History of PRIMO

Brief History of PRIMO

The International Symposium series, "Pollutant Responses in Marine Organisms" began in 1981 with a small group of NSF-funded investigators who were addressing questions related to "Chemical Effects and the Health of the Ocean" at a mechanistic level.

The first PRIMO Symposium was held in Plymouth, UK, in 1981 with the goal of stimulating international scientific interactions in this area. The success of the first PRIMO meeting led to a second in 1983 in Woods Hole, USA, and then to biennial meetings held alternately in Europe and the United States. Although the word "marine" was used to produce the memorable acronym, the meeting has never distinguished between, and always has included, marine and freshwater organisms.

The PRIMO conference series has always been committed to disseminating scientific and research progress through the publication of special issues in two international journals, namely – Aquatic Toxicology and Marine Environmental Research. Furthermore, the PRIMO conference series is committed to encouraging the participation and recruitment of young researchers into the field through the provision of travel grants.

To date, PRIMO meetings have been held in the following locations worldwide:

PRIMO1: 1981, Plymouth, UK

PRIMO2: 1983, Woods Hole, USA

PRIMO3: 1985, Plymouth, UK

PRIMO4: 1987, Woods Hole, USA

PRIMO5: 1989, Plymouth, UK

PRIMO6: 1991, Woods Hole, USA

PRIMO7: 1993, Gothenburg, Sweden

PRIMO8: 1995, Monterey, USA

PRIMO9: 1997, Bergen, Norway

PRIMO10: 1999, Williamsburg, USA

PRIMO11: 2001, Plymouth, UK

PRIMO12: 2003, Tampa, USA

PRIMO13: 2005, Alessandria, Italy

PRIMO14: 2007, Florianopolis, Brazil

PRIMO15: 2009, Bordeaux, France

PRIMO16: 2011, Long Beach, USA

PRIMO17: 2013, Algarve, Portugal

PRIMO18: 2015, Trondheim, Norway

PRIMO19: 2017, Matsuyama, Japan

PRIMO20: 2019, Charleston, USA