Program & Speakers
Random Lasers & Photonic Crystals (4h)
Conventional Laser (basics, inspirational; to rely slightly on other lectures on ordinary lasers)
- Closed systems; Lasers with Cavity; Distributed feedback lasers; photonic crystal lasers; Modes; Spectra
- Open systems; Lack of cavity; Mode interactions; Gain & feedback mixed; Gain & feedback Separated
Nonlinear Optics (5h)
Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics.
Nonlinear susceptibilities. Wave-equation description. Temporal and spatial nonlinear effects on the propagation of light. Space-time analogies. Self-phase modulation and temporal solitons. Transverse nonlinear optical phenomena: self-focusing, spatial modulation instability,spatial solitons and filamentation. “Light bullets”.
Techniques for characterization of nonlinear optical materials. Nonlinear optical properties of metal-dielectric nanocomposites and metamaterials. High-order nonlinearities. Bright and vortex solitons in highly nonlinear plasmonic media. Nonlinear effects in epsilon-near-zero materials. Beyond the perturbative description of Nonlinear Optics.
Integrated multimodal biophotonic platform applied to cell biology
Since the first industrial revolution the quality of life has increased in cycles of waves of scientific and technological revolutions, the last being the fifth, the revolution of the Information Age. Duration of these cycles around 60 years indicates that we are at the threshold of the sixth wave. There are many pointers pointing out that the next revolution will take place in the field of life sciences and synthetic biology. The five previous technological revolutions were led by the knowledge generated by physics and there is now a question about the role of physicists in the context of a biology-oriented revolution. Linear and nonlinear optics have revolutionized the area of microscopy and spectroscopy and will show how it is possible to construct a multimodal laser scanning platform that includes several techniques for characterization of cellular processes with measurements in parallel. The conventional optical resolution limit is of the order of 200-600 nm in the xy plane and 500 to 1000 nm in the optical axis. Among the techniques used in microscopy we can point out the CARS [Coherent AntiStokes Raman Scattering] and its derivations, which allow the acquisition of Raman images in real time, with video speed. In addition, optical microscopy has evolved in the last decade in the direction of super-resolution, reaching the threshold of 10 nm. This work generated 3 Nobel Prizes for physicists in chemistry in 2014. With this resolution it is possible to observe the trajectory of isolated single molecules. We will describe the multimodal platform that we have developed that includes the following modalities: Optical Tweezers for manipulations and measures of biomechanical properties, Raman micro-spectroscopy, Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging, FRET [Förster Resonant Energy Transfer], Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging FCS [Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy], CARS and Cascade CAS [Coherent AntiStokes Raman Scattering] and SHG / THG [Second / Third Harmonic Generation]. It is also integrated with AFM system to perform experiments in the tip-enhancement mode. The near-field system with femtosecond lasers opens the possibilities of generating harmonics in the vicinity of the tip in the region of UV (200-300 nm) for the realization of Tip-Enhancement Photochemistry and the production of special materials with dimensions below 10 nm . The two near-field and far-field super-resolution systems open the prospect of studying unique molecules and observing biochemical reactions in singulo (in a single molecule) in space and time.
Ultrafast Laser Applications (4h)
These lectures will provide an introduction to some fundamental aspects of ultrafast pulses and nonlinear optics phenomena, with emphasis to their technological applications. Many practical examples are included throughout the course, such as applications in optical storage, waveguides and biology. Specifically, this course will cover (1) basic principles on ultrashort pulses, (2) basic concepts on nonlinear optics, (3) a description of methods to investigate optical nonlinearities, (4) basic principles on laser microfabrication and microstructuring, and (5) various applications of the above techniques and methods.
Learning Outcomes: become familiar with the fundamentals of ultrashort pulses and nonlinear optics; learn about the use of nonlinear optics characterization techniques; learn about ultrashort laser micromachining methods; become familiar with several applications of microfabricated structures in photonics and biology
Photonics of 2D Materials
Christiano’s current work focuses on the linear and nonlinear optical characterization and application of 2D materials and on nanophotonics for the development of sensors and photonic devices. His main contributions include some of the first Raman and nonlinear optical studies of black phosphorus, as well as a number of demonstrations in the area of photonics such as a random laser in an optical fiber, a chirped pulse amplification system using a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber, and a supercontinuum source using a water-core photonic crystal fiber. He has, so far, published over 60 articles in peer-reviewed journals, presented over 120 papers in conferences, and filed 3 patents. Christiano holds a CNPq productivity grant (level 2), has an h-factor = 25 and over 1900 citations (according to Google Scholar) and was a New Focus/Bookham Student Award winner (Optical Society of America) in 2004.
Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere
1 - Interaction and propagation of radiation in the atmosphere
2 - Laser Systems as Remote Sensors
3 - Laser Sensor Equations
4 - Analysis and Interpretation of LIDAR Return Signals
5 - Atmospheric applications with LIDAR
superfluids and superconductors
Lec. 1 - Introduction to the Bose-Einstein condensate (~ 2h)
General definitions, main concepts of laser cooling, evaporative cooling and how are the condensates experimentally accomplished.
Lec. 2 -Dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates: A new frontier (~ 2h)
Discussion of the recent growing field of dipolar quantum gases, experimental challenges and novel phenomena.
Ultrafast pulse generation by the use of 2D materials in fiber lasers
Since it was isolated in 2014 , graphene has attracted interest in many areas of science and technology due to its superlative properties. From the point of view of the interaction of light with matter, and specifically the aspects of light absorption, the phenomenon involving the saturation of the absorption has been explored by several groups. However, graphene is not alone, it is in fact the best-known and most studied material in a class with hundreds of two-dimensional materials whose properties have been much explored recently.
We will present the main advances we have obtained in the use of this new class of two-dimensional materials (such as graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), exfoliated graphite, rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and etc…)[2-5] to obtain ultrashort pulses in cavity lasers in the geometry of fiber. In particular, we focused on fiber lasers with Erbium as the active element due to the fact that its emission at 1550 nm is centered on the conventional C-band in optical communications.
 K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, Science 306, 666 (2004).
 D. Steinberg, R.M. Gerosa, F. N. Pellicer, et al. Opt. Mat. Express. 8, 144 (2018)
 H. G. Rosa, D. Steinberg, J. D. Zapata, L. A. M. Saito, A. M. Cardenas, and E. A. Thoroh de Souza, J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 4118 (2015).
 J. D. Zapata, D. Steinberg, L. A. M. Saito, R. E. de Oliveira, A. M. Cárdenas, and E. A. de Souza, Sci. Rep. 6, 20644 (2016)
 E. J. Aiub, D. Steinberg, E. A. Thoroh de Souza, and L. A. M. Saito, Opt. Express 25, 10546 (2017).
Ernesto Jiménez-Villar currently works at University of Campinas. Ernesto does research in Condensed Matter Physics. Their current project is Anderson localization of light: an avenue for manufacturing advanced photonic devices.
26 years of Biophotonics and Lasers at IPEN: Shining light on diseases
Light-tissue interaction became the basis of many sciences. The development of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods in Dentistry and Medicine based on Photonics, have been performed at the Center for Lasers and Applications, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil in the last 26 years, in close cooperation with School of Dentistry and Faculty of Medicine of University of Sao Paulo, among other national and international collaborators.
The study of the spectroscopic properties of biological tissues can be used as a diagnostic tool for various diseases, as well as to determine their different stages. We have been studying normal, precancerous and tumor tissues, such as thyroid, lung, skin, as well as hard dental tissues by FTIR. Results of studies that have become clinical methods, such as the prevention of dental caries or the diagnosis of various stages of dental enamel lesion, will be presented. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to monitor carious lesions. The evaluation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images obtained during the caries or erosion development process, or after the ionizing irradiation of bones, provide information on the optical attenuation coefficient, which is related to the lesion stage. OCT proved to be effective in clinically discriminating vascular lesions from hemangioma. The application of ultra-short high intensity laser (femtosecond laser) to ablate hard tissue, resin, ceramics, or burned skin is underway.
Integrated Photonics (4h)
First part (2 hours)
- A general view of Integrated Photonics (40 minutes); The total internal reflection phenomenon (15 min); 2D waveguides - The Slab (20 minutes); 3D waveguides (15 minutes); Coupled Mode Theory (15 minutes); Numerical modeling (15 minutes)
Second part (2 hours)
- Description of several practical devices (40 minutes); Design using a commercial software: a worked; example (30 minutes); Design using a commercial software: a monitored exercise (30 minutes); Suggested research projects (20 minutes)
Lecture 1 Developing Lasers for non-linear microscopy in Life Sciences
This talk will look at how certain demands from users have led the development of specific types of lasers. A particular example used will be the advances made in ultra-short pulse lasers (around 100fs) for non-linear microscopy. The desire to use non-linear fluorescent excitation by life scientists placed a requirement on laser designers, both in academia and industry, to explore laser methods suitable for use by non-laser experts. Advances have taken the original methods of colliding pulse dye lasers through to automated Ti:Sapphire lasers and all solid state mode-locked sources. The lecture will look in detail at the methods of mode-locking and how these have advanced and been engineered into complete systems.
Lecture 2 Combining Novel Micro-optics, innovative image analysis and computer modelling to help understand the biology of blood vessels
This talk will focus on the development of a novel optical probe based on GRIN optics to image inside intact blood vessels. A specific focus will be on the use of the correct optical approach to obtain the data required in order to understand a challenging biological question. The compromises in the optical performance that have to be made in order not to damage the biological sample will be used to illustrate the constraints often involved in optical instrument design. The presentation will then look at how such data can be analysed and a simple physical model developed in order to help understand a very important biological question, how blood vessels sense pressure.
Optical Instrumentation Challenge
The requirement to test DNA rapidly is now a requirement within medicine. Frequently the clinician does not require a full listing of the DNA structure but just to determine if a particular DNA sequence is present. DNA sequences are normally determined using optically based methods using fluorescence detection. In this challenge the outlines of several techniques and novel technologies will be explained and then there will be an opportunity for the audience to work in groups over the next 24 hours and then suggest ways in which the technical challenge may be achieved.
- Short resumé:
Holds a BS in Physics from the Instituto de Física Usp (1973), a Master's degree in Astronomy from the University of São Paulo (1975), a Ph.D. in Astronomy from the Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences at USP (1979) and postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He is currently a full professor at the Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences at USP. He has experience in Astronomy, with emphasis on Star Astrophysics and Active Nuclei of Galaxies.
X-Ray and Ultra-high Power Lasers and Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions
Lasers (2 hours) This lecture will consist of an introduction to the physics and implementation of table-top x-ray lasers and a review of selected applications. • Introduction • Review of laser amplification in an atomic system • Gain saturation • Refraction losses in plasma-based x-ray lasers • Population inversion mechanisms • Discharge-pumped soft x-ray lasers: capillary discharge lasers • X-ray lasers in laser-created plasmas • Compact laser-pumped soft x-ray lasers • High repetition rate soft x-ray lasers: the state of the art.
Applications of x-ray lasers (1 hour) • Unique characteristics of soft x-ray and x-ray light • Nano-scale imaging and holography • Error-free nano-patterning and nano-machining • Single photon ionization mass spectrometry • Nano-scale molecular and atomic composition imaging • Dense plasma diagnostics.
Ultra-high Power Lasers and Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions (2 hours) This lecture will cover the principles of the generation of ultra-high intensity laser pulse, the technology of Petawatt-class lasers, and their interaction with matter. We Will review recent progress in the generation of ultra-high energy density matter resulting from the interaction of relativistic laser pulses with arrays of aligned nanostructures • Introduction of ultra-high power ultrashort pulse lasers • Chirped-pulse-amplification solid state lasers • Example of a Petawatt class-laser • Generation of relativistic intensities and ultra high contrast pulses • Relativistic laser-matter interaction and ultra-high energy density plasmas • Interaction of relativistic laser pulses with aligned nanostructures • Efficient x-ray flash generation in aligned nanowire arrays • Micro-scale fusion and neutron generation
1) Quantization of the electromagnetic field. Representations of the density operator. Nonclassical states for a single mode of the field.
2) Tools for field manipulation. Generation of nonclassical states by nonlinear process in optics. Field detection: discrete and continuous variables domain.
3) Entanglement generation. Characterization of entanglement. Sudden death of entanglement.
4) Applications of quantum optics. Ultra-sensitive detection. Quantum key distribution. Teleportation. Quantum Information.
Recommended textbooks: Quantum Optics, Walls & Milburn, Springer; Quantum Optics, Scully &Zubairy, Cambridge Univ. Press.
Quantum Slides here (... or maybe not, a measurement is needed to infer)
DPSSL Diode pumped solid state lasers (2h)
The first talk (16/7) will cover laser basics, together with gaussian optics.
The main talk will focus on laser architecture and laser resonators for DPSSLs. The first part of the lecture will be about different diode laser architectures and their characteristics. The second part will focus on scaling diode-pumped solid-state lasers to high powers whilst retaining some attractive features such as good beam quality and high laser efficiency.
The science of global change and Amazon
Prof. Paulo Artaxo holds a PhD in Physics from USP (1977), a Master's degree in Nuclear Physics from USP (1980) and a PhD in Atmospheric Physics from USP (1985). He has worked in NASA (United States), Universities of Antwerp (Belgium), Lund (Sweden) and Harvard (United States). He is currently a full professor of the Department of Applied Physics at the Physics Institute of USP. He works with applied physics to environmental problems, acting mainly on the issues of global climate change, Amazonian environment, atmospheric aerosol physics, urban air pollution and other issues. He is a full member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (ABC), the World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) and the Academy of Sciences of the State of São Paulo (ACIESP). He has published over 450 scientific papers and presented 1020 papers at international scientific conferences. He has over 17,000 citations from his ISI Web of Science work with index H of 73, and published 19 papers in the journals Science and Nature. It has more than 38,800 citations in Google Scholar, with a H-index in Google Scholar of 93. Coordinated two Institutes of the Millennium of the CNPq, is member of the IPCC and 7 other international scientific panels. He is coordinator of the FAPESP Global Climate Change Program and member of INCT Climate Change. He is representative of the scientific community in CONAMA (National Council of the Environment). In 2004 he received a vote of applause from the Brazilian Senate for the scientific work on the environment in the Amazon. In 2006 he was elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences. She is a member of the IPCC team which was awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. In 2007 she received the TWAS Earth Sciences Award and the Dorothy Stang Prize for Sciences and Humanities in 2007. In 2009 she was awarded the Doctorate in Philosophy Honoris Causa by the University of Stockholm, Sweden. In 2010 he received the Fissan-Pui-TSI award from International Aerosol Research Associations. Also received in 2010 the Order of National Scientific Merit, as commander. In 2016 he received the Almirante Álvaro Alberto Prize awarded by CNPq, Navy (Brazil), MCTI and Conrad Wessel Foundation. He is Emeritus Researcher at CNPq. In 2017 he received the Globo Make a Difference Award.
Synchrotron Infrared Nano-spectroscopy: a new imaging modality for accessing chemistry and optics of nanomaterials
In the last decade the demand for full optical characterisation of materials in the nanoscale has increased importantly. Despite the outstanding resolution power of electron-based microscopy and other super-resolution techniques, those tools are mainly dedicated to resolve the atomic structure and elemental identification of materials in the sub-micron to atomic scales. Scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) is a unique technique able to retrieve complex optical response of materials in the nanoscale. Recently, s-SNOM has been combined with broadband infrared radiation from synchrotrons in an experiment named nano-FTIR, which is dedicated to the molecular-vibrational analysis of materials beyond the Abbe diffraction limit. In this seminar, I will present the fundamentals of s-SNOM and nano-FTIR followed by a display of several recent scientific cases approached by those spectral-imaging modalities including new 2D materials, nanoscale bio-medicine and polar crystals for nano-photonic devices.
Exploring metallic nanoparticles in optical therapy and medical diagnosis
In this presentation the interaction of light with metallic nanoparticles (NPs) will be described, and the use of NPs in optical therapy and medical diagnosis will be reveled. On medical diagnosis, metallic NPs have been explored as sensing platforms for the identification of Dengue virus and fungus infection. Procedures for engineering a nanostructured sensor platform will be described. In medical therapies, metallic NPs have been exploited in Photodynamic Therapy and Photothermal Therapy. It will be demonstrated the use of metallic nanostructures enhancing the photoinactivation of microorganism.
Ultrafast Laser Principles
This talk will cover laser principles (foundations) and will give the students the basis of main laser technologies of pulsed and ultrafast lasers.
Operations regimes (pulsed and CW pump);
Mode locking and femtosecond lasers;
Chirped Pulse Amplification
Femtosecond and beyond.
Presentation link (16/7)
Laser Materials Processing (4h)
- Surface Engineering: objectives and methods.
- Principles of laser/materials interactions relevant for laser surface treatment. Main laser surface engineering methods: laser surface texturing, laser hardening, laser melting and alloying, laser cladding. Laser materials processing parameters. Laser materials processing maps.
- Phase transformation undergone by materials under laser radiation for continuous wave and ultrafast lasers. Results of molecular dynamics simulation. Melt pool generation and dynamics: Marangoni convection and its role in laser surface treatment.
- Microstructure formation principles. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium solidification. Solidification microstructure in laser surface treated materials. Solute partition in rapid solidification. Dendritic and eutectic solidification. Columnar to equiaxed solidification transition. Examples: Laser-assisted single crystal growth methods and their applications in aerospace engineering.
- Principles of laser cladding. Laser cladding as a coating method. Laser-cladding as a rapid manufacturing method.
- Recent results obtained in the Laser-Assisted Synthesis and Processing Laboratory of IST on the surface treatment of materials: laser surface texturing with ultrafast lasers and its application in biomedical engineering and tribology. Laser ablation and cutting of biological hard tissues. Application of laser-cladding to the manufacturing and repair of single-crystal aerospace components.
Nanostructuring by Optical Vortex beams (4h)
- Structured light beams: optical vortices; vector beams; non-diffractive beams; Physical properties: orbital angular momentum,longitudinal electric field, and self-healing. Applications: optical manipulations, optical telecommunications, quantum informations, and high spatial resolution fluorescence microscopes.
- Applications in laser materials processing: Optical vortices with orbital angular momentum enable us to twist melted or softened materials so as to establish chiral structured materials on a nano-/micro-scale. Radially-polarized vector beams enable the optimal polarization formation in laser cutting applications, thereby improving the cutting efficiency and velocity. Furthermore, non-diffractive beams allow us to drill submillimeter-size through-holes.
- State-of-art of the structured light beams and their applications and laser technologies to produce structured light beams at high efficiency and high quality: • History of structured light beams; • Helmholtz equations vs Schrödinger equation; • Hermite-Gaussian beams vs Laguerre-Gaussian beams;• Structured light beams; • Optical radiation pressure; • Optical angular momentum; • Laser technologies for structured light beams; • Applications of structured light beams.
Ultrafast lasers (4h)
Opto and mechanical microcavities
In this talk we will go through
In optical microcavities and waveguides the tight confinement provided by physical structure can be used to tune or enhances the dynamical coupling between photon, electrons and phonons. Such enhancement enables a range of novel functionalities within photonic structures such as changing the color of light, generating radio-frequency signals, suppressing stimulated light scattering and manipulating mesoscopic phonon modes. In any of these cases a fine control over the design and fabrication of the microstructure, that shapes the optical and acoustic phonon spectra as well as their interaction, are required. In this talk, I will explain the principles of the cavity optomechanics, including the mathematical description, fabrication, testing and, recent results using these devices.
LIDAR development and Applications (4h)
Why is a lidar polarisation sensitive? How do we determine its sensitivity and calibrate it? What are the errors and which accuracy is needed? How to avoid large errors?
The following topics will be addressed: • Why do we measure the depolarisation of the atmosphere? • Depolarisation by atmospheric constitutents; • Elastic-, Rayleigh-, Cabannes-, and rotational and vibrational Raman scattering; • Fresnel equations; • Optical coatings; • Optics in lidar systems: interference filters and beam splitters, lenses, telescopes; • Optical setup of a lidar; • Incidence angles, field of view, lens aberrations, misalignments; • Range dependent effects; • Laser polarisation; • Müller-Stokes and Jones description of optical elements; • How to get and determine the polarisation relevant parameters of optics; • How to order optics; • Optical ray tracing and polarisation; • The combined polarisation effect of optical elements; • Aligned and rotated optical elements; • Calibration of the polarisation sensitivity of a lidar system; • The connection between linear and circular polarisation; • Polarising beam splitters, linear polarisers, waveplates, wavelength dependency.
- A Python 3.5 script to calculate the polarisation dependend errors of a lidar system: (https://bitbucket.org/iannis_b/atmospheric_lidar_ghk); Which are the optical parts/parameters with the largest impact on the error? How accurate do we have to know them? - The EARLINET polarisation calibration test. Installation: Python 3.5 (or later); Best to install ANACONDA, a package manager, (https://docs.anaconda.com/anaconda/faq#how-do- i-get- the- latest-anaconda- with-python- 3-5)
Laser processing: overview of applications and some case studies
The presentation will cover the basic principles of the interaction of a laser beam with surfaces. It will show how the various process parameters can modify the physical state of the affected region, and how this can be used in different practical applications. Several case studies conducted at CLA-IPEN will be presented.