Slovak Language Lessons for Beginners - Lesson 15


Lesson 15
 

USEFUL WORDS AND PHRASES
zároveň = at the same time
naraz (or súčasne) = concurrently, at the same time, simultaneously
spolu = together
samostatne (or osobitne) = separately
naschvál = deliberately, on purpose
nechtiac = accidentally, unintendedly, unwittingly (i.e., the opposite of naschvál)
náhodou = by coincidence, accidentally; also 'by any chance' in questions
keby niečo = just in case
Daj mi pokoj! = Leave me alone! (literally: 'Give me peace/quiet.')
Poďme! = Let's go!
Ani náhodou! = No way! (literally: 'Not even by coincidence.')   

USEFUL VERBS
predpokladať (stem: predpokladá-) = to assume
tvrdiť (stem: tvrdí-) = to claim
potvrdiť (stem: potvrdzuje-) = to confirm
veriť (stem: verí-) = to believe
dôverovať (stem: dôveruje-) = to trust
čakať (stem: čaká-) = to wait
očakávať (stem: očakáva-) = to expect
dokázať (stem: dokáže-) = to manage (to do sth), also 'to prove'
tušiť (stem: tuší-) = to have a feeling (that)..., to have a inkling (that)..., to have a sense..., to have an idea...
skúšať (stem: skúša-) = to try
snažiť sa (stem: snaží- sa) = to try hard, to strive (to do sth), to make an effort
zistiť (stem: zisťuje-) = to find out
mýliť sa (stem: mýli- sa) = to be wrong
uskutočniť sa
(stem: uskutočniť- sa) = to take place (about events)
zúčastniť sa (stem: zúčastňuje- sa) = to participate, to take part
vyhrať (stem: vyhráva-) = to win
prehrať (stem: prehráva-) = to lose (the opposite of 'to win')
hľadať (stem: hľadá-) = to look for, to search
nájsť (stem: nachádza-, past: našiel/našla som) = to find
stratiť (stem: stráca-) = to lose (the opposite of 'to find')

THE 'SVOJ' POSSESSIVE PRONOUN
We learned how to use possessive pronouns in [Lesson 2]. Please note that, in Slovak, we generally use the possessive pronoun svoj (m), svoja (f), svoje (n) when the possessed object belongs to the subject of the sentence. In this way, we can distinguish between:

Náš otec stratil svoju vetrovku. = Our father lost his jacket. (the jacket was his own)
Náš otec stratil jeho vetrovku. = Out father lost his jacket. (the jacket belonged to some other man)

When you want to emphasize that something is one's own, you can use the adjective vlastný ('own'):

Predpokladám, že máš aj svoj vlastný názor. Alebo sa mýlim? = I assume you also have your own opinion. Or am I wrong?

Some more examples:

Skúšal som vyhrať štátnu lotériu, ale stratil som svoj lístok. = I was trying to win the state lottery, but I had lost my ticket.
Neverím, že ten bohatý obchodník naozaj stratil svoju peňaženku. = I don't believe that that wealthy businessman has really lost her wallet.
Vždy som sa snažil hovoriť svojim priateľom len pravdu. = I have always tried to only tell the truth to my friends.

THIS, THAT, THAT OVER THERE IN THE ACCUSATIVE CASE
In [Lesson 3], we learned how to use 'this', 'that' and 'that over there' in Slovak. Here, we'll see how to use these words when they are part of the direct object. As usual, we need to use the accusative case. Notice the patterns you see below:

gender:              masculine                                                                   feminine                                                                      neuter                        
                          nominative (subject)     accusative (direct object)              nominative (subject)     accusative (direct object)              nominative (subject)     accusative (direct object)
this                     tento                          tohto                                          táto                           túto                                             toto                           toto
that                     ten                             toho                                           tá                              tú                                                to                              to
that over there      tamten                       tamtoho                                     tamtá                        tamtú                                          tamto                        tamto

Chcel by som nájsť tú knihu, ktorú si čítal minulý rok. = I would like to find that ('the') book that you read last year.
Mohli by ste zistiť meno tamtoho starého muža? = Could you find out the name of that old man over there?
Hľadáme toto auto už dva roky, ale stále ho nevieme nájsť. = We have been looking for this car for two years already, but we still can't find it.
Nečakáte náhodou tamtú ženu alebo tohto mladého pána? = Aren't you, by any chance, waiting for that woman over there or this young gentleman?

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS IN THE ACCUSATIVE CASE
When possessive pronounce appear as part of the direct object, they need to be put into the accusative case. The relevant forms are:
 
If direct object is masculine, singular:
                            nominative (subject)             accusative (direct object)
my, mine                      môj                                   môjho (for persons and animals), môj (for everything else)
your, yours                    tvoj                                   tvojho (for persons and animals), tvoj (for everything else)
his, his, its                    jeho                                  jeho
her, hers                        jej                                    jej
 
our, ours                       náš                                   nášho (for persons and animals), náš (for everything else)
your, yours                    váš                                   vášho (for persons and animals), váš (for everything else)
their, theirs                    ich                                    ich
 
'svoj'                             svoj                                   svojho (for persons and animals), svoj (for everything else)

If direct object is feminine, singular:
                             nominative (subject)             accusative (direct object)
my, mine                      moja                                  moju
your, yours                   tvoja                                   tvoju
his, his, its                    jeho                                   jeho
her, hers                        jej                                     jej
 
our, ours                       naša                                  našu
your, yours                    vaša                                  vašu
their, theirs                    ich                                     ich
 
'svoj'                             svoja                                   svoju

If direct object is neuter, singular: (Note: In this case, the forms do not change.)
                             nominative (subject)             accusative (direct object)
my, mine                      moje                                  moje
your, yours                   tvoje                                   tvoje
his, his, its                    jeho                                   jeho
her, hers                        jej                                     jej
 
our, ours                       naše                                  naše
your, yours                    vaše                                  vaše
their, theirs                    ich                                     ich
 
'svoj'                             svoje                                   svoje

Some examples:
Pri dome vidím naše zelené auto, tvoju motorku a ich modrý bicykel. = Next to the house, I see our green car, your motorcycle and their blue bike.
Poznáte už nášho syna, alebo ste zatiaľ stretli iba našu dcéru? = Do you already know our son, or have you only met our daughter so far?

ALTHOUGH, DESPITE, ETC.

napriek = despite, in spite of, notwithstanding
kvôli = due to... ('bad' causes)
vďaka = thanks to... ('good' causes)
bez ohľadu na... = regardless of..., irrespective of...
každopádne (or v každom prípade) = in any case, in any event

Napriek svojmu krehkému zdraviu sa zúčastnil maratónu. = Despite his fragile health, he participate in the marathon.
Kvôli zlému počasiu sa koncert bude musieť uskutočniť neskôr. = Due to bad weather, the concert will have to take place later.
Vďaka svojej rýchlosti dokázal vyhrať každý svoj pretek. = Thanks to his speed, he managed to win every one of his races.
Chcem túto kvalitnú práčku, bez ohľadu na cenu. = I want this quality washing machine, regardless of (its) price.
V každom prípade musíme najprv zaplatiť nájomné. = In any case, we must pay the rest first.
Každopádne tuším, ktorá odpoveď je správna. = In any case, I have an idea about which answer is the right one.

hoci = although, even though
napriek tomu, že... = despite the fact that...
aj keby = even if (Note: keby is followed by the past tense form of the verb, as shown in [Lesson 14])
aj keď = even when
aj tak = even so, anyway
tak či tak = anyway (literally: 'so or so')
 
Hoci nikdy nebol dobrý študent, vždy poznal správnu odpoveď. = Although he was never a good student, he always knew the correct answer.
Napriek tomu, že sa na kongrese nezúčastnil, očakával, že ho všetci budú voliť. = Despite the fact that he did not participate in the congress, he expected that everyone would be voting for him.
Aj keby ten dom stál tri milióny, kúpil by som ho. = Even if that house cost three million, I would buy it.
Aj keď ho šéf požiadal, stále nič nechcel robiť. = Even when (his) boss asked him, he still didn't want to do anything.
Nevadí, že sme prehrali. Aj tak sme boli lepší. = It doesn't matter that we have lost. We were better, anyway.
Tak či tak zajtra budem potrebovať nejaké peniaze. = I'll need some money tomorrow anyway.

USING 'EVEN' FOR EMPHASIS

dokonca = even (in affirmative, positive sentences)
ani = even (in negative sentence)

Ten chlap ani nevie, koľko má jeho vlastný syn rokov. = That guy does not even know how old his own son is.
Tú pieseň nielen pozná, ale dokonca ju vie hrať na gitare. = Not only does he/she know that song, but he/she can even play it on the guitar. 

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