Slovak Language Lessons for Beginners - Lesson 13

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Lesson 13
 

HYGIENICKÉ POTREBY = ITEMS OF PERSONAL HYGIENE

umývadlo = washbasin
vaňa = bathtub
umývať sa (stem: umýva- sa) = to wash oneself
sprcha = shower
sprchovať sa (stem: sprchuje- sa) = to shower (oneself)
zubná kefka = toothbrush
zubná pasta = toothpaste
zubná niť = dental floss
žiletka = razor
holiaci strojček = electric shaver
holiť sa (stem: holí- sa) = to shave (oneself)
voda po holení = aftershave (literally: water after shaving)
mydlo = soap
šampón = shampoo
sprej = spray
deodorant = deodorant
parfém (or voňavka) = perfume

SOME USEFUL VERBS

p
ýtať sa (stem: pýta- sa) = to ask
pracovať (stem: pracuje-) = to work
nudiť sa (stem: nudí- sa) = to be bored
meškať (stem: mešká-) = to be late; to be running late
čakať (stem: čaká-) = to wait
otvoriť (stem: otvára-) = to 
zatvoriť (stem: zatvára-) = to close
otvorený = open (adj.)
zatvorený = closed (adj.)
otváracie hodiny = opening hours
vedieť (stem: vie-) = to know (meaning: to possess knowledge of, to be able to do)
poznať (stem: pozná-) = to know (meaning: to be familiar with, to have been acquainted with)
Note: vedieť is like the Spanish verb saber, the French savoir, or the German wissen, whereas poznať is like the Spanish conocer, the French connaître, or the German kennen.
učiť (stem: učí-) = to teach
učiť sa (stem: učí- sa) = to learn
vlastniť (stem: vlastní-) = to own
pamätať si (stem: pamätá- si) = to remember

DIRECT OBJECT (ACCUSATIVE CASE) WITH ADJECTIVE + NOUN

In [Lesson 8], we learned how to use the direct object with a single noun. To use an adjective + a noun,  you should follow the rules outlined below. In all cases, nouns will take same forms as we learned in [Lesson 8]  but adjectives have to be declined as shown here.

Masculine gender:
If the direct object is a person or an animal, drop the final and use the -ého suffix in the adjective instead. If the direct object is neither an animal, nor a person, the accusative case is the same as the nominative (basic subject) form.

 nominative case (subject)                  accusative case (direct object)
 malý syn = little son                         malého syna                                     
 veľký dom = big house                     veľký dom                                         
 Examples:
 Moja suseda má malého syna. = My (female) neighbor has a little son.
 
Vidím veľký dom. = I see a big house.

Feminine gender: Replace the final by the suffix in the adjective.

 nominative case (subject)                  accusative case (direct object)             
 pekná dcéra = beautiful daughter     peknú dcéru                                        
 chutná polievka = tasty soup          chutnú polievku                                 
 Examples:
 
Jozefova teta má veľmi peknú dcéru. = Jozef's aunt has a very beautiful daughter.
 
Jeho vnučka je chutnú polievku. = His granddaughter is eating a tasty soup.

Neuter gender: No change from the nominative case form in either the adjective or the noun.
 nominative case (subject)                  accusative case (direct object)              
 studené pivo = cold beer                 studené pivo                                       
 drahé auto = expensive car             drahé auto                                  
 Examples:
 
Prosím si studené pivo. = I would like to have a cold beer.
 
Môj šéf vlastní veľmi drahé auto. = My boss own a very expensive car.

DIRECT OBJECT (ACCUSATIVE CASE) OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS

To use personal pronouns as the direct object in a sentence, you will have to use either the short accusative form, or the long accusative form.

Usually, you will use the short accusative form when the direct object comes right before or right after the main verb (or if it is separated by some common auxiliary words). By contrast, the long accusative form is usually used when the direct object is separated from the main verb by one or more words. Occasionally, you can also use the long form for emphasis, even if it is immediately preceded or followed by the main verb. See the examples below the table.

 nominative case (subject)                  short form accusative case (direct object)               long form accusative case (direct object)
 ja = I                                               ma                                                                     mňa 
 ty = you (sg. informal)                       ťa                                                                       teba
 on = he                                           ho                                                                       jeho
 ona = she                                       ju                                                                        ju
 ono = for neuter (rare)                      ho                                                                       jeho
 my = we                                         nás                                                                     nás
 vy = you (pl., or sg. formal)               vás                                                                     vás
 oni, ony = they                               ich                                                                      ich
Vieš, že ťa milujem. =
You know that I love you.
Teba nikto nikdy nemal rád. = Nobody has ever liked you.
Videl som ju pred obchodom, ale jeho som tam vôbec nevidel. = I saw her in front of the store, but I did not see him there at all.
Budem ich čakať pred kostolom. = I will be waiting for them in front of the church.
Nemilujem jeho, ale milujem teba. = I don't love him, but I love you. (emphasis on 'him' and 'you')
Dnes vás budem učiť po slovensky. = Today, I will be teaching you Slovak.

EXPRESSING CERTAINTY

určite
= surely, certainly (expresses near-100% probability)
iste = surely, certainly (can express certaintly, but usually used to oblige to a request); as in: 'Can you please open the window?' 'Certainly.'
pravdepodobne (or asi) = probably 
možno = maybe
určite nie = surely not
istý = sure, certain
byť si istý = to be sure
Pamätáš si, či tam bude aj jej priateľ? = Do you remember if her boyfriend will also be there? 
Pravdepodobne, ale nie som si celkom istý. = Probably, but I am not quite sure.
Tá žena ho možno vôbec nepozná. = That woman maybe does not know him at all.
 
snáď = hopefully
údajne (or, informally, vraj) = reportedly, allegedly
zrejme = apparently
očividne = obviously
Očividne nevieš, kto má pravdu. = Obviously you don't know who is correct. (literally: ...who has the truth.)
Snáď si nemyslíš, že obed budem variť ja. = Hopefully you don't think I'll be cooking lunch.
Bol to zrejme on, kto otvoril horné okno. = It was apparently him who opened the upper window.
Ten zločinec údajne nikdy nebol v Bratislave. = That criminal was reportedly never in Bratislava.
Vraj bol veľmi hladný, ale nemal rád zeleninovú polievku. = He was allegedly very hungry, but did not like vegetable soup.

WORDS USEFUL IN CHRONOLOGICAL NARRATION

najprv = at first
potom = then, afterwards
neskôr = later
nakoniec = in the end, finally (meaning 'in the end')
Najprv som otvoril fľašu, ale potom som ju zatvoril. = First I opened the bottle, but then I closed it.
Neskôr som sa umýval v kúpeľni. = Later, I washed myself in the bathroom.
Nakoniec som sa učil po nemecky. = In the end, I was studying (learning) German.
 
konečne = finally, at last
No konečne! = Oh, finally! (Note: no can sometimes mean the same as ale ['but'])
Konečne si tu, milý brat - dlho som ťa čakala. = Finally you are here, dear brother - I've been waiting for you for a long time.
 
skoro = early (can also mean 'almost')
príliš skoro = too early, too soon
neskoro = late
príliš neskoro = too late
čoskoro = soon
Je len osem hodín - ste tu naozaj príliš skoro. = It is only eight o'clock - you are here really too early.
Dnes trochu meškám - asi tam budem príliš neskoro. = Today, I am running a little late - I'll probably be there too late.
Čoskoro budeme vedieť, prečo si nebola doma. = Soon we will know why you were not at home.
 
zrazu = suddenly
okamžite (also hneď or ihneď) = immediately
takmer (also skoro) = almost
ešte raz = once again, one more time, once more
znovu, znova, zase, zasa, zas, opäť = again
Som rád, že ťa opäť vidím. = I am glad to see you again.
Znovu ti hovorím, že o športe nič neviem. = I am telling you again that I don't know anything about sports.
Zase budeme v divadle príliš neskoro. = Again, we'll be at the theater too late.
= already; yet (in questions)
zatiaľ = so far
ešte = yet (in affirmative sentences)
stále = still
medzičasom (or medzitým) = meanwhile, in the meantime
Videl si už ten film? = Have you seen that movie yet?
Už som ho videl. = I have already seen it.
Zatiaľ som videl tri jeho filmy. = So far, I have seen three of his movies.
Ešte ťa nevidím. Kde si? = I don't see you yet. Where are you?
Stále neviem, prečo si včera nepracoval. = I still don't know, why you weren't working yesterday.
Medzičasom som chodil hore dole námestím. = In the meantime, I was walking up and down the square.

SLOVAK SPORTS

ICE HOCKEY: The most popular spectator sport, and a major national obsession, in Slovakia is ice hockey (ľadový hokej). The Slovak national ice hockey team has celebrated a few major successes since the country became independent in 2003. Most notably, we became World Champions at the 2002 World Ice Hockey Championship in Gothenburg, Sweden. We also got the silver in the 2002 World Championship in Sankt Petersburg, Russia and the bronze in the 2003 championship in Helsinki, Finland. Other major successes include a surprisingly good 6th place in the 1994 Olympic Games in Lillehammer, Norway. Here's a very well done fan video that celebrates the successes of Slovak ice hockey:

As of this writing (May 2011), the World Ice Hockey Championship is for the first time being held in Slovakia. Games are taking place both in Bratislava and Košice. Here's a short video that features Slovak NHL (National Hockey League, in the US and Canada) players that was meant to support Slovakia's bid to host the World Championship:

Many Slovak players have been very successful in the National Hockey League (NHL) in the United States and Canada: The most successful players include Peter Šťastný [wiki], Stan Mikita
[wiki], Marián Hossa [wiki], Marián Gáborík [wiki], Miroslav Šatan [wiki], Žigmund 'Ziggy' Pálffy [wiki], Jozef Stümpel [wiki], Zdeno Chára [wiki], Robert Švehla [wiki], Pavol Demitra [wiki], Richard Zedník [wiki] and Ľubomír Višnovský [wiki].

Here's one more hockey-related video - you should be able to understand what the player is shouting:

SOCCER: Soccer (futbal) is the second most popular spectator sport.  The Slovak national team has, historically, not been particularly good, although it has had more success recently. It participated, for instance, in the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, where the team beat the defending champions Italy:


KAYAKING AND CANOEING: Slovaks also often get medal in various water sports such as kayaking and canoeing. The video below shows Michal Martikán, one of the world's most successful kayakers, after he won the gold medal at the Beijing Olympics in 2008:


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