Y-DNA Analysis

This website includes a number of tools for analyzing the relationship among R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites.

SNP Analysis

Posted at the bottom of this page is a tree showing the results, using Hg38 reference numbers, for all R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who had received Big Y results as of May 6, 2018.  

Also posted at the bottom of this page is a tree showing the results, using Hg19 reference nmbers, for all R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who had received Big Y results as of November 2, 2017 (before FTDNA reprocessed all Big Y results to use Hg38, rather than Hg19, reference numbers). 

Click here for information concerning the actual and predicted SNPs for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites.

STR Analysis

First, the website features a sortable Excel spreadsheet of Short Tandem Repeat (“STR”) marker values, posted on this page, that can be used to evaluate the relationships among R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites. The spreadsheet also provides Y-DNA clusters and subclusters for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who have done full Y-DNA testing, as well as predicted Y-DNA clusters and, sometimes, subclusters for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who have not yet done full Y-DNA testing. Instructions for using the spreadsheet, in conjunction with the steps to matches spreadsheet also posted on this page, are posted on the Using the R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levite Spreadsheet page of this website. (To use the sortable spreadsheet, you should download it by clicking on the arrow to the right of the link.) The website posts a sample analysis using the sortable spreadsheet showing how the methodology works. 

Second, the website posts spreadsheets created using the Y-Utility program showing the number of genetic steps between each R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levite and the estimated time to a most recent common ancestor ("MRCA") as between each R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levite, at varying levels of confidence. The Y-Utility spreadsheet posted below includes a page that provides essentially the same information concerning marker values as FTDNA project pages, along with three pages that show the genetic distance of each R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levite from each other (and from the mode) at 111 markers, 67 markers, and 37 markers. (This website previously posted a Y-Utility spreadsheet that calculated the time to an MRCA (in years and generations) for all R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to 111, 67, or 37 markers; click here to learn why that spreadsheet has been retired and to see the last version of that spreadsheet.) Further information concerning the Y-Utility Spreadsheets is posted on the Using the Y-Utility Spreadsheets page of this website.

Third, the website posts a table that shows: (1) how frequently specific STR marker values mutate, according to Family Tree DNA and a 2010 study by Burgarella, et al.; and (2) the percentage of deviations from the R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levite mode for each STR marker.  Note that a high percentage of deviations from the mode on a marker may reflect either: (1) fast-mutation rates on the marker; or (2) a mutation on a slow-mutating marker that occurred long ago, resulting in a major split on the R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levite family tree. To assist in analysis of this issue, the website posts another table that ranks, in numerical order, the frequency of deviations from the mode among R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites.

Fourth, the website posts, as .txt files downloadable at the bottom of this page, Fitch, Kitsch, and Neighbor phylogenetic trees for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to at least 37, 67, and 111 markers, generated using the PHYLIP software suite and data generated using Y Utility; these trees, posted at the bottom of this page, are best viewed using Notepad. Further information concerning these phylogenetic trees is posted on the Using Phylogenetic Trees page of this website. (The website also posts phylogenetic trees for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to 111 markers, based upon their marker values at 37 markers, 67 markers, and 111 markers, prepared by William E. Howard III as facilitated by Sidney Sachs.)

Fifth, the website posts as .png and .html files downloadable at the bottom of this page, trees (in graphic and text format) generated using Dave Vance's software entitled The Life of Trees (or Still Another Phylogeny Program) ("SAPP") for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to 67 and 111 markers; one set of trees is generated based upon STR marker values alone, while the second set of trees is generated based upon STR marker values along with terminal SNPs for the men who have done Big Y testing.

Sixth, the website posts a page with star trees for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites, generated using phylogenetic network software from Fluxus Technology Ltd.

Finally, instructions concerning use of the sortable spreadsheet and other materials to analyze other Y-DNA clusters are posted on the Adapting the Sortable Spreadsheet and Using Online Utilities page of this website.

Periodically, and as warranted by the receipt of new or updated test results, new versions of the sortable spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and phylogenetic trees will be posted on the website. Yellow highlighting on the sortable spreadsheet identifies those R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites whose test results have been added or modified since the last-posted version of the sortable spreadsheet.

Anatole Klyosov's Comments on STR and SNP Analysis

Click here for Anatole Klyosov's comments on STR and SNP analyses for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites.
Henich & Etla Sigal
Henich Sigal (@1840-1912) & Etla Sigal (@1860-1938)
Photograph taken in Botosani, Romania @1908
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Fitch Tree - 111 markers - 2018.05.06.txt
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Fitch Tree - 37 markers - 2016.11.27.txt
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Fitch Tree - 67 Markers - 2016.05.28.txt
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Kitsch Tree - 111 markers - 2018.05.06.txt
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Kitsch Tree - 37 Markers - 2017.08.06.txt
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Kitsch Tree - 67 markers - 2018.05.06.txt
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Neighbor Tree - 37 markers - 2017.12.02.txt
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Neighbor Tree - 67 markers - 2018.05.06.txt
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SAPP Text Tree - 111 Markers with terminal SNP - 2018.01.13.html
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SAPP Text Tree - 111 Markers without terminal SNP - 2018.01.13.html
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SAPP Text Tree - 67 Markers with terminal SNP - 2018.01.13.html
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SAPP Text Tree - 67 Markers without terminal SNP - 2018.01.13.html
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