“Expectations [for students] are rooted in our beliefs about...the nature of teaching, learning, thinking, schools…”

  1. I make a conscious effort to communicate to students that my classroom is a place in which thinking is valued.
  2. I establish a set of expectations for learning and thinking with my students in a similar way that I establish behavioral expectations.
  3. I stress that thinking and learning, as opposed to “completion of work,” are the outcomes of our class activity.
  4. “Developing understanding,” as opposed to knowledge acquisition only, is the outcomes of our classroom activity and lessons.
  5. Student independence is being actively cultivated so that students are not dependent on me to answer all questions and direct all activity..



The six key principals driving the Cultures of Thinking Project completed through Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education