List of Publications by Samuli Kaislaniemi

In preparation

Kaislaniemi, Samuli. The Early Letters of Richard Cocks.

Kaislaniemi, Samuli. “Learning letterlocking: William Cecil's letters to his father, c. 1600–1608.

    - Cf. my blog post on the topic of this study: Letterlocking: How did you fold a letter in the early modern period and what did it mean? (11.3.2016)

Kaislaniemi, Samuli. “Mercantile scribal conventions: Script-switching in early English East India Company correspondence.

Winterbottom, Anna & Samuli Kaislaniemi.  ‘Perverted through ambition’: The East India Company and early English scholarship on Malay.



Kaislaniemi, Samuli. “The Corpus of Early English Correspondence Extension (CEECE)”. In Patterns of Change in Eighteenth-century English: A Sociolinguistic Approach, ed. by Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin & Tanja Säily [Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics 8]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 45–59. Open Access!

Sairio, Anni, Samuli Kaislaniemi, Anna Merikallio & Terttu Nevalainen. 2018. “Charting orthographical reliability in a corpus of English historical lettersICAME Journal 42: 79–96. DOI:

Kaislaniemi, Samuli. 2017. “The linguistic world of the early English East India CompanyJournal for Early Modern Cultural Studies 17 (3), special issue: The East India Company, ed. by Julia Schleck & Amrita Sen. pp. 59–82. Abstract (html).


Kaislaniemi, Samuli, Mel Evans, Teo Juvonen & Anni Sairio. 2017. “ A graphic system which leads its own linguistic life? Epistolary spelling in English, 1400–1800”. In Exploring Future Paths for Historical Sociolinguistics, ed. by Tanja Säily, Arja Nurmi, Minna Palander-Collin & Anita Auer [Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics 7]Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 187–213. Abstract (html).

Kaislaniemi, Samuli. 2017. Reconstructing Merchant Multilingualism: Lexical Studies of Early English East India Company Correspondence. PhD thesis, University of Helsinki. Available free online (pdf in the University of Helsinki E-thesis repository).

Kaislaniemi, Samuli. 2017. Code-switching, script-switching and typeface-switching in Early Modern English manuscript letters and printed tracts. In Verbal and Visual Communication in Early English Texts, ed. by Matti Peikola, Aleksi Mäkilähde, Hanna Salmi, Mari-Liisa Varila & Janne Skaffari [Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy  37]. Turnhout: Brepols. pp. 165–200. Abstract (html).

Kaislaniemi, Samuli. 2017. The early English East India Company as a community of practice: Evidence of multilingualism. In Merchants of Innovation: The Language of Traders, ed. by Esther-Miriam Wagner, Bettina Beinhoff & Ben Outhwaite [Studies in Language Change 15]. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 132–157. Abstract (html).


Hall, Alaric & Samuli Kaislaniemi. 2013. “ ‘You tempt me grievously to a mythological essay’: J. R. R. Tolkien’s correspondence with Arthur Ransome. In Ex Philologia Lux: Essays in Honour of Leena Kahlas-Tarkka ed. by Jukka Tyrkkö, Olga Timofeeva & Maria Salenius. [Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique XC]. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique. pp. 261-280. Abstract (html)Paper free online (pdf from White Rose Repository).


Kaislaniemi, Samuli. 2011. Early East India Company merchants and a rare word for sex”. In Words in Dictionaries and History. Essays in honour of R.W. McConchie ed. by Olga Timofeeva & Tanja Säily [Terminology and Lexicography Research and Practice 14]. Amsterdam: Benjamins. pp. 169-192. ISBN 978 902722338 8. Abstract (html). Abstract (Benjamins site). Pre-print version (pdf).

Helsinki Corpus TEI XML Edition. 2011. First edition (v. 0.96). Designed by Alpo Honkapohja, Samuli Kaislaniemi, Henri Kauhanen, Matti Kilpiö, Ville Marttila, Terttu Nevalainen, Arja Nurmi, Matti Rissanen & Jukka Tyrkkö. Implemented by Henri Kauhanen & Ville Marttila. Based on The Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (1991). Helsinki: The Research Unit for Variation, Contacts and Change in English (VARIENG), University of Helsinki. (More information here).


Kaislaniemi, Samuli. 2009. Encountering and appropriating the Other: East India Company merchants and foreign terminology. In The Language of Daily Life in England 1450–1800 ed. by Arja Nurmi, Minna Nevala & Minna Palander-Collin [Pragmatics and Beyond New Series 183]. Amsterdam: Benjamins. pp. 219-251. ISBN: 978 902725428 3. Abstract (html). Pre-print version (pdf).

Kaislaniemi, Samuli. 2009. Jurebassos and Linguists: The East India Company and Early Modern English words for interpreter . In Selected Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on New Approaches in English Historical Lexis (HEL-LEX 2) ed. by R. W. McConchie, Alpo Honkapohja & Jukka Tyrkkö. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla. pp. 60-73. ISBN 978-1-57473-430-0. Abstract (html). Paper free online (pdf).

    - An addendum to this article: on the history of the word linguist in the sense 'interpreter' (11.9.2015)

Honkapohja, Alpo, Samuli Kaislaniemi & Ville Marttila. 2009. Digital Editions for Corpus Linguistics: Representing manuscript reality in electronic corpora. In Corpora: Pragmatics and Discourse. Papers from the 29th International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora (ICAME 29). Ascona, Switzerland, 14-18 May 2008 ed. by Andreas H. Jucker, Daniel Schreier & Marianne Hundt. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi. pp. 451–475. Abstract (html)Pre-print version (pdf).


Hinneburg, Alexander, Heikki Mannila, Samuli Kaislaniemi, Terttu Nevalainen & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg. 2007. How to handle small samples: Bootstrap and Bayesian methods in the analysis of linguistic change. Literary and Linguistic Computing 22 (2): 137–150. Abstract (LLC website).

See also joint publications by the Digital Editions for Corpus Linguistics (DECL) project on the project's website.

I also write about my research interests on my blog.

Email me at samuli @ for a pre-print or copy of any of these.