to the ground and broke open.
C. The field.
1. Matthew 27:7. The chief priests purchased the field.
2. Acts 1:18-19. Judas purchased the field.
3. The chief priests purchased the field with Judas' money and probably in Judas' name. Therefore, legally speaking, Judas purchased and owned the field.
D. Contrast: Judas and Jesus.
1. Jesus was given a respectful proper burial by sympathetic members of the Jewish ruling council.
2. Judas was ignored by everyone, the Jewish officials and the followers of Jesus.
I. Who was this Saul or Paul?
A. His names.
1. Paul, Greek paulos , from Latin paulis, little.
2. Saul, Hebrew sha ul, asked of God.
3. Acts 13:9. Luke acknowledges that Paul had two names.
4. It was a common practice of the Jews of the dispersion to have both a Jewish and a Gentile name.
5. Notice that Luke starts identifying Paul by his Gentile name when Paul's efforts to evangelize the Gentiles really get going.
B. His background. Acts 22:3; 26:4-5.
1. Born in Tarsus at the northeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea, a well known trading center.
2. Born of pure Jewish blood. Philippians 3:5.
3. A Pharisee, and the son of a Pharisee. Acts 23:6.
4. Probably born near the beginning of the first century. In Acts 7:58, Saul is called a "young man."
5. At the proper age (possibly 13), he was sent to Jerusalem to study under Gamaliel.
6. The first mention of Saul in the Bible is Acts 7:58, where he is watching the robes of those who are stoning Stephen.
7. Next, Saul is named in Acts 8:3 as a leader of a great persecution of believers in Jerusalem.
II. Why did God choose Paul?
A. Three key elements for the preaching of the gospel to the gentile world were present in Paul.
1. Greek culture: He was raised in a gentile culture.
2. Roman Citizenship.
3. Hebrew religion: He was thoroughly trained in and absolutely committed to the Judaism.
B. Paul could bridge the gap between the Jews and Gentiles, and between Judaism and Christianity.
1. Paul was well acquainted with Jewish life and customs.
2. He was well acquainted with Gentile life and customs.
3. He could easily identify with both groups.
C. Paul's usual procedure when entering a new city was to first go to the Jewish Synagogue and present the gospel. He would then expand his efforts to the whole city. He did exactly what Jesus had done. He first gave the Jews the opportunity to accept the messiah, then preached to the gentiles. Acts 13:4-6; 13-15.
III. Paul's call and conversion. Acts 9:1-19
A. Witness to the risen Jesus.
1. What are the requirements to be an apostle?
Witness of the risen Jesus.
Chosen by Jesus.
B. Blindness. The proud persecutor is now helpless before God.
C. God's chosen instrument. v.15
D. Suffering. Paul had caused great suffering to Christians whom he had persecuted. Now it is his turn to suffer persecution for Jesus. V. 16.
E. Almost immediately, Paul begins to preach the gospel. V. 20.
F. Unanswered Questions.
1. Was Paul in Judea during the time Jesus was on earth?
2. Did Paul meet or see Jesus then?
IV. The vision of heavenly things and the thorn in the flesh. 2 Cor. 12:1-10.
A. Paul was often accused of not really being an Apostle. Here he is defending his position as an Apostle.
B. The visions: told in third person, but this person actually was Paul (v. 7).
C. The reason for the thorn is so that Paul would have to rely on God, and not rely on or boast about his own strength.
D. I think the thorn was his eye sight. Galatians 6:11.
V. Paul's letters.
A. How were the letters written?
1. Paul would dictate, someone else would write it down. Romans 16:22; 1 Corinthians 1:1, 16:21; Colossians 1:1, 4:18; 2 Thessalonians 1:1, 2:1-2, 3:17.
2. Why was it done this way? Common practice, Paul's eye sight (Gal. 6:11).
B. Paul realized the authoritative nature of his letters.
1. They were meant to be circulated. Colossians 4:16.
2. They were intended to be publically read. 1 Thes. 5:27.
VI. Paul's first imprisonment.
A. He appeals to Caesar to escape the Jewish leaders in Jerusalem.
B. Once in Rome, his accusers have two years to come and present their case. It is doubtful that they ever showed up.
C. Because he was a Roman citizen, Paul was given considerable freedom. He was able to rent his own house and preach the gospel. Acts 28:30-31.
D. He expected to be released. Philippians 1:19-26; 2:22-24.
E. Paul was almost certainly released from this imprisonment after two years in 60AD.
F. After his release, he visited some of the churches, and there is a strong tradition that he went to Spain.
VII. Paul's second imprisonment. 2 Timothy 2:8-9; 4:5-18
A. The Neronian persecutions break out in August of 64 AD.
B. We don't know why, but 2 Timothy makes it clear that Paul is back in prison in Rome. Notice the difference in tone between Philippians and 2 Timothy.
C. A stricter imprisonment.
D. Paul does not expect to be released.
VII. Paul's death.
A. Not recorded in the Bible.
B. Executed in Rome in 66 or 67 AD.
C. Beheaded on the Ostian way.