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Logic & Philosophy of Language

TEXTBOOKS
Sanguineti, Juan Jose. Logic. Manila: Sinagtala, 1992. (Parts I to III)
Bittle, Celestine OMCap. The Science of Correct Thinking. New York: Bruce Publishing, 1935.
Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic, Macmillan, New York, 1986.

COURSE OUTLINE


I. INTRODUCTION
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS)
V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE

I. INTRODUCTION

1. The Nature of Logic [Notes 1-1]

  1. Spontaneous and Scientific Logic
    What's spontaneous logic, what's scientific logic, and how are the two related to each other?
  2. Logic as Art and Logic as Science
    What is Art? What is Science? Is Logic both Art and Science? Explain.
  3. Descriptive and Normative Value of Logic
    Logic? What For?
  4. Object, Method and Division of Logic
    What does Logic study? How does it study its object? Are there different kinds of logic?

2. Logic and other Philosophical Disciplines [Notes 1-2]

  1. Logic, Metaphysics, Gnoseology and Psychology
    How are these branches of Philosophy related?
  2. Logic, Mathematics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence
    Does Logic have anything to do with Mathematics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence?
  3. Logic, Linguistics, Semiotics, Philosophy of Language and Philosophy of Science
    How does Logic relate to all these other fields?

3. Historical Background [Notes 1-3]

  1. Classical Logic: Aristotle and the School of Megara (Stoic Philosophers)
    Dude, can you tell me how it all began?
  2. Medieval Scholastic logic
    What happened to Logic in the Middle Ages?
  3. Symbolic Logic (also called Mathematical Logic)
    How did symbolic logic come about?
  4. The Development of Logic in the Twentieth Century
    Tell me the story of logic in recent years.
  5. The Usefulness and Limitations of Symbolic Logic
    What's the use of symbolic logic? Its limitations?

I. INTRODUCTION
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS)
V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE
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II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (or LOGIC OF TERMS) [Read A Mini-course in Logic (Dolhenty)]

1. Terms and Concepts [Notes 2-1]

  1. Notion and Classification of Signs
    What is a sign? Are there many kinds of signs? What are these kinds of signs?
  2. Concrete and Abstract Terms
    What are "terms"? What are concrete terms? What are abstract terms?
  3. Extension and Comprehension of Terms
    Extension? What's that? Comprehension? I don't understand. Can you explain these?
  4. Concepts: Notion and Types
    What is a concept? Is it the same as a term? Are there many kinds of concepts?
  5. The Universal Character of Concepts
    What does "universal" mean?
  6. Abstraction: Notion and Kinds of Abstraction
    Does abstraction mean making something vague? If not, what does it mean? What types of abstraction are there?

2. Properties of Concepts [Notes 2-2]

  1. Meaning (or Sense) and Reference
    Are the terms "meaning" and "reference" synonyms? If not, what's the difference?
  2. Univocal, Equivocal and Analogical Terms
    When is a term univocal? When is it equivocal? When is a term analogical?
  3. Analogy: Notion
    What's analogy? Does it mean comparison?
    1. Analogy of Proportionality
      When does analogy fall under this sort? Why is it called "analogy of proportionality"?
    2. Analogy of Attribution
      How about this one? What is it? Why is it called "analogy of attribution"?
  4. The Importance of Analogy in the Sciences, in Philosophy and in Theology
    So analogy is not some theoretical thing after all! It's got some applications? How is it used in the sciences? How is it used in Philosophy? How about in Theology, is it also useful?

3. The Predicables [Notes 2-3] [Read also The Universal and the Predicables]

  1. Logical Predication
    What do we mean by logical predication?
  2. Predicables and the Predicaments
    What are predicables? Are predicaments problems? Can you explain what these are?
  3. Genus, Difference, Species, Property and Accident
    We seem to be doing Biology here. What do these things have to do with Logic?
  4. Definition
    Define "definition".
  5. The Division and Opposition of Terms
    What does "division of terms" mean? How about "opposition of terms"?

4. Some Philosophical Considerations [See Notes 2-1]

  1. The meaning of Universals: Nominalism, Conceptualism and Realism
    What's the so-called "problem of the universals"? Why was it a problem? What's the difficulty about universals?
  2. Its Repercussion in Different Logical Schools of Thought
    What happens when you subscribe to Nominalism? How about Conceptualism? And Realism?

I. INTRODUCTION
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS)
V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE
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III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) [Read again A Mini-course in Logic (Dolhenty)] [And read also The Kinds of Statements and Relations of Opposition Between Them]

1. Proposition and Judgment

  1. Nature and Structure of the Proposition
    What is a judgment? What is a proposition? What's the difference? Can you show the parallelism with concepts and terms?
    1. Subject
      What is the subject? I know this is obvious, but it's good to have a clear idea of what the subject is. BTW, do you know the Latin root of this word?
    2. Predicate
      And the predicate? How about the Latin root of this one?
  2. The Different Meanings of the Verb "to be"
    Clinton, when interrogated, once said, "It depends on what you mean by 'is'." Whoa! So he was right to say that, then? Does the verb "to be" really have different meanings?
  3. Truth in Judgment
    What is truth? (Ooops, does that sound like Pilate?) Why do we say that truth is to be found in judgment?

2. Kinds of Proposition

  1. Enunciation and Affirmation
    What is an enunciation? An affirmation?
  2. Categorical Propositions
    What are categorical propositions?
  3. Modal Propositions
    How about modal propositions? How do these differ from categorical propositions? Can you give some examples?
  4. The Opposition of Propositions
    What is the opposition of propositions? Who invented (or rather, discovered) this? Can you explain what it means?

3. Compound Propositions

  1. Structure
    What is the structure of compound propositions?
  2. Truth
    What is truth? (Ooops, there goes that question again.)
  3. Classification
    What are the kinds of compound propositions?

I. INTRODUCTION
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS)
V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE
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IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS) [Read again A Mini-course in Logic (Dolhenty)] [Download attachment below Logic_jmom.zip -- Exercises in Logic: Inference and Reasoning]

1. The Nature of Reasoning

  1. Plurality in the Reasoning Process
    Plurality? Can you clarify what this means here?
  2. Deduction and Induction
    What is deduction? What is induction? What is the difference between the two?
  3. The Structure of Argumentation
    Explain the structure of argumentation.
  4. Laws and Types of Arguments
    What are the types of arguments?

2. The Syllogism

  1. Simple Syllogism:
    1. Nature
      What is a simple syllogism?
    2. Structure
      How does it look like?
    3. Laws
      Name and explain the laws governing simple syllogism.
  2. Classical and Medieval Laws of syllogism
    Any more laws developed after Aristotle?
  3. Modal Syllogism
    What is modal syllogism? Why is it called "modal"?
  4. Compound Syllogism
    What is a compound syllogism? How does it look like?

3. Other Forms of Reasoning

  1. Inductive (generalizations) and Analogical Arguments
    What are inductive arguments? Analogical arguments?
  2. Dialectical Reasoning and its Importance [Read Dialectic]
    What does "dialectics" mean? What is its importance?
  3. Sophisms or Fallacies [Read Sophistic Reasoning]:
    1. Nature
      What are sophisms? Are they the same as fallacies?
    2. Types
      What are the kinds of sophisms and fallacies?
    3. Practical Examples
      Can you illustrate this using some examples?

I. INTRODUCTION
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS)
V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE
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V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC [See Introduction to Logic (Stefan Waner and Steven R. Costenoble) for online interactive exercises]

1. Logic of Propositions

  1. Towards Symbolic Logic
    What brought about symbolic logic?
  2. Elements of the Logic of the Proposition: Variables and Propositional Functions
    Describe the elements of the logic of the proposition.
  3. Truth tables
    What are truth tables? How useful are they?
  4. Methods of Natural Inference
    What are these methods of natural inference?

2. Mathematical Logic

  1. First degree
    What is mathematical logic? First degree?
  2. Subsequent degrees
    Subsequent degrees?
  3. Logic of Relations and Logic of Identity
    What is Logic of Relations? How about Logic of Identity?
  4. Logic of Classes
    What do we mean by the Logic of Classes?
  5. Fuzzy Logic
    Is fuzzy logic vague and abstruse?
  6. Modal Logic
    What is modal logic? Why is it called "modal"?

3. Metalogic

  1. Axiomatic Systems and Metalogical Problems
    Beyond logic?
  2. Metalogical properties of Formal Systems
    What are these properties?
  3. Godel's Theorem
    State Godel's Theorem.

4. Artificial Intelligence: Quantifiability of Human Reasoning and its limitations


I. INTRODUCTION
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS)
V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE
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VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE [See Notes 6-0 (author unknown)] [See also Analytic Philosophy (International Catholic University)]

1. Historical Background [Notes 6-1]

  1. Theory of meaning in Plato and Aristotle
    What did Plato say about meaning? Aristotle?
  2. The word in St. Augustine
    What was St Augustine's doctrine on this?
  3. The Metaphysical Content of Language in St Thomas
    And what did St Thomas say about language?
  4. The Great Themes of Medieval Philosophy of Language:
    1. modus significandi
      What in the world is this?
    2. suppositio
      Can you explain what this is?
  5. Cartesian Linguistics
    What was Descartes position on language?
  6. The Philosophical Linguistics of Humboldt
    Can you give a brief sketch of Humboldt's position?

2. Contemporary Philosophy of Language [Notes 6-2]

  1. The Linguistic Turn of Philosophy
    What does the "linguistic turn" consist in?
  2. Analytic Philosophy: Wittgenstein
    What was Wittgenstein's contribution to analytic philosophy?
  3. Linguistics and Structuralism: Saussure
    What is structuralism?
  4. Semiotics: Peirce
    And what is semiotics?
  5. Hermeneutics: Gadamer
    Hermeneutics? (Can you pronounce that properly?)
  6. Deconstructionism
    Why deconstructionism?

3. The Nature of Language

  1. Levels of study: Linguistic Sciences, Anthropology and Philosophy
    In what ways do these fields study language?
  2. The Linguistic Sign and its dimensions:
    1. Syntactics
      What aspect of language does syntactics study?
    2. Semantics
      What aspect of language does semantics study?
    3. Pragmatics
      What aspect of language does pragmatics study?
  3. The Origin and Development of Language
    Where does language come from?
  4. Characteristics of Language.
    1. descriptive
      What do we mean when we say that language is descriptive?
    2. rational
      What do we mean when we say that language is rational?
    3. communicative
      What do we mean when we say that language is communicative?
    4. expressive
      What do we mean when we say that language is expressive?

4. Semantics

  1. The Problem of Meaning: meaning and reference
    What's the problem?
  2. Language and Truth
    How are language and truth related?
  3. Synonyms
    What about synonyms?
  4. The Problem of Translation: subjective and realist positions
    Discuss briefly the problem of translation.
  5. Its Application to Biblical and Catechetical matters
    Ah, so it has biblical and catechetical repercussions, eh? What about these repercussions?
  6. The Possibility of Talking about God
    State the problem and the solution.
  7. The Ineffability and Limits of Language
    Can you delineate these two aspects of language: inexpressibility (ineffability) and limits?

5. Pragmatic aspect

  1. Meaning and the Use of Language
    Why the distinction between meaning and use?
  2. Speech acts:
    1. locution (phraseology)
      What is locution?
    2. ilocution
      What is ilocution?
    3. perlocution
      What is perlocution?
  3. Language and Communication
    Discuss the use of language for communication.
  4. The Act of Saying the Truth and its Pragmatic Contexts
    What is the truth (again!)?
  5. Falsehood and Linguistic Manipulation
    True or false? How does one know?
  6. Applications: Liturgical and Biblical Language
    What are the applications to liturgical and biblical language?

6. Argumentation

  1. Aristotelian Rhetoric
    Describe Aristotelian rhetoric.
  2. The "New Rhetoric"
    Just what is the "New Rhetoric"?
  3. Argumentation and Demonstration
    Can you tell me once more what these are?
  4. The Poetic Value of Language
    Okay, this is a bonus. Tell me about it.

I. INTRODUCTION
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS)
V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE
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This version: 11-Jul-2007