Sanguineti, Juan Jose. Logic. Manila: Sinagtala, 1992. (Parts I to III)
Bittle, Celestine OMCap. The Science of Correct Thinking. New York: Bruce Publishing, 1935.
Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic, Macmillan, New York, 1986.
## COURSE OUTLINEII. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS) V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE ## I. INTRODUCTION## 1. The Nature of Logic [Notes 1-1]- Spontaneous and Scientific Logic
What's spontaneous logic, what's scientific logic, and how are the two related to each other? - Logic as Art and Logic as Science
What is Art? What is Science? Is Logic both Art and Science? Explain. - Descriptive and Normative Value of Logic
Logic? What For? - Object, Method and Division of Logic
What does Logic study? How does it study its object? Are there different kinds of logic?
## 2. Logic and other Philosophical Disciplines [Notes 1-2]- Logic, Metaphysics, Gnoseology and Psychology
How are these branches of Philosophy related? - Logic, Mathematics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence
Does Logic have anything to do with Mathematics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence? - Logic, Linguistics, Semiotics, Philosophy of Language and
Philosophy of Science
How does Logic relate to all these other fields?
## 3. Historical Background [Notes 1-3]- Classical Logic: Aristotle and the School of Megara (Stoic Philosophers)
Dude, can you tell me how it all began? - Medieval Scholastic logic
What happened to Logic in the Middle Ages? - Symbolic Logic (also called Mathematical Logic)
How did symbolic logic come about? - The Development of Logic in the Twentieth Century
Tell me the story of logic in recent years. - The Usefulness and Limitations of Symbolic Logic
What's the use of symbolic logic? Its limitations?
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS) V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE BACK TO TOP ## II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (or LOGIC OF TERMS) [Read A Mini-course in Logic (Dolhenty)]## 1. Terms and Concepts [Notes 2-1]- Notion and Classification of Signs
What is a sign? Are there many kinds of signs? What are these kinds of signs? - Concrete and Abstract Terms
What are "terms"? What are concrete terms? What are abstract terms? - Extension and Comprehension of Terms
Extension? What's that? Comprehension? I don't understand. Can you explain these? - Concepts: Notion and Types
What is a concept? Is it the same as a term? Are there many kinds of concepts? - The Universal Character of Concepts
What does "universal" mean? - Abstraction: Notion and Kinds of Abstraction
Does abstraction mean making something vague? If not, what does it mean? What types of abstraction are there?
## 2. Properties of Concepts [Notes 2-2]- Meaning (or Sense) and Reference
Are the terms "meaning" and "reference" synonyms? If not, what's the difference? - Univocal, Equivocal and Analogical Terms
When is a term univocal? When is it equivocal? When is a term analogical? - Analogy: Notion
What's analogy? Does it mean comparison?- Analogy of Proportionality
When does analogy fall under this sort? Why is it called "analogy of proportionality"? - Analogy of Attribution
How about this one? What is it? Why is it called "analogy of attribution"?
- Analogy of Proportionality
- The Importance of Analogy in the Sciences, in Philosophy and in Theology
So analogy is not some theoretical thing after all! It's got some applications? How is it used in the sciences? How is it used in Philosophy? How about in Theology, is it also useful?
## 3. The Predicables [Notes 2-3] [Read also The Universal and the Predicables]- Logical Predication
What do we mean by logical predication? - Predicables and the Predicaments
What are predicables? Are predicaments problems? Can you explain what these are? - Genus, Difference, Species, Property and Accident
We seem to be doing Biology here. What do these things have to do with Logic? - Definition
Define "definition". - The Division and Opposition of Terms
What does "division of terms" mean? How about "opposition of terms"?
## 4. Some Philosophical Considerations [See Notes 2-1]- The meaning of Universals: Nominalism, Conceptualism and Realism
What's the so-called "problem of the universals"? Why was it a problem? What's the difficulty about universals? - Its Repercussion in Different Logical Schools of Thought
What happens when you subscribe to Nominalism? How about Conceptualism? And Realism?
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS) V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE BACK TO TOP ## III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) [Read again A Mini-course in Logic (Dolhenty)] [And read also The Kinds of Statements and Relations of Opposition Between Them]## 1. Proposition and Judgment- Nature and Structure of the Proposition
What is a judgment? What is a proposition? What's the difference? Can you show the parallelism with concepts and terms?- Subject
What is the subject? I know this is obvious, but it's good to have a clear idea of what the subject is. BTW, do you know the Latin root of this word? - Predicate
And the predicate? How about the Latin root of this one?
- Subject
- The Different Meanings of the Verb "to be"
Clinton, when interrogated, once said, "It depends on what you mean by 'is'." Whoa! So he was right to say that, then? Does the verb "to be" really have different meanings? - Truth in Judgment
What is truth? (Ooops, does that sound like Pilate?) Why do we say that truth is to be found in judgment?
## 2. Kinds of Proposition- Enunciation and Affirmation
What is an enunciation? An affirmation? - Categorical Propositions
What are categorical propositions? - Modal Propositions
How about modal propositions? How do these differ from categorical propositions? Can you give some examples? - The Opposition of Propositions
What is the opposition of propositions? Who invented (or rather, discovered) this? Can you explain what it means?
## 3. Compound Propositions- Structure
What is the structure of compound propositions? - Truth
What is truth? (Ooops, there goes that question again.) - Classification
What are the kinds of compound propositions?
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS) V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE BACK TO TOP ## IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS) [Read again A Mini-course in Logic (Dolhenty)] [Download attachment below Logic_jmom.zip -- Exercises in Logic: Inference and Reasoning]## 1. The Nature of Reasoning- Plurality in the Reasoning Process
Plurality? Can you clarify what this means here? - Deduction and Induction
What is deduction? What is induction? What is the difference between the two? - The Structure of Argumentation
Explain the structure of argumentation. - Laws and Types of Arguments
What are the types of arguments?
## 2. The Syllogism- Simple Syllogism:
- Nature
What is a simple syllogism? - Structure
How does it look like? - Laws
Name and explain the laws governing simple syllogism.
- Nature
- Classical and Medieval Laws of syllogism
Any more laws developed after Aristotle? - Modal Syllogism
What is modal syllogism? Why is it called "modal"? - Compound Syllogism
What is a compound syllogism? How does it look like?
## 3. Other Forms of Reasoning- Inductive (generalizations) and Analogical Arguments
What are inductive arguments? Analogical arguments? - Dialectical Reasoning and its Importance [Read Dialectic]
What does "dialectics" mean? What is its importance? - Sophisms or Fallacies [Read Sophistic Reasoning]:
- Nature
What are sophisms? Are they the same as fallacies? - Types
What are the kinds of sophisms and fallacies? - Practical Examples
Can you illustrate this using some examples?
- Nature
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS) V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE BACK TO TOP ## V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC [See Introduction to Logic (Stefan Waner and Steven R. Costenoble) for online interactive exercises]## 1. Logic of Propositions- Towards Symbolic Logic
What brought about symbolic logic? - Elements of the Logic of the Proposition: Variables and Propositional Functions
Describe the elements of the logic of the proposition. - Truth tables
What are truth tables? How useful are they? - Methods of Natural Inference
What are these methods of natural inference?
## 2. Mathematical Logic- First degree
What is mathematical logic? First degree? - Subsequent degrees
Subsequent degrees? - Logic of Relations and Logic of Identity
What is Logic of Relations? How about Logic of Identity? - Logic of Classes
What do we mean by the Logic of Classes? - Fuzzy Logic
Is fuzzy logic vague and abstruse? - Modal Logic
What is modal logic? Why is it called "modal"?
## 3. Metalogic- Axiomatic Systems and Metalogical Problems
Beyond logic? - Metalogical properties of Formal Systems
What are these properties? - Godel's Theorem
State Godel's Theorem.
## 4. Artificial Intelligence: Quantifiability of Human Reasoning and its limitationsII. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS) V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE BACK TO TOP ## VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE [See Notes 6-0 (author unknown)] [See also Analytic Philosophy (International Catholic University)]## 1. Historical Background [Notes 6-1]- Theory of meaning in Plato and Aristotle
What did Plato say about meaning? Aristotle? - The word in St. Augustine
What was St Augustine's doctrine on this? - The Metaphysical Content of Language in St Thomas
And what did St Thomas say about language? - The Great Themes of Medieval Philosophy of Language:
- modus significandi
What in the world is this? - suppositio
Can you explain what this is?
- modus significandi
- Cartesian Linguistics
What was Descartes position on language? - The Philosophical Linguistics of Humboldt
Can you give a brief sketch of Humboldt's position?
## 2. Contemporary Philosophy of Language [Notes 6-2]- The Linguistic Turn of Philosophy
What does the "linguistic turn" consist in? - Analytic Philosophy: Wittgenstein
What was Wittgenstein's contribution to analytic philosophy? - Linguistics and Structuralism: Saussure
What is structuralism? - Semiotics: Peirce
And what is semiotics? - Hermeneutics: Gadamer
Hermeneutics? (Can you pronounce that properly?) - Deconstructionism
Why deconstructionism?
## 3. The Nature of Language- Levels of study: Linguistic Sciences, Anthropology and Philosophy
In what ways do these fields study language? - The Linguistic Sign and its dimensions:
- Syntactics
What aspect of language does syntactics study? - Semantics
What aspect of language does semantics study? - Pragmatics
What aspect of language does pragmatics study?
- Syntactics
- The Origin and Development of Language
Where does language come from? - Characteristics of Language.
- descriptive
What do we mean when we say that language is descriptive? - rational
What do we mean when we say that language is rational? - communicative
What do we mean when we say that language is communicative? - expressive
What do we mean when we say that language is expressive?
- descriptive
## 4. Semantics- The Problem of Meaning: meaning and reference
What's the problem? - Language and Truth
How are language and truth related? - Synonyms
What about synonyms? - The Problem of Translation: subjective and realist positions
Discuss briefly the problem of translation. - Its Application to Biblical and Catechetical matters
Ah, so it has biblical and catechetical repercussions, eh? What about these repercussions? - The Possibility of Talking about God
State the problem and the solution. - The Ineffability and Limits of Language
Can you delineate these two aspects of language: inexpressibility (ineffability) and limits?
## 5. Pragmatic aspect- Meaning and the Use of Language
Why the distinction between meaning and use? - Speech acts:
- locution (phraseology)
What is locution? - ilocution
What is ilocution? - perlocution
What is perlocution?
- locution (phraseology)
- Language and Communication
Discuss the use of language for communication. - The Act of Saying the Truth and its Pragmatic Contexts
What is the truth (again!)? - Falsehood and Linguistic Manipulation
True or false? How does one know? - Applications: Liturgical and Biblical Language
What are the applications to liturgical and biblical language?
## 6. Argumentation- Aristotelian Rhetoric
Describe Aristotelian rhetoric. - The "New Rhetoric"
Just what is the "New Rhetoric"? - Argumentation and Demonstration
Can you tell me once more what these are? - The Poetic Value of Language
Okay, this is a bonus. Tell me about it.
II. LOGIC OF CONCEPTS (TERMS) | III. LOGIC OF JUDGMENT (PROPOSITIONS) | IV. LOGIC OF REASONING (SYLLOGISMS) V. SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND METALOGIC | VI. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE BACK TO TOP Please contact jmomandia at gmail dot com for any heresies found here.
This version: 11-Jul-2007 |