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Fides et Ratio

INTRODUCTION: KNOW YOURSELF

  • Man's questions [1]
  • The Church accompanies man in seeking answers [2]
  • Philosophy, one of the instruments in this search; connatural to man [3]
  • Philosophy starts when man wonders, seeks universal principles [4]
  • The Church sees Philosophy as an indispensable instrument; but it should seek Truth [5]
  • Church reaffirms need to reflect upon Truth [6]

I. THE REVELATION OF GOD'S WISDOM

Jesus, Revealer of the Father

  • The Church bears the message from God (Deposit of Faith) [7]
  • There is a knowledge proper to Faith surpassing human reason [8]
  • Truth of Philosophy and Truth of Revelation neither identical nor mutually exclusive [9]
  • Christ reveals the Father [10]
  • Revelation carried out in time [11]
  • God becomes flesh and joins man [12]

Reason in the Face of the Mystery

  • Still, Revelation is a mystery and therefore requires the obedience of Faith [13]
  • Revelation stimulates the human mind [14]
  • The theme of both Philosophy and Theology: the ultimate end of human existence [15]

II. CREDO UT INTELLEGAM--BELIEVING IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND

"Wisdom Knows All and Understands All" (Wis 9:11)

  • Sacred Scripture shows intimate relation between Faith and reason [16]
  • No reason for competition of any kind between reason and Faith [17]
  • Three rules: a never-ending journey; the need for humility; grounded in fear of God [18]
  • God reveals himself in nature [19]
  • Reason, with Faith in the background [20]

"Acquire Wisdom, Acquire Understanding" (Prov 4:5)

  • In the Old Testament: people search for what is Beautiful, Good and True [21]
  • St Paul in the Epistle to the Romans confirms the possibility of knowing God with reason [22]
  • Epistle to the Corinthians: the Cross can make or break the link between Faith and Philosophy [23]

III. INTELLEGO UT CREDAM--UNDERSTANDING IN ORDER TO BELIEVE

Journeying in Search of Truth

  • Acts of the Apostles: men have a natural nostalgia for God [24]
  • Every human being desires to know [25]
  • Beginning with the meaning of life and of death [26]
  • This applies to every man and woman of all places and times [27]

The Different Faces of Human Truth

  • Results of this search; attitudes vis-a-vis Truth [28]
  • The question implies the hope of an answer [29]
  • The three levels or modes of Truth [30]
  • Man lives by belief [31]
  • Examples of belief [32]
  • Man seeks an ulterior Truth, an Absolute Truth, assisted by the Christian faith [33]
  • There can be no contradiction between Faith and Philosophy [34]
  • Exploring the relationship between Philosophy and Faith [35]

IV. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAITH AND REASON

Important Moments in the Encounter of Faith and Reason

  • From the beginnings of the Church [36]
  • Gnosticism--Philosophy for a few [37]
  • Priority of proclaiming the Faith in the early Church [38]
  • Critical adoption of Philosophy [39]
  • The first great synthesis of Philosophy and Theology by St Augustine [40]
  • The Fathers purified and elevated Philosophy [41]
  • St Anselm and Scholastic Theology [42]

The Enduring Originality of the Thought of St Thomas Aquinas

  • St Thomas highlighted the harmony between Faith and reason [43]
  • St Thomas spoke of the wisdom from the Holy Spirit, theological wisdom, and philosophical wisdom [44]

The Drama of the Separation of Faith and Reason

  • The gradual separation of reason from Faith [45]
  • Idealism; atheistic humanism; positivism; rationalism; nihilism [46]
  • Abandonment of the search for Truth and turning towards subjective certainty or towards utility [47]
  • Some good insights have arisen with the bad, but it is important to recover the unity between Faith and Philosophy [48]

V. THE MAGISTERIUM'S INTERVENTIONS IN PHILOSOPHICAL MATTERS

The Magisterium's Discernments as Diakonia of the Truth

  • Philosophy has its own autonomy; reason is open to truth, including revealed Truth [49]
  • The Magisterium examines elements which are consistent with the Truth [50]
  • Church intervenes to stimulate philosophical enquiry lest it stray from the path to the Truth [51]
  • The Church has spoken out in times past [52]
  • Vatican Council I showed both the unity and the distinction between Faith and reason [53]
  • Pope St Pius X, Pope Pius XII, and recently the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith [54]
  • Present dangers: distrust of reason in Philosophy; rationalism in Theology; fideism and "biblicism" [55]
  • Encouragement to trust in human reason and to bring it beyond isolation [56]

The Church's Interest in Philosophy

  • Pope Leo XIIIs Aeterni Patris [57]
  • Positive results of the papal encouragement to study St Thomas [58]
  • Developments in Catholic philosophy other than Thomism [59]
  • Vatican Council II [60]
  • Factors contributing to the decline of the study of Thomism and Philosophy in general [61]
  • Study of Philosophy is fundamental and indispensable for theological studies and formation of candidates for priesthood [62]
  • Stating principles in criteria to restore harmony [63]

VI. THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY

The Knowledge of Faith and the Demands of Philosophical Reason

  • Human being by nature is a philosopher; Theology must relate to this fact [64]
  • Philosophy prepares for a correct auditus fidei [65]
  • Philosophy helps us for a correct intellectus fidei [66]
  • The task of Fundamental Theology [67]
  • Moral Theology also needs the contribution of Philosophy [68]
  • The use of the particular sciences should not lead to the rejection of Philosophy [69]
  • Unification from different cultures made possible by the Faith [70]
  • Cultures and Revelation [71]
  • The cultures of the East [72]
  • The Word of God--starting point--and understanding of the Word [73]
  • Proven by great Christian theologians who were also great philosophers [74]

Different Stances of Philosophy

  • Philosophy independent of Revelation [75]
  • Christian Philosophy--meaning, objective and subjective aspects [76]
  • Ancilla Theologiae--Handmaid of Theology [77]
  • Magisterium's insistence on St Thomas [78]
  • The last part: what the Word of God requires of reason [79]

VII. CURRENT REQUIREMENTS AND TASKS

The Indispensable Requirements of the Word of God

  • Sacred Scripture and the Incarnate Word of God bring Philosophy to its limits [80]
  • The "crisis of meaning" [81]
  • Hence an objective, not relativist, Philosophy is needed [82]
  • Need for a metaphysical, transcendent Philosophy [83]
  • Metaphysics even more important in hermeneutics and analysis of language [84]
  • Towards a unified and organic vision of knowledge [85]
  • Eclecticisn [86]
  • Historicism [87]
  • Scientism [88]
  • Pragmatism [89]
  • Nihilism [90]
  • "Postmodernity" [91]

Current Tasks for Theology

  • Two-fold task of Theology: renewing specific methods and looking to ultimate Truth [92]
  • The chief purpose of Theology [93]
  • Relationship between meaning and truth [94]
  • Truth not confined to time and culture [95]
  • Enduring validity of conceptual language in Conciliar definitions [96]
  • Turning back to the Philosophy of Being [97]
  • Truth is also of importance in Moral Theology [98]
  • Proclamation of Faith and catechesis [99]

CONCLUSION

  • Revisiting the issue of Faith and Philosophy [100]
  • Recovering the relationship [101]
  • Leading people to discover capacity to know the truth and their yearning for the ultimate and definitive meaning of life [102]
  • Philosophy and the new evangelization [103]
  • Philosophy as common ground and starting point for dialogue with non-believers [104]
  • Encouraging theologians to pay attention to philosophical implications of the Word of God; philosophical preparation of candidates for the priesthood [105]
  • Appeal to philosophers and scientists [106]
  • Looking more deeply at man [107]
  • Holy Mary, Seat of Wisdom [108]

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