S. Karutin, N. Testoedov, A. Tyulin, and A. Bolkunov

PNT Center, Russia

Chapter Overview:

Development of the GLONASS navigation satellite system (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) of the Russian Federation has more than a fifty‐year history. It began with the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite on 4 October 1957.

This Chapter covers the development of the GLONASS system from the earliest days of Soviet satellite navigation, through to the present. Written by those who actually created and run the system, this is a unique insight into GLONASS.

Section 4.1 is an overview, including the history, development, and organization of the GLONASS system.

4.2 Describes the GLONASS geometric reference frames and time reference.

4.3 Briefly describes the open access, authorized, and PPP services available, and under development.

4.4 Describes the constellation, including all the fundamental orbital characteristics.

4.5 Provides the Ground Control System information.

4.6 Describes the current and future signals.

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