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28 February 1765–30 November 1768

The first Dutch edition of Leopold Mozart’s Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule (7 documents)
1.

Oprechte Haerlemse Courant, no. 9, Thu, 28 Feb 1765


[2]

     Te Haerlem by Joannes Enschedé is onder de Pers en word gedrukt: Grondig Onderwys in het Behandelen der VIOOL, ontworpen, / en met 4 Kopere Plaaten, verbeeldende het wel- en niet wel houden van de Viool, en eene Muziek-Tabelle voorzien, door Leopold / Mozart, Hoogvorstelyke Saltzburgse Kamer-Musicus, in 4to. Dit Werk word met Muziek-Caracteren op eene Boekdrukkers-Pers / gedrukt, en zal derhalven tot eene modique Prys te bekomen zyn.



[translation:]

     In press and to be printed by Joannes Enschedé in Haarlem: Grondig Onderwys in het Behandelen der VIOOL, written, and illustrated with 4 copper plates, showing the good and bad ways of holding the violin, and with a music table, by Leopold Mozart, chamber musician to the court of Salzburg, in quarto. This work will be printed with music characters on a book-printing press and will therefore be available at a modest price.


2.

Oprechte Haerlemse Courant, no. 13, Tue, 1 Apr 1766


[2]

     Te Haarlem by Johannes Enschedé is gedrukt, en alom verzonden: Grondig Onderwys in het behandelen der VIOOL, ontworpen door / Leopold Mozart, Hoogvorstelyk Saltzburgschen Kamer-Musicus: Dit Werk is eenig in zyn Soort, nademaal te vooren door geen / Musicus over dat Speel-Instrument geschreven is. Veel daarvan te zeggen is onnodig; Mozart en zyn Zoon, dat Musicaal-Wonder, / in hun Werk te zien, is genoeg voor alle Muziekkundigen: In groot Quarto, de prys is ingenaait 7 Gulden; eenige weinige Exempla- / ren zyn’er gedrukt op best groot Mediaan Schryfpapier, à 9 Gulden. Ook zyn noch eenige weinige Exemplaaren te bekomen van de / over eenigen tyd gedrukte HAARLEMSCHE ZANGEN, zynde 48 Airs, in Muziek gesteld by de Heeren Marpurg, Agricola, / Schale, Nichelman, Bach en andere: beide met Muziekcaracteren op een Boekdrukkers Pers gedrukt, à f 2·10.



[translation:]

     Printed in Haarlem at Johannes Enschedé and available everywhere: Grondig Onderwys in het behandelen der VIOOL, written by Leopold Mozart, chamber musician to the court of Salzburg. This work is unique in its genre, since no musician has written about this instrument before. It is not necessary to say more about it; to see Mozart and his son, that musical marvel, at their work is sufficient for all music connoisseurs: in quarto, sewn, the price is 7 guilder; a few copies have been printed on the best medium writing paper, at 9 guilder. There are also still a number of copies available of HAARLEMSCHE ZANGEN printed some time ago, consisting of 48 airs set to music by Messrs. Marpurg, Agricola, Schale, Nichelman, Bach and others: both are printed with music characters on a book-printing press, at 2 guilder 10 stiver.


3.

Oprechte Haerlemse Courant, no. 14, Thu, 3 Apr 1766


[2]

     Te Haarlem by Johannes Enschedé is gedrukt, en alom verzonden: Grondig Onderwys in het behandelen der VIOOL, ontworpen door / LEOPOLD MOZART, Hoogvorstelyk Saltzburgsche Kamer-Musicus: Tot dit Werk te drukken zyn geen Kopere of Tinne Plaaten / gebezigt, daar ’er anders meer dan 300 toe zouden nodig geweest zyn; in groot Quarto, de prys is 7 Gulden. Item: 48 HAARLEM- / SCHE ZANGEN, à f 2·10.  [...]



[translation:]

     Printed in Haarlem at Johannes Enschedé and available everywhere: Grondig Onderwys in het behandelen der VIOOL, written by LEOPOLD MOZART, chamber musician to the court of Salzburg: no copper or tin plates have been used to print this work since this would have required more than 300 of them; in quarto, the price is 7 guilder. Item: 48 HAARLEMSCHE ZANGEN, at 2 guilder 10 stiver. [...]  


4.

Oprechte Haerlemse Courant, no. 19, Tue, 13 May 1766


[2]

     Te Haarlem by Joh. Enschede, is gedrukt en alom verzonden: Grondig Onderwys in het behandelen der Viool, door LEOPOLD / MOZART, te vooren Hoogvorstelyk-Saltzburgsche Kamer-Musicus, doch thans Hoogvorstelyk-Saltzburgsche Capel-Meester. Dit / voortreffelyk Werk is eenig in zyn zoort, nademaal tot hier toe door geen Musicus over dat, in alle Concerten onontbeerlyk, Speel-Instru- / ment geschreeven is: het handelt; I. Van alle Stryk-Instrumenten; II. De oorsprong der Musiek; III. Geschiedenis der Musiek, / en IV. Over de nieuwe Musicaale Letteren en Nooten, en verder wat een Violinist bekwaam en tot een groot Meester kan maken enz.: / Het is onnodig meer daar van te zeggen; de naam van MOZART en zyne 2 Kinderen, met naame zyn Zoontje van 9 Jaaren, dat Musi- / caal-Wonder, zyn genoeg bekend. Waarby nog komt, dat dit Werk met Muziek-Caracteren en Nooten, naar eene nieuwe uitvin- / ding, op eene Boekdrukkers Pers gedrukt is, en dat daartoe geen Tinne- of Kopere gegraveerde Plaaten zijn gebezigt, daar ’er anders / meer dan 300 toe zouden nodig geweest zyn: Dus is dit Werk voor het oog van Konstkenners een Meesterstuk der Boekdrukkonst en Let- / tergietery. Voorts is hetzelve voorzien met 4 geëtste Konst-Printen, als I. Het Portrait van den Autheur, vertoonende teffens een / volmaakte manier van het houden der Viool; II. Bekwaame manier; III. Quaade manier van het houden der Viool, en IV. Van het / houden des Strykstoks; ook nog eene Opdragt Plaat aan zyne Doorl. Hoogheid, den Heer Prins Erfstadhouder, WILLEM V. Geen an- / dere kopere Plaaten zyn in het Werk bevindelyk, zelfs is de Tafel der Strykmanier mede met Muziek-Caracters op eene Boekdrukkers / Pers gedrukt. In groot Quarto, de prys is ingenaait 7 Guldens, eenige weinige zyn ’er gedrukt op best Mediaan Schryfpapier, à 9 Gul- / dens. Ook zyn nog eenige weinige Exemplaaren te bekomen, van de over eenigen tyd gedrukte: HAARLEMSE ZANGEN, zyn- / de 48 Airs in Muziek gesteld by de Heeren Marpurg, Agricola, Schale, Nichelman, Bach en anderen, mede met Muziek-Caracteren / gedrukt, à f 2·10 [...]

[translation:]

     Printed in Haarlem at Joh. Enschedé and available everywhere: Grondig Onderwys in het behandelen der Viool, by LEOPOLD MOZART, former chamber musician to the court of Salzburg, at present Kapellmeister to the court of Salzburg. This excellent work is unique in its genre, since no musician has previously written about this musical instrument, which is indispensable in all concerts. Its contents: I. On all stringed instruments; II. The origin of music; III. History of music, and IV. On the new music letters and notes, and further what makes a violinist a capable musician and a great master etc. It is not necessary to say more: MOZART’s name and his 2 children, especially his 9-year-old son, that musical marvel, are sufficiently known. Moreover, this work has been printed using music characters and notes, based on a new invention, on a book-printing press, for which no engraved tin or copper plates have been used, since this would have required more than 300 of them: As such, this work is, for the eye of the connoisseur, a masterpiece of the art of printing and type-foundry. In addition, it is illustrated with 4 etched prints, namely: I. The author’s portrait, also showing the perfect way of holding the violin; II. Good way; III. Bad way of holding the violin, and IV. Of holding the bow; also with a dedication plate to his Serene Highness, the Prince Hereditary Stadtholder, WILLIAM V. No other copper plates are present, even the table showing the manner of bowing has been printed on a book-printing press using music characters. In quarto, sewn, the price is 7 guilder, a few copies have been printed on the best medium writing paper, at 9 guilder. There are also still a number of copies available of HAARLEMSE ZANGEN printed some time ago, consisting of 48 airs put to music by Messrs. Marpurg, Agricola, Schale, Nichelman, Bach and others: also printed with music characters, at 2 guilder 10 stiver. [...] 


5.

Middelburgsche Courant, no. 43, Thu, 9 Apr 1767


[2]

     Te Harelem [sic], by Joannes Enschede is gedrukt en te bekomen, alsmede te Middelburg by de Wed. A. L. Cal- / lenfels en Zoon, Boekverkoopers op den Langenburgt over de Wal, Grondig Onderwys in het Behandelen der / Viool, ontworpen door LEOPOLD MOZART, Hoogvorstelyk-Saltzburgsche Kamer-Musicus, met 4. Konstplaaten / en een Tafel van de Regelen der Strykmanier enz. voorzien; in groot 4to.



[translation:]

     Printed and available at Joannes Enschede in Haarlem, as well as from the widow A. L. Callenfels and Son, booksellers at the Langenburgt across the Wal in Middelburg: Grondig Onderwys in het Behandelen der Viool, written by LEOPOLD MOZART, chamber musician to the court of Salzburg, complete with 4 plates and a table of the rules of bowing etc.; in quarto.


6.

Vaderlandsche Letteroefeningen, vol. 7, part 1, 1767


[197]

Grondig Onderwys in het behandelen der Viool, ontworpen

door LEOPOLD MOZART, Hoogvorstelyk-Saltzburgschen-
Kamer-Musicus. Met
4 Konst-Plaaten en een Tafel van
de Regelen der Strykmanier enz. voorzien. Te Haerlem by
J. Enschede 1766. in groot quarto, behalven het Voorwerk
259 bladzyden.

DIt Werk, dat in Duitschland zeer hoog geschat is, zal
ongetwyfelt, zo als het thans in ’t Nederduitsch word
uitgegeven, den Nederlandschen Liefhebberen, der Zang-


[198]

en Speelkunde niet minder behagen; voor al aen hun, die
zich vermaken in ’t beoefenen der Stryk-Instrumenten in ’t
algemeen, en der Viool in ’t byzonder. Het ontbrak den
Beminnaren van dit Speel-Instrument tot nog aen ene ge-
gronde handleiding; men ging in ’t beoefenen van ’t zelve,
veel al, meer te rade met het gebruik en ’t gehoor, dan met
regelen op de natuur der Zang- en Speelkunde gegrond-
vest; ’t welk niet zelden veroorzaekte dat zelfs anderszins
min of meer bekwame Violisten verlegen stonden, of altans
de hun voorgestelde Stukken niet behoorlyk uitvoerden,
wanneer ze, met opzicht tot de Strykmanier, van den ge-
menen Speeltrant afweken: waer voor ze bewaerd geweest
zouden zyn, indien ze van den beginne geleerd hadden, Ge-
hoor en Vernuft, in ’t behandelen der Speel-Instrumenten,
te zamen te paren. — Ter verdere voorkominge nu van dit
gebrek, en dus ter beschavinge dezer Oefeninge, is dit
Werk van den beroemden Musicus Mozart ingericht; als
behelzende, nae ene voorafgaende Inleiding over de Stryk-
Instrumenten, den oorsprong der Muzyk; en der Musicale In-
strumenten
, benevens ene korte Geschiedenis der Muzyk, in
een aental van twaelf Hoofdstukken, de Grondbeginzelen
waer op de rechte behandeling der Viool steunt, en de Re-
gelen, die men, in ’t gebruiken van dit Stryk-Instrument,
in acht heeft te nemen; wordende alles verder opgehelderd
met de daer toe vereischte platen en nodige voorbeelden van
stukken, om de regels in practyk te leeren brengen; waer
van des kundigen zich veel goeds in deze Liefhebbery beloo-
ven.
     De oplettende Boekhandelaar en Lettergieter Enschede
heeft, met de uitgave van dit Werk, op nieuw ene proe-
ve (*) gegeven, van ’t drukken van Muzykstukken met
verzetbaare vormen; dat keurlyk uitgevoerd is, en hem in
staet gestelt heeft, om dit Werk op lager prys te brengen,
dan anders zou hebben konnen geschieden. Het behelst
naemlyk een merkelyk aental van Muzyk[-]stukken, die men,
naar ouder gewoonte, met veel moeite en kosten, in ko-
peren platen zou hebben moeten snyden, en op ene plaat-
drukkers pers drukken: daer nu in tegendeel alle de Mu-
zyknooten en onderscheidene charakters, tot deze stukken
gebezigd, naer de nieuwe uitvinding, op zyne eigene Let-

(*) Men zie het bericht ener voorgaende proeve deswegens in
de Vaderl. Letter-Oefeningen 1 D. bl. 852.


[199]

tergietery gegooten, op de wyze van woorden, door een
Letterzetter gezet, en op ene boekdrukkers pers gedrukt
zyn; ’t welk zo juist behandelt is, dat men ’er geen kope-
ren Muzyk voor hebbe te wenschen.




[translation:]

Grondig Onderwys in het behandelen der Viool, written by LEOPOLD MOZART, chamber musician to the court of Salzburg. With 4 plates and a table with the rules of bowing etc. At J. Enschedé in Haarlem 1766, in large quarto, 259 pages, not including the preliminary matter.

This work, which is highly esteemed in Germany, will undoubtedly, now that it is published in Dutch, equally please Dutch amateurs of the art of singing and playing, and particularly those who study the violin. Until now, amateurs of this musical instrument lacked a reliable handbook; and while performing on the violin, they often relied more on habit and the ear than on rules grounded in the nature of the art of singing and playing, which not infrequently caused otherwise more or less capable violinists to be perplexed or unable to perform the pieces put before them when these deviated, with regard to the manner of bowing, from the common way of playing. They would have been spared this had they learned from the start to wed hearing with skill in the handling of musical instruments. — This work by the famous musician Mozart is organized to avoid this shortcoming, and thus to refine this pursuit: following an introduction on stringed instruments, the origin of music and musical instruments, as well as a short history of music, it deals in twelve chapters with the basic principles for the correct manipulation of the violin and the rules that need to be observed in the use of this stringed instrument; all further illustrated by various plates and examples; from which connoisseurs of this pastime may expect to benefit greatly.

     In publishing this work, the diligent bookseller and type-founder Enschedé has delivered another example (*) of the printing of pieces of music with moveable type, which has been executed neatly, and which has allowed him to issue this work for a lower price than would otherwise have been possible. It contains a considerable number of pieces of music, which, after the old custom, would have had to be cut in copper plates and printed on a plate press: in contrast, all musical notes and separate characters used in these pieces have been cast, after the new invention, in his own type-foundry, set by a typesetter in the manner of words, and printed on a book-printing press, which has been executed so neatly, that one could not wish for the music in copper.

(*) See the report of a previous example in the Vaderl. Letteroefeningen vol. 1 p. 852.


7.

Proef van letteren, welke gegooten worden in de nieuwe 
Haerlemsche lettergietery van J. Enschedé. 1768.

[page 18 of unpaginated preface, dated 30 Nov 1768]

[...]


     Het allergrootste Konststuk door gemelde
Fleischman in 1760 ten einde gebragt, is de
volkomene Muziek; een Werk, waaraan hy
omtrent twee Jaaren heeft gearbeid. Een
goede Letterzetter, eenmaal het begrip van de
behandeling gevat hebbende, kan zulks zo ge=
makkelyk zetten als de gewoone Letteren, hoe=
wel zo spoedig niet, om de oplettendheid, die
’er vereischt wordt, van geen misslagen te be=







[next page]

gaan. De Proef en het Bewys daarvan heb
ik getoond, door 48 zogenaamde Haerlemsche
Zangen, in 1762; alsmede door een Muziek-
Stuk in Quarto, van 260 Bladzijden, zynde
het Werk van Mozart, over het Behandelen
der Viool, in 1766 uitgegeeven. Alles, zo wel
Nooten, Linien, Verbindingen, als Blind=
goed &c. word op Parel Corpus gegooten. Dat
Konststuk der Muziek-Matryzen en Stem=
pels, overtreft zeer verre de Muziek-Caracte-
ren, die in Duitschland, zedert 1755, zyn
uitgekomen.









[translation:]

     The greatest masterpiece completed by the aforementioned Fleischman, in 1760, is the “complete music” [volkomene Muziek], an undertaking on which he worked for about two years. A good typesetter, having grasped the procedure, can easily set this as ordinary letters, though not as quickly, because of the attention that is required in order not to make mistakes. I have demonstrated this by publishing the 48 so-called Haerlemsche zangen in 1762, as well as a music book in quarto numbering 260 pages in 1766, which is the work of Mozart, Over het behandelen der viool. Everything from notes, staves, and ties and slurs [Verbindingen] to blanks etc. is cast on a pearl body [Parel Corpus = 5 points]. This masterpiece of musical matrices and punches surpasses by far the music characters that have been produced in Germany since 1755.



Commentary

The first Dutch edition of Leopold Mozart’s Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule was published in Haarlem in 1766 by Johannes Enschedé (1708–1780), under the title Grondig onderwys in het behandelen der viool.


Leopold Mozart, Grondig onderwys in het behandelen der viool
Haarlem: Johannes Enschedé, 1766, title page
(Collection of Christopher J. Salmon; photo: Christopher J. Salmon)


The first four documents transcribed above include Enschedé’s first announcement of the translation and three of his advertisements of it, all in the Oprechte Haerlemse Courant (for which Enschedé himself had been the printer since 1737); the fifth document is an advertisement of Grondig onderwys by the publisher and bookseller A. L. Callenfels and Son in Middelburg in 1767; the sixth is a review appearing that same year in the Vaderlandsche Letteroefeningen; and the seventh is a reference to the book in Enschedé’s catalog of his typefaces, published in 1768. Two of Enschedé’s advertisements (documents 2 & 4) refer to Wolfgang as “dat Musicaal-Wonder” (“that musical marvel”).


Cornelis van Noorde, Joannes Enschedé, 1768


Of the seven documents, only Enschedé’s long advertisement of 13 May 1766 (document 4) is mentioned in Dokumente, and Deutsch transcribes only the clause mentioning Wolfgang: “… de naam van MOZART en zyne 2 Kinderen, met naame zyn Zoontje van 9 Jaaren, dat Musicaal-Wonder, zyn genoeg bekend” (Dokumente, 514, German translation on 52; “… MOZART’s name and his 2 children, especially his 9-year-old son, that musical marvel, are sufficiently known”). Deutsch describes this as the first advertisement of Grondig onderwys, but Enschedé announced the translation as early as 28 Feb 1765 (document 1), while the Mozarts were still in England; this early date shows that planning for the translation and publication was already well underway more than six months before the Mozarts arrived in the Dutch Republic on 10 Sep 1765. According to Scheurleer (1909, ii:356), on 21 Sep 1765, just a few days after the Mozarts’ arrival, Enschedé announced that half of Grondig onderwys had been printed (Scheurleer gives no specific citation for this announcement, and we have not yet been able to trace his source). Enschedé also published at least two other advertisements of the book predating the one on 13 May 1766 (documents 2 & 3 above).

Grondig onderwys was dedicated to William V, Prince of Orange, and a copy bound in red morocco was presented to him on the occasion of his installation as Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic on his eighteenth birthday, 8 Mar 1766 (on William, see also our entry for 18 Sep 1765). This presentation copy survives and is now in the collection of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague (KW 1793 C 25).

 

Leopold Mozart, Grondig onderwys in het behandelen der viool
Haarlem: Johannes Enschedé, 1766, first page of dedication.
(Collection of Christopher J. Salmon; photos: Christopher J. Salmon)

Vignette engraved by Cornelis van Noorde, with detail showing the date of William’s birthday and
solemn installation, “8 Maart 1766,” emerging from Fame’s trumpet.


Enschedé also gave Leopold Mozart a copy of the translation. Leopold described the Dutch edition in a letter to Lorenz Hagenauer on 16 May 1766:

Ich werde die Ehre haben ihnen meine Violin Schule in Holländischer Sprache vorzulegen. Dieß Buch haben die H: H: Holländer in dem nämlichen format in meinem Angesicht in das Holländische übersetzt dem Printzen dedicirt und zu seinen Installations=Fest presentirt. Die Edition ist ungemein schön, und noch schöner als meine eigene. Der verleger |: der Buchdrucker in harlem :| kamm mit einer Ehrfurchtsvollen Mine zu mir und überreichte mir das Buch… [Briefe, i:219–20]

I will have the honor to place before you my Violinschule in the Dutch language. The Dutch gentlemen, using the same format, translated it into Dutch and dedicated it to the Prince and presented it to him as I looked on at the festivities for his installation. The edition is exceptionally lovely, even more so than my own. The publisher (the book printer in Haarlem) came to me with reverential countenance and submitted the book to me.

Thus the book was in print by Mar 1766. Enschedé’s earliest known advertisement of the complete book appeared on Tue, 1 Apr 1766 (document 2), more than one year after it had first been announced (document 1). The advertisement on 1 Apr 1766 is the first to mention “the musical-marvel” Wolfgang, who by that point had performed several times in the Dutch Republic. The very next issue of the Oprechte Haerlemse Courant, on 3 Apr 1766, contains yet another advertisement for the book (document 3), which was repeated on 19, 22, and 29 Apr. This advertisement omits the reference to Wolfgang, but alludes again to the novel technique used for the printing of Grondig onderwys, by which Enschedé meant the use of movable type for the musical examples, which had already been mentioned in his first announcement of the translation a year earlier. The technique is explained more fully in Enschedé’s long advertisement in the same newspaper the following month, on Tue, 13 May 1766 (document 4).

The advertisement on 13 May combines the information from the previous two (the reference to Wolfgang and the allusion to the new printing technique), and adds a description of the contents and illustrations. For the musical examples in Grondig onderwys, Enschedé used the elegant musical typeface cut by Joan Michael Fleischman (1701–1768), which Enschedé referred to in his 1768 catalog of typefaces as “Volmaakte en Volkomene Muziek” (“perfect and complete music”; see page 4 of the price list in Enschedé 1768, where the price for this typeface is listed as 5 guilder).



Cornelis van Noorde, Joan Michael Fleischman


Enschedé himself gives a good description of this typeface in his 1768 catalog, accompanied by a short musical example that uses it.

                   


Description and example of Fleischman’s Volmaakte en Volkomene Muziek (Enschedé 1768).



VOLMAAKTE EN VOLKOMENE MUZIEK

     Dit is het allervolmaakste en het allerkonstigste Werkstuk,
dat ooit door eenig Lettersnyder gemaakt is; de Heer J.M.
FLEISCHMAN heeft dat in ’t Jaar 1760 ten einde gebragt,
na ruim twee Jaaren daar aan te hebben gearbeid; al zyn Konst
en Vlyt heeft hy daar aan besteed; ieder die eenige kennis heeft
van de Drukkonst en van ’t Lettergieten, staat daar over ver-
baast; alles is mathematisch vierkant ingerigt; dit groote Konst-
stuk bestaat uit 226 stuks Staale Stempels en 240 Matryzen, en
word op Parel Corpus gegooten. Daar kan in de Muziek niets
gecomponeert worden, of het kan met deeze Muziek-Caractè- [sic]
ren, even zo gemaklyk gezet en gedrukt worden, als de or-
dinaire Grieksche, Latynsche en Nederduitsche Letteren; zo
dat dit allervolmaakste Werkstuk de Geschreevene Letteren,
die ook verwonderlyk schoon zyn, zeer verre overtreft.


[translation:]

PERFECT AND COMPLETE MUSIC

     This is the most perfect and most ingenious piece of work
that has ever been made by a type cutter. Mister J. M. 
FLEISCHMAN finished this in the year 1760, having worked
on it for more than two years. He devoted all his craftsmanship
and diligence to it. Everyone who has some knowledge of 
printing and typecasting is amazed by it. Everything is organized 
mathematically in squares. This great masterpiece consists 
of 226 steel punches and 240 matrices, and is cast on a pearl
body [Parel Corpus = 5 point]. There is nothing that can be
composed in music that cannot be set and printed with these 
music characters as easily as ordinary Greek, Latin and Dutch 
letters, in such a way that this most perfect piece of work surpasses 
by far the script letters, which are also amazingly beautiful.



To print music with movable type was not a novelty: the technique had been used even in the earliest printed editions of music, most famously in the elegant Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A, printed in Venice in 1501 by Ottaviano Petrucci. But by the early eighteenth century, the technique had largely been overshadowed, in terms of quality and beauty, by music printed from engraved plates. The use of movable type for music was given a new lease on life by the ingenious and superbly engineered “mosaic” typeface for music, introduced in Leipzig around 1754 by Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf (founder of the publishing firm that became Breitkopf & Härtel). Breitkopf’s type was Fleischman’s inspiration, to which he added his own refinements, and it is Breitkopf’s system to which Enschedé is referring in the preface to his 1768 catalog (document 7) when he writes that Fleischman’s musical typeface “overtreft zeer verre de Muziek-Caracteren, die in Duitschland, zedert 1755, zyn uitgekomen” (“surpasses by far the music characters that have been produced in Germany since 1755”).

The use of Fleischman’s “Volmaakte en Volkomene Muziek” in Grondig onderwys gives the musical examples a very consistent and crisp printed image. However, Enschedé’s advertisements overstate the case for the novelty of the technique: the examples in Leopold Mozart’s original 1756 edition of his Versuch are also set with musical type, as can readily be seen from the visible gaps between type pieces. But the technique may have been a novelty for Enschedé’s Dutch customers in the 1760s.


Leopold Mozart, Versuch einer gründlichen ViolinschuleAugsburg, 1756, 141 (detail)


The equivalent examples from Enschedé’s edition show that Fleischman’s musical type is indeed crisper, and the gaps between individual pieces of type are less evident. The engineering of the typeface is so precise that it is not at all obvious, for example, that each G clef in the example below is assembled from five separate pieces of type, one for each staff line (see the complete table of Fleischman’s typeface in Enschedé, C., 1908, 217, also reproduced in Wester 2005, 145). So it is not surprising that Leopold would have found the Dutch edition “schöner” than the German.


Leopold Mozart, Grondig onderwys in het behandelen der viool, Haarlem: Johannes Enschedé, 1766, 139 (detail)
(Collection of Christopher J. Salmon; photo: Christopher J. Salmon)


However, neither Fleischman’s typeface nor that in the original 1756 edition of the Versuch were able fully to solve the problem of “wavy” beams in connected sequences of notes that change direction, as can be seen in the examples above. One of the many marvels of Breitkopf’s system is that it avoids wavy beams, as can be seen, for example, on the first page of music in his splendid 1756 edition of Il trionfo della fedeltà by Maria Antonia of Bavaria, Electress of Saxony, issued in the same year as the first edition of Leopold’s Versuch.


Maria Antonia of Bavaria, ll trionfo della fedeltà, Leipzig: Breitkopf, 1756


The musical typeface used in Enschedé’s edition is not without other minor flaws. For instance, in the musical example at the top of page 27 (in the Dutch edition) illustrating Leopold’s discussion of the benefits of movable G-clefs, those clefs in which the note G falls on a space do not have staff lines; evidently, Fleischman did not create punches for the special pieces of type that would allow the assembly of such clefs. (Compare the table in Enschedé, C., 1908, 217. G clefs of this kind do not ordinarily appear in actual use, so it is understandable that Fleischman omitted the characters from his typeface; however, the clefs in the equivalent example in the 1756 original German edition of the Versuch do have staff lines.) In spite of these minor deficiencies, Enschedé was justifiably proud of the elegant and finely crafted look of his edition using Fleischman’s musical typeface.



Example of movable G clefs from the first Dutch (top) and German (bottom)
editions of Leopold Mozart’s Versuch


Grondig onderwys was just the second work in which Enschedé used Fleischman’s “Volmaakte en Volkomene Muziek.” The first was a collection of 48 songs entitled Haerlemse zangen, based on Breitkopf’s 1756 collection Berlinische Oden und Lieder (part 1), with music by Marpurg, Agricola, Schale, Nichelman, and C. P. E. Bach (this was one of Breitkopf’s earliest publications using his own musical typeface). Enschedé had the German texts translated into Dutch to fit the rhythm and melody of the original music. Haerlemse zangen was first published in 1761; the advertisements here (documents 2, 3, & 4) show that Enschedé was still advertising the work in 1765 and 1766, along with Leopold’s Grondig onderwys.

Antiquariat J. Voerster - Antiquarische Highlights. Der erste, sehr seltene holländische Musik-Typen-Druck (statt Stichplatte) mit von Johann Michael Fleischmann geschnittenen Typen.

Haerlemse zangen (Johannes Enschedé, 1761)


These are the only two books known to have been printed using Fleischman’s “Volmaakte en Volkomene Muziek.” In later years, the Enschedé firm reused type from this typeface to print intricate decorative borders on banknotes, stock certificates, and the like, making them much more difficult to forge (for examples, see Wester 2005, 145). The Netherlands honored Fleischman’s typeface and the 300th anniversary of the Enschedé firm with a pair of stamps in 2003. The first-day cover for the issue shows an image of the complete set of punches for the typeface. The caption beneath reads: “The Fleischman musical typeface is the first hallmark of authenticity protecting securities and banknotes against counterfeiting and forgery.” The stamp on the right shows a stylized representation of musical characters from the typeface; the stamp on the left commemorates the firm’s contributions to document security.


First day cover of the Dutch stamps commemorating the 300th anniversary of the Enschedé firm, 2003.
(Collection of Kris Steyaert)


The four engraved illustrations in Enschedé’s Grondig onderwys are modeled directly on those in the original German edition of Leopold Mozart’s Versuch, but they are newly engraved. This is particularly evident in the genially addled facial expression that Enschedé’s engraver, Cornelis van Noorde (1731–1795), has given the violinist holding the violin incorrectly.

  

Figure 3 from the first German (left) and Dutch (right) editions
of Leopold Mozart’s Versuch


Unlike the (abridged) French translation of the Versuch by Valentin Roeser published a few years later (Méthode raisonnée pour apprendre à jouer du violon, ca. 1770), the Dutch edition does not include the name of the translator, whose identity remains unknown.

The advertisement in the Oprechte Haerlemse Courant on 13 May 1766 takes into account Leopold Mozart’s promotion from “Kamer-Musicus” (“chamber musician”) to “Capel-Meester” (“Kapellmeister”), although, strictly speaking, Leopold had been promoted to the rank of deputy Kapellmeister in Salzburg in Feb 1763. Initially, before the Mozarts arrived in the Dutch Republic, Enschedé, presumably unaware of Leopold’s promotion, would have used the information printed on the title page of the German Violinschule (1756), where the author is indeed identified as “Hochfürstl. Salzburgischen Cammermusikus.” When they met in person, Leopold probably informed the Haarlem printer of his new status, and Enschedé changed the advertisement in the Oprechte Haerlemse Courant accordingly. However, since the first half of Grondig onderwys had apparently already been printed by the time the Mozarts arrived in the Dutch Republic in Sep 1765, it was too late to make any changes to the title page. This explains why Leopold is still described as “Hoogvorstelyk-Saltzburgschen Kamer-Musicus” in the Dutch edition, on the title page and in the dedication to William V.

The long advertisement of 13 May (document 4) was reprinted in the Oprechte Haerlemse Courant on 17 May and 21 Aug 1766, and 10 Jan, 19 Jan and 28 Jan 1768. Wolfgang’s age in the advertisements was revised as appropriate, but as was often the case at the time, his reported age is lower than his actual age: in the advertisement of 10 Jan 1767 Wolfgang is said to be 9 (he was about to turn 11), and in the two advertisements in Jan 1768 his age is given as 10 (he turned 12 that month).

From April 1767 onwards, the Dutch edition of Leopold’s book was also available at the shop of the widow of A. L. Callenfels in Middelburg, in the Dutch province of Zeeland. A small advertisement alerting readers to this new point of sale was published in the Middelburgsche Courant on 9, 18 and 23 Apr, and 28 May 1767 (document 5). This newspaper had been founded by A. L. Callenfels himself in 1758, together with S. Maldergeen and L. Taillefert.

Also in 1767, the only known contemporaneous review of Grondig onderwys appeared in the Vaderlandsche Letteroefeningen (document 6), one of the leading literary and cultural periodicals in the Dutch Republic. Its main purpose was to inform Dutch readers of useful and worthwhile publications, both new and old, on a wide range of subjects. The anonymous reviewer of Grondig onderwys emphasizes the book’s didactic merits and the innovative use of moveable type for the music notation. Closely following the text of Enschedé’s advertisements and dedication, the reviewer describes the work as unique in its genre. This is not entirely correct, as treatises on the violin had been published before, most notably, perhaps, The Art of Playing on the Violin by Francesco Geminiani in 1731. However, the scope and breadth of Leopold Mozart’s work far exceeds the publications of his predecessors, making the Violinschule an undisputed milestone. In a footnote, the Dutch reviewer reminds his readers of Enschedé’s previous experiment with moveable type for printing music, the collection Haerlemse zangen.


Notes

Enschedé’s first announcement of the Dutch translation of Leopold Mozart’s Versuch (document 1) is also transcribed in Scheurleer (1909, ii:350); he also gives the portion of Enschedé’s long advertisement of 13 May 1766 (document 4) relevant to Leopold’s book (Scheurleer 1909, 358). Scheurleer does not identify his source in either case. (Note that a
 scan of Scheurleer 1909 seems only to be available on the Hathi Trust site, and may not be available in all countries.)

A digital scan of Grondig onderwys (based on the exemplar in the Oberlin College Library) can be found on archive.org. A facsimile edition was issued in 1965 with an introduction by Adolphe Poth (Grondig onderwijs 1965). All images in the present commentary are from the exemplar in the collection of Christopher J. Salmon, to whom we are very grateful. The images from the original 1756 edition of Leopold Mozart’s Versuch are taken from the scan of an exemplar in BSB (color); a black & white pdf of the same exemplar can be found on Google Books and IMSLP.

A substantial extract of Enschedé’s description of Fleischman’s musical typeface (Enschedé 1768) is given in Schrift en schrijfkunst (1874, 74), although Enschedé’s name for the typeface (“Volmaakte en Volkomene Muziek”) is not mentioned. The typeface is also described in Scheurleer (1909, ii:354) and Vander Straeten (1880, 288–91). The term “parel corpus” refers to a standard size for cast pieces of type, equivalent to the “pearl” size in English, which is 5 point (see the comparative table of terminology here).

On the units of currency referred to in these documents (guilder and stuiver) see the Notes to our entry for 28 Feb 1765. The term “groot Mediaan,” found in two of Enschedé’s advertisements (documents 2 & 4) was a standard paper size, and refers to the complete sheet as it came from the paper-maker’s mold (see this table of historical sheet sizes in Dutch usage). It is analogous to “medium” in the historical terminology of English paper sizes (see, for example, this reference), and for that reason we have translated “best groot Mediaan Schryfpapier” as “best medium writing paper.”

In the unpaginated brochure Mozart in Haerlem, printed by the Enschedé firm in 1956 on the occasion of the Mozart bicentenary, J. H. Moolenijzer refers to but does not quote an advertisement of Grondig onderwys in an unnamed newspaper from 1777. According to Moolenijzer, the book was selling for half its original price by that point. We have so far been unable to locate Moolenijzer’s source.

The brief extract in Dokumente (514) from Enschedé’s advertisement of 13 May 1766 (our document 4) contains 6
 transcription errors, albeit all minor. Deutsch gives:

… de naam van Mozart en zyne twee kinderen met name zijn zoontje van 9 Jaaren, dat Musicaal-Wonder, zyn genoeg bekend.

The corrected transcription is:

...de naam van MOZART en zyne 2 Kinderen, met naame zyn Zoontje van 9 Jaaren, dat Musicaal-Wonder, zyn genoeg bekend.



Bibliography

Enschedé, Charles. 1908. Fonderies de caractères et leur matériel dans les Pays-Bas du XVe au XIXe siècle. Haarlem: De Erven F. Bohn.

Enschedé, Johannes. 1768. Proef van letteren, welke gegooten worden in de nieuwe Haerlemsche lettergietery. [ÖNB (Google Books; ÖNB); Ghent University (Google Books); French edition, Ghent University (Google Books)]

Grondig onderwijs in het behandelen der viool. 1965. A facsimile edition of Leopold Mozart, Grondig onderwys in het behandelen der viool (Haarlem: Johannes Enschedé, 1766), with an introduction by Adolphe Poth. Utrecht: Oosthoek.

Moolenijzer, J. H. 1956. Mozart in Haerlem. [Haarlem: Joh. Enschedé en Zoon].

Scheurleer, Daniel François. 1883. Mozart’s verblijf in Nederland en het muziekleven aldaar in de laatste helft der achttiende eeuw. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

————. 1909. Het muziekleven in Nederland in de tweede helft der 18e eeuw in verband met Mozart’s verblijf aldaar. 2 vols. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. [vol. 1, vol. 2 ]

Schrift en schrijfkunst. Het boekdrukken. Hout-, koper- en staalgraveerkunst. Het steendrukken en het boekbinden. 1874. Leyden: A. W. Sijthoff.

van den Bergh, Anneke. 2007. “Volkomene muziek. Problemen en oplossingen in de muziekdruk,” Jaarboek van het Nederlands Genootschap van Bibliofielen 15, 121–139.

vander Straeten, Edmond. 1880. La musique aux Pays-Bas avant le XIXe siècle. Documents inédits et annotés. Vol. 5. Brussels: G.-A. van Trigt.

Wester, Anja. 2005. “Van monnikenwerk tot Midi. Het drukken van muziek.” In: Rob Berkel ed., Muziek opSchrift. De wereld van de muzieknotatie. Catalog of an exhibition at the Scryption Museum, Tilburg, 16 Oct 2005–19 Mar 2006. 142–47. Tilburg: Scryption Boekenfonds. [Out of print; see the description here.]



Credit: Kris Steyaert & DE

Links: Delpher





          Google Books

Enschedé 1768 (document 7)

Source Library: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague, KW C 37

Search Terms: mozart, grondig onderwys

Category: Documents

First Published: 29 Aug 2017


Print Citation:

Steyaert, Kris, and Dexter Edge. 2017. “The first Dutch edition of Leopold Mozart’s Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule (7 documents, 28 Feb 1765–30 Nov 1768).” In: Mozart: New Documents, edited by Dexter Edge and David Black. First published 29 Aug 2017. https://doi.org/10.7302/Z20P0WXJ

Web Citation:

Steyaert, Kris, and Dexter Edge. 2017. “The first Dutch edition of Leopold Mozart’s Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule (7 documents, 28 Feb 1765–30 Nov 1768).” In: Mozart: New Documents, edited by Dexter Edge and David Black. First published 29 Aug 2017. [direct link]