Slovak Language Lessons for Beginners - Lesson 20

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Lesson 20


VOCABULARY: CRIME, PUNISHMENT AND (IN)JUSTICE

zločin (or, in legalese, trestný čin) = crime, felony
priestupok = misdemeanor, offence (less serious than a crime)
trest = punishment
bezpečnosť = safety, security
zákon = law
droga = illegal drug
drogový díler = drug dealer
zločinec (or kriminálnik) = criminal
obeť (fem.) = victim
svedok = witness
očitý svedok = eye witness
vražda = murder
zabitie or usmrtenie (both neut.) = manslaughter
znásilnenie (neut.) = rape
napadnutie (neut.) = assault
krádež = theft
podvod = fraud
vrah = murderer
zlodej = thief
násilník = violent person, abuser
násilie (neut.) = violence
násilný = violent
mafia (or podsvetie, neut.) = maifa, 'underworld'
mafián = mafia member
väzeň = prisoner, inmate
väzenie (neut.) = jail
sudca = judge
prokurátor = prosecutor, like 'district attorney' in the US
žalobca = plaintiff, the accuser
obžalovaný = defendant, the accused
právnik = lawyer
obhajca = defense lawyer
obhajoba = legal defence
vinný = guilty
nevinný = innocent (literally, 'non-guilty')
obvinený = accused
odsúdený = convicted
zbraň = weapon
strelná zbraň = fire arm
nôž = knife
pištoľ = pistol
brokovnica = shotgun
samopal = machine gun

spravodlivosť
= justice
nespravodlivosť
= injustice
rozsudok
(or verdikt) = verdict, sentence
podmienka
= probation (literally: 'condition')

DATIVE CASE: POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

In [Lesson 19], you were introduced to the dative case. Here is how you can form the dative case of possessive pronouns:

masculine                  feminine                   neuter
nominative    dative       nominative
    dative       nominative    dative

môj = my      môjmu        moja = my     mojej        moje = my     môjmu
tvoj = your   tvojmu       tvoja = your  tvojej       tvoje = your  tvojmu
jeho = his    jeho         jej = her     jej          jeho = its    jeho

náš = our     nášmu        naša = our    našej        naše = our    nášmu
váš = your    vášmu        vaša = your   vašej        vaše = your   vášmu
ich = their   ich          ich = their   ich          ich = their   ich

svoj          svojmu       svoja         svojej       svoje         svojmu

Ich synovi som ukázal, ako by našej krave mal dať jesť. = I showed their son, how he should give something to eat to our cow.
Čo ste potom povedali ich právnikovi? = What did you tell their lawyer, then?

DATIVE CASE: THIS, THAT, THAT OVER THERE

For pronouns such as this (tento, táto, toto), that (ten, , to) and that over there (tamten, tamtá, tamto):

masculine                  feminine                   neuter
nominative    dative       nominative    dative       nominative    dative

tento
= this  tomuto       táto          tejto        toto          tomuto
ten
= that    tomu         tá            tej          to            tomu
tamten        tamtomu      tamtá         tamtej       tamto         tamtomu
   

See the following examples:

Tamtomu sudcovi ani trochu neverím, ale čo mám robiť?
= I don't trust that judge over there a bit, but what am I supposed to do?
Dal som tej žene nejaké peniaze, ale tejto nechcem dať nič. = I gave that woman some money, but I don't want to give anything to this one.

DATIVE CASE: PREPOSITION 'K'/'KU'

The dative case is associated with one commonly used preposition: k or ku, which roughly translated as the English 'to' or 'towards' (usually when used as an indication of direction). Whether we use k or ku depends largely on pronounciation: In most cases, k should be the default. Occasionally, however, ku might be easier to pronounce (and is therefore preferred) - for example, when the following word begins with the letter 'k' or 'g.'

When a personal pronoun in the dative case follows a preposition, such as k/ku, we use the following forms:

 nominative case (subject)                                    dative case after preposition              
 ja = I                                     mne                          
 ty = you (sg. informal)                    tebe                          
 on = he                                    nemu                          
 ona = she                                  nej                          
 ono = for neuter (rare)                    nemu     

 my = we                                    nám
 vy = you (pl., sg. formal)                 vám
 oni, ony= they                             nim

Dnes večer pôjdem na návštevu k mojej tete.
= Tonight I will go for a visit to my aunt.
Prečo sa tak pekne správaš k nemu, ale napríklad nie k nej? = Why do you behave so nicely to him, but not - for example - to her?
Išiel som ku oknu, ale musel som zastaviť.
= I went to(wards) the window, but had to stop.

DATIVE CASE: ADJECTIVES

Masculine gender: We replace the final with -ému:

 nominative case (basic form)     dative case       example:
 veľký = nice                     veľkému           Svojmu veľkému bratovi som dal novú tašku. = I gave my big brother a new bag.
 starý = old                      starému           Tomu starému pánovi vždy rád pomáham. = I always gladly help that old gentleman.


Feminine gender:
Here, we replace the final with -ej:

 nominative case (basic form)     dative case     example:
 milá = nice (personality trait)  milej           Tej milej pani som nič nepovedala. = I didn't tell that nice lady anything.
 národná = national               národnej        Ľavicový poslanec národnej rade predstavil svoj návrh. = A left-wing representative presented 
                                                  his proposal to the National Council.

Neuter gender: For neuter adjectives, we will replace the final with the suffix -ému (as was the case with the masculine gender):

 nominative case (basic form)     dative case     example:
 modré = blue                     modrému         Zelený Mercedes ide k tomu modrému autu. = A green Mercedes is going to that blue car.
 násilné = violent                násilnému       K tomuto násilnému prepadnutiu sa nikto nepriznal. = No one admitted to (have committed) 
                                                  this violent assault.


CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN THE SLOVAK MEDIA

If you would like to check your understanding of some of the crime and punishment-related vocabulary in this lesson, you may wish to watch this - needless to say, very exciting - press conference at the Slovak Ministry of the Interior:

Here is some additonal vocabulary from the video that you may wish to learn:

rozpočet = budget
pozemok = land property
majetok = property
téma = topic
návrh = proposal
kauza = political or economic scandal
týkať sa (stem: týka- sa) = to be relevant/related to, to touch upon (thematically)
šetriť (stem: šetrí-) = to save (money)
začínať (stem: začína-) = to begin

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