AGORA High-resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project

Welcome to the AGORA Project (Assembling Galaxies Of Resolved Anatomy)! We investigate galaxy formation with high-resolution simulations and compare the results across code platforms and with observations. This is an one-of-a-kind, inter-institutional effort by more than 160 participants from over 60 institutions worldwide (as of 2024) to collectively raise the predictive power of numerical galaxy formation simulations. We welcome anybody who is interested in participating in the Project. Click the image on the right to see an 1-slide introduction to the Project. 

This research uses resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a DOE Office of Science User Facility. We also thank the support from the University of California High-Performance AstroComputing Center and the National Science Foundation. 


The first regional AGORA mini-workshop was held at Seoul Natl. U., Korea, May 7-10, 2024.  To learn more, visit the workshop website.  

[New!]  The AGORA Paper VI ("CGM") was accepted to ApJ in 2024:  [ADS] [arXiv] [local] [intro] 

[New!]  The AGORA Paper V ("Satellites") was accepted to ApJ in 2024:  [ADS] [arXiv] [local] [intro] 

[New!]  The AGORA Paper IV ("CosmoRun-2") was accepted to ApJ in 2024:  [ADS] [arXiv] [local] [intro] [press release(ES)]  [press release(SE)] [press release(MX)] 

● The simulation snapshots introduced in AGORA Papers II and III are now on FlatHUB.  To learn more, click the Tools+Data tab.   

● The AGORA Paper III ("CosmoRun") was published in ApJ in 2021:  [ADS] [arXiv] [local] [intro] [talk] [talk(ES)] [press release(ES)] 

● The AGORA Paper II ("Disk") was published in ApJ in 2016:  [ADS] [arXiv] [local]

● The 1st paper of the Project ("Flagship paper") was published in ApJS in 2014:  [ADS] [arXiv] [local] [press release(EN)] 


● AGORA Project goals and rationale.   For details, see the Project's Flagship paper (ADS, arXiv, press release).  [Read more]   

    In the AGORA Project  (Assembling Galaxies Of Resolved Anatomy; formerly known as Santa Cruz High-resolution Galaxy Simulation Comparison Project), we aim to:

    Early history and rationale: 


● We have formed 4 task-oriented working groups and 9 science-oriented working groups, along with a Project Steering Committee.  We have also formed several "paper groups" with multiple working groups engaged to report our research in articles.  [Read more]   

    Task-oriented Working Groups (I-IV): click the Groups tab to learn more

   Science-oriented Working Groups (V-XIII): click the Groups tab to learn more

    Examples of Paper Groups: click the Groups tab to learn more

+   many more

    AGORA Steering Committee

 Ji-hoon Kim (Seoul National University,  Project Coordinator)


● The cohort of numerical codes that have shown interest in participating in the Project include (but are not limited in future studies to) the following.  Each participating code is represented by point persons who volunteered to be liaisons for isolated and/or cosmological simulations.  Participating codes that are in the actual comparison may differ in each paper.  [Read more]   

    AREPO: Anna Genina, Volker Springel 

    ART-I (NMSU): Daniel Ceverino, Anatoly Klypin, Santi Roca-Fabrega, Sebastian Trujillo-Gomez

    ART-II (Chicago): Robert Feldmann, Nick Gnedin, Sam Leitner

    CHANGA: Johnny Powell, Tom Quinn, Hector Velazquez, Spencer Wallace

    ENZO: Mike Butler, John Forbes, Ji-hoon Kim, Christine Simpson, John Wise

    GADGET-2/3/4: Junhwan Choi, Ken Nagamine, Jose Onorbe, Miguel Rocha, Ikkoh Shimizu, Keita Todoroki

    GADGET-SPHS: Alexander Hobbs, Justin Read

    GASOLINE: Ben Keller, Sijing Shen, James Wadsley

    GCD+: Daisuke Kawata

    GEAR: Loic Hausammann, Yves Revaz

    GIZMO/P-SPH: Philip Hopkins, Alessandro Lupi

    NYX: Wolfram Schmidt (isolated runs only)

    PKDGRAV-2: Javiera Guedes, Mike Kuhlen (cosmological runs only)

    RAMSES: Oscar Agertz, Oliver Hahn, Santi Roca-Fabrega, Romain Teyssier

    SWIFT: Yves Revaz


● Want to join the AGORA Collaboration?   Want to use the AGORA ICs, simulation datasets, and more?  [Read more]   

    If you are looking for the AGORA common initial conditions (ICs), examples of common analysis yt scripts used in the Project, or the isolated/cosmological galaxy simulation snapshots produced by AGORA, click the Tools+Data tab above.  

    Consider joining the Collaboration with no obligation, especially if you want to learn more about the AGORA common ICs and analysis scripts used in the Project.  Simply send an email to the Project coordinatorContact us if you have any other question, too!