STR-Based Trees for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites

This website posts a substantial number of STR-based trees for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites, which were generated at various times using different software. Because STRs mutate far more frequently than SNPs and therefore mutate independently in different lines, STR-based trees are less reliable than SNP-based trees over short periods of times. Nevertheless, these SNP-based trees can provide insight not only with regard to the branching among R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who have not done Big Y testing but, sometimes, with regard to branching within clusters comprised of R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who have done Big Y testing.

First, the website posts Neighbor, Kitsch, and Fitch phylogenetic trees for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to at least 37, 67, and 111 markers, generated using the PHYLIP software suite with data processed using Y Utility (an excerpt from one of these trees is posted on the right side of this page). These trees are linked hereto as follows: (1) Neighbor tree at 111 markers (last updated June 18, 2022); (2) Neighbor tree at 67 markers (last updated June 18, 2022); (3) Neighbor tree at 37 markers (last updated May 22, 2021); (4) Kitsch tree at 111 markers (last updated June 18, 2022); (5) Kitsch tree at 67 markers (last updated June 18, 2022); (6) Kitsch tree at 37 markers (last updated August 6, 2017); (7) Fitch tree at 111 markers (last updated December 24, 2021); (8) Fitch tree at 67 markers (last updated May 28, 2017); and (9) Fitch tree at 37 markers (last updated November 27, 2016). Further information concerning these phylogenetic trees is posted on the Using Phylogenetic Trees page of this website. (The website also posts phylogenetic trees for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who had tested to 111 markers as of December 2013, based upon their marker values at 37 markers, 67 markers, and 111 markers, prepared by William E. Howard III as facilitated by Sidney Sachs.)

Second, the website posts a page with Anatole Klyosov's haplotype trees for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites generated using the sets of 111-marker and 67-marker STRs for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites collected at this site as of August 30, 2014.

Third, the website posts a page with star trees for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites, generated using phylogenetic network software from Fluxus Technology Ltd.

Periodically, and as warranted by the receipt of new or updated test results, new versions of some of these trees will be posted on the website. Because of the large number of R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites who have done STR testing, PCs do not have the computing capacity to generate some of these trees posted below; for this reason, some of the trees posted on this page have not been updated since 2016.