Ch 50. Image‐Aided Navigation – Concepts and Applications

Michael J. Veth and John F. Raquet

Chapter Overview:

The accuracy and availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) has revolutionized navigation. As a result, world-wide, meter-level positioning is required for many applications. Unfortunately, satellite navigation signals are not available in all environments.

To address this issue, researchers have devoted much effort into investigating the use of image sequences for navigation. Many different image-aided navigation techniques have been demonstrated, each with varying assumptions, and most using ad-hoc techniques. This results in little information on how to apply image-aided techniques to problems with differing assumptions.

The goal of this article is to characterize the properties of various forms of image-aided navigation. Once the observability is established, additional measurements that can augment weak areas are presented and discussed. The limitations of current image-aided navigation techniques are shown to require additional measurements from a non-homogeneous sensor for reliable, long-term navigation.

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Figure 50.25 Example of monocular imaging scale ambiguity. In this figure, three features in the base image are located in a target image. Because of the lack of depth information, the target image could be located anywhere along the line and still be an acceptable solution.

Figure 50.29 Overview of image‐aided inertial algorithm. Inertial measurements are used to aid the feature correspondence search, which in turn is used to correct the navigation state.