Small, R., Chauncey, S., McKenna, P. , . . . (2010). Motivation at a Glance: An ISchool Collaborative. Retrieved from http://sites.google.com/site/motivationataglanceischool/... (... is link to the theory)
The goal of Motivation at a Glance is to document theories of motivation, particularly those theories which address learning, education, and information processing, in an effort to identify common threads and concepts which together provide a robust picture and insight into the factors which arouse our desires and influence our behaviors.
Edward L. Deci addresses these factors in his book, Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Motivation (1995). Daniel Pink tackles the question in, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (2009). The insights shared by Mr. Pink are based on the work of Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory.
An effort to find common threads among theories of motivation, is addressed by Piers Steel, in Integrating Theories of Motivation (2006), "...our understanding of behavior has been hindered by the very extent of our efforts. There is a superabundance of motivational theories. Not only does each field have its particular interpretation, but there are ample subdivisions within each discipline." (2006: 789) Steel offers a case for integration of theories and suggests that, "A common theme across the disparate disciplines of decision making and motivation is the desire for more comprehensive and integrated theories." (2006: 890)
Our effort to identify theories, share background knowledge, and compile key references for each theory has proven to be a monumental task. Clearly, documenting each theory is insufficient if we wish to make relationships amongst theories explicit. To achieve this goal, we are creating mind-maps. Current maps will certainly undergo significant revisions as we address each theory. We share our under-construction, in-process maps here for your review:
MIND MAPS - IN-PROCESS
Dan Pink - How Dan Pink Learned the Six Lessons
Rosemary Luckin in Re-designing Learning Contexts (2010), notes that: "The term 'motivation' is subject to a variety of definitions and approaches, Bergin et al, (1993), for example , define the term 'motivation' as: 'The physiological process involved in the direction, vigor, and persistence of behavior'. Ryan and Deci (2000) define motivation as 'reason for action' and suggest two aspects of motivation: one is quantitative and underpins the way we talk about the strength of a learner’s motivation; the other is qualitative, and describes the orientation of the process." In addition, theories approach motivation from different viewpoints. "There are theories that draw the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000), theories that are concerned with sociocognitive constructs, such as expectancy-value theory (Wigfield & Eccles, 2000) and self-efficacy (Zimmerman, 2000), and there are achievement goal theories that identify the influence of person's learning goals on the way that they manage their learning interactions." (Ames, 1992; Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Meece, 1991).
This project began as an independent study with Dr. Ruth Small, School of Information Studies, Syracuse University: Develop a bibliography of theories of motivation along with citable notes for selected articles. For each theory, 8-10+ resources in the field of education and information studies were identified. A culminating project will be a synthesis or summary of what was learned and how it might apply to my research and dissertation. Mind maps (Ability & Achievement and Task Value) for different aspects of the theories are in process. During the course of the study we enlisted the help of ExecDoc student Pat McKenna who concentrated her efforts on several theories including interest and curiosity. One of Dr. Ruth's students, Kristen Link, MSLIS, contributed her work for the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Theory of Motivation. Dr. Ruth will invite her IST 617 graduate students to contribute to the site as part of their course work. Per Dr. Ruth's suggestion, we are building a data collection which will be used to interview theory experts. My own work on the site will continue beyond the completion of this independent study as part of my research focus. 88 theories have been identified.
Alexander, P, & Zimmerman, B. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 82.
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of educational psychology, 84(3), 261.
Bergin, D A, Ford, M E, & Hess, R D. (1993). Patterns of motivation and social behavior associated with microcomputer use of young children. Journal of educational psychology, 85(3), 437.
Deci, Edward L. (1995). Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Motivation . NY: Penguin Books.
Dweck, C S, & Leggett, E L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological review, 95(2), 256.
Luckin, Rosemary. (2010). Re-designing learning contexts: Technology Rich, Learner-Centred Ecologies. NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Meece, J. L. (1991). The classroom context and students' motivational goals. In Maehr, M. L. & Pintrich, P. (eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement: Volume 7 (pp. 261-85). Greenwich, CT, JAI.
Pink, Daniel. (2009). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. NY: Riverhead Books.
Ryan, R M, & Deci, E L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, , 54-67.
Steel, P, & Konig, C J. (2006). Integrating theories of motivation. The Academy of Management Review, 31(4), 889.
Wigfield, A, & Eccles, J S. (2000). Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, , 68-81.
Professor Ruth Small, PhD.
Dr. Sarah A. Chauncey, DPS-IM
Dr. Patricia McKenna, DPS-IM
School of Library and Information Science, Simmons College
IN THE NEWS