Program & Speakers
Random Lasers & Photonic Crystals (4h)
Conventional Laser (basics, inspirational; to rely slightly on other lectures on ordinary lasers)
- Closed systems; Lasers with Cavity; Distributed feedback lasers; photonic crystal lasers; Modes; Spectra
- Open systems; Lack of cavity; Mode interactions; Gain & feedback mixed; Gain & feedback Separated
Nonlinear Optics (5h)
Cid B. de Araújo
Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics.Nonlinear susceptibilities. Wave-equation description. Temporal and spatial nonlinear effects on the propagation of light. Space-time analogies. Self-phase modulation and temporal solitons. Transverse nonlinear optical phenomena: self-focusing, spatial modulation instability,spatial solitons and filamentation. “Light bullets”.
Techniques for characterization of nonlinear optical materials. Nonlinear optical properties of metal-dielectric nanocomposites and metamaterials. High-order nonlinearities. Bright and vortex solitons in highly nonlinear plasmonic media. Nonlinear effects in epsilon-near-zero materials. Beyond the perturbative description of Nonlinear Optics.
Ultrafast Laser Applications (4h)
Cleber Renato Mendonca
These lectures will provide an introduction to some fundamental aspects of ultrafast pulses and nonlinear optics phenomena, with emphasis to their technological applications. Many practical examples are included throughout the course, such as applications in optical storage, waveguides and biology. Specifically, this course will cover (1) basic principles on ultrashort pulses, (2) basic concepts on nonlinear optics, (3) a description of methods to investigate optical nonlinearities, (4) basic principles on laser microfabrication and microstructuring, and (5) various applications of the above techniques and methods.
Learning Outcomes: become familiar with the fundamentals of ultrashort pulses and nonlinear optics; learn about the use of nonlinear optics characterization techniques; learn about ultrashort laser micromachining methods; become familiar with several applications of microfabricated structures in photonics and biology
Integrated Photonics (4h)
First part (2 hours)
- A general view of Integrated Photonics (40 minutes); The total internal reflection phenomenon (15 min); 2D waveguides - The Slab (20 minutes); 3D waveguides (15 minutes); Coupled Mode Theory (15 minutes); Numerical modeling (15 minutes)
Second part (2 hours)
- Description of several practical devices (40 minutes); Design using a commercial software: a worked; example (30 minutes); Design using a commercial software: a monitored exercise (30 minutes); Suggested research projects (20 minutes)
X-Ray Lasers (5h)
Jorge J. Rocca
- Physics and implementation of table-top x-ray lasers and review of selected applications (2 hours): Introduction; Review of laser amplification in an atomic system; Gain saturation; Refraction losses in plasma-based x-ray lasers; Population inversion mechanisms; Discharge-pumped soft x-ray lasers: capillary discharge lasers; X-ray lasers in laser-created plasmas; Compact laser-pumped soft x-ray lasers; High repetition rate soft x-ray lasers: the state of the art.
- Applications of x-ray lasers (1 hour): Unique characteristics of soft x-ray and x-ray light; Nano-scale imaging and holography; Error-free nano-patterning and nano-machining; Single photon ionization mass spectrometry; Nano-scale molecular and atomic composition imaging; Dense plasma diagnostics
- Ultra-high Power Lasers and Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions (2 hours): • Chirped-pulse-amplification solid state lasers;• Example of a Petawatt class-laser; • Generation of relativistic intensities and ultra high contrast pulses;• Relativistic laser-matter interaction and ultra-high energy density plasmas;• Interaction of relativistic laser pulses with aligned nanostructures; • Efficient x-ray flash generation in aligned nanowire arrays;• Micro-scale fusion and neutron generation.
Quantum Optics (4h)
1) Quantization of the electromagnetic field. Representations of the density operator. Nonclassical states for a single mode of the field.
2) Tools for field manipulation. Generation of nonclassical states by nonlinear process in optics. Field detection: discrete and continuous variables domain.
3) Entanglement generation. Characterization of entanglement. Sudden death of entanglement.
4) Applications of quantum optics. Ultra-sensitive detection. Quantum key distribution. Teleportation. Quantum Information.
Recommended textbooks: Quantum Optics, Walls & Milburn, Springer; Quantum Optics, Scully &Zubairy, Cambridge Univ. Press.
Laser Materials Processing (4h)
- Surface Engineering: objectives and methods.
- Principles of laser/materials interactions relevant for laser surface treatment. Main laser surface engineering methods: laser surface texturing, laser hardening, laser melting and alloying, laser cladding. Laser materials processing parameters. Laser materials processing maps.
- Phase transformation undergone by materials under laser radiation for continuous wave and ultrafast lasers. Results of molecular dynamics simulation. Melt pool generation and dynamics: Marangoni convection and its role in laser surface treatment.
- Microstructure formation principles. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium solidification. Solidification microstructure in laser surface treated materials. Solute partition in rapid solidification. Dendritic and eutectic solidification. Columnar to equiaxed solidification transition. Examples: Laser-assisted single crystal growth methods and their applications in aerospace engineering.
- Principles of laser cladding. Laser cladding as a coating method. Laser-cladding as a rapid manufacturing method.
- Recent results obtained in the Laser-Assisted Synthesis and Processing Laboratory of IST on the surface treatment of materials: laser surface texturing with ultrafast lasers and its application in biomedical engineering and tribology. Laser ablation and cutting of biological hard tissues. Application of laser-cladding to the manufacturing and repair of single-crystal aerospace components.
Nanostructuring by Optical Vortex beams (4h)
- Structured light beams: optical vortices; vector beams; non-diffractive beams; Physical properties: orbital angular momentum,longitudinal electric field, and self-healing. Applications: optical manipulations, optical telecommunications, quantum informations, and high spatial resolution fluorescence microscopes.
- Applications in laser materials processing: Optical vortices with orbital angular momentum enable us to twist melted or softened materials so as to establish chiral structured materials on a nano-/micro-scale. Radially-polarized vector beams enable the optimal polarization formation in laser cutting applications, thereby improving the cutting efficiency and velocity. Furthermore, non-diffractive beams allow us to drill submillimeter-size through-holes.
- State-of-art of the structured light beams and their applications and laser technologies to produce structured light beams at high efficiency and high quality: • History of structured light beams; • Helmholtz equations vs Schrödinger equation; • Hermite-Gaussian beams vs Laguerre-Gaussian beams;• Structured light beams; • Optical radiation pressure; • Optical angular momentum; • Laser technologies for structured light beams; • Applications of structured light beams.
Ultrafast lasers (4h)
1. From freezing time to supernovas in the lab: an introduction to ultrashort laser pulses
2. Two loops to rule them all: stabilizing optical frequency combs
3. Frontiers in ultrafast lasers
4. Frontiers in optical frequency combs
Bose-Einstein Condensate: superfluids and superconductors (4h)
Lec. 1 - Introduction to the Bose-Einstein condensate: General definitions, main concepts of laser cooling, evaporative cooling and how are the condensates experimentally accomplished. Relation with superfluids and superconductors.
Lec. 2 - Thermodynamic of the BEC: Introduction of the global variable approach in contrast with the local density approximation; Determination of the main thermodynamics properties like heat capacity, compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient; The concept of criticality in BECs.
Lec. 3 - Superfluidity in BECs: Measuring the collective modes and determination of superfluidity. Vortices and generation of turbulence.
Lec. 4 -Disorder in the Quantum World: Quantum turbulence in superfluids: Characterization of the main features associated with turbulence in superfluids and its relation with the classical turbulence.
LIDAR development and Applications (4h)
Why is a lidar polarisation sensitive? How do we determine its sensitivity and calibrate it? What are the errors and which accuracy is needed? How to avoid large errors?
The following topics will be addressed: • Why do we measure the depolarisation of the atmosphere? • Depolarisation by atmospheric constitutents; • Elastic-, Rayleigh-, Cabannes-, and rotational and vibrational Raman scattering; • Fresnel equations; • Optical coatings; • Optics in lidar systems: interference filters and beam splitters, lenses, telescopes; • Optical setup of a lidar; • Incidence angles, field of view, lens aberrations, misalignments; • Range dependent effects; • Laser polarisation; • Müller-Stokes and Jones description of optical elements; • How to get and determine the polarisation relevant parameters of optics; • How to order optics; • Optical ray tracing and polarisation; • The combined polarisation effect of optical elements; • Aligned and rotated optical elements; • Calibration of the polarisation sensitivity of a lidar system; • The connection between linear and circular polarisation; • Polarising beam splitters, linear polarisers, waveplates, wavelength dependency.
- A Python 3.5 script to calculate the polarisation dependend errors of a lidar system: (https://bitbucket.org/iannis_b/atmospheric_lidar_ghk); Which are the optical parts/parameters with the largest impact on the error? How accurate do we have to know them? - The EARLINET polarisation calibration test. Installation: Python 3.5 (or later); Best to install ANACONDA, a package manager, (https://docs.anaconda.com/anaconda/faq#how-do- i-get- the- latest-anaconda- with-python- 3-5)
DPSSL Diode pumped solid state lasers (2h)
- coming soon