Greek Loanwords in Nautical Latin

Loans are Greek to Latin unless otherwise indicated (by >>). A calque is a loan-translation.

LATIN

GREEK

acatus/acatium [actuarius] (small merchant galley)

akatos/akation

agea (gangway between rowers)

cf. agyia

amphora (earthenware jar, much used in transport)

amphoreus

ancora (anchor)

agkura

ancora sacra (sheet anchor) (Jal) (calque?)

hiera agkura

annona (annual grain tribute to Rome)

>> annona

anquina (halyard)

agkoina

antlia (pump)

antlia

aparctias (N wind)

aparktias

ap(h)eliotes (E wind) [subsolanus, ? calque]

apeliotes (Attic)

aphractus [aperta] (not fortified, of ship)

aphraktos

aplustre (stern-post)

aphlaston

apogêus (land-wind)

apogaios

apotheca (warehouse)

apotheke

archipirata (pirate commander)

archipeirates

artemo, -nis (foresail)

artemonn

biremis (bireme)

>> dieres (calque; Pollux, AD II)

bolus (a catch [of fish])

bolos

boreas (N/NNE wind)

boreas

cadus (jar; meas.)

kados

caecius (ENE wind)

kaikias

camara (deck)

kamara

campso (round a cape) (III-II BC, Enn. Ann. 328)

kampto, (fut.) kampso

canalis (channel)

 >> kanalion (AD IV)

canna (reed)

kanna

carchesium (mast-top)

karchesion

castellatus (fortified with bulwarks)

>> kastellatos (AD 680)

catabolum (warehouse)

katabolon

cataphractus [tecta, constrata] (fortified by bulwarks)

kataphraktos

catapirates (sounding-lead)

katapeirates

cataplûs (arrival of a ship)

kataplous

catascopus [speculatoria] (reconnaisance vsl)

kataskopos

celeu(s)ma (cadence-call for rowers)

keleu(s)ma

celox (sm. merchant galley) (partial calque; by assoc. w/ velox )

keles

centenarius (hundred-weight)

>> kendenaria (AD 298)

cercius/circius (WNW wind) (direction of loan?)

kirkios

cercurus (type of galley) (Livy)

kerkouros

ceruchi (lifts [of yard])

kerouchoi

chalo (to lower) (Vegetius)

chalao

chêniscus (goose-head ornament at the stern)

cheniskos

commercium (trade)

>> kommerkion

constrata (deck) (calque?)

katastroma

contus (pole)

kontos

cornu (yardarm)

keras (calque?)

corvus/corax (boarding gangway) (corvus prob. calque?)

>> koraks

costa (rib; frame-timber)

pleura (calque?)

côthô, -onis (mooring basin)

kothon

cumba (skiff)

kumbe

cybaea (merchant galley) (Cicero)

kubaia

cydarum (type of vsl) (Gellius 10.25.5)

kudaron

denarius (a coin)

>> denarion (I BC)

diaeta (cabin)

diaita

dicrotum (bireme) (Cicero) (& bicrotum, inscrip., partial calque)

dikrotos

dromô, -nis (type of lg. galley)

dromon (AD VI)

embaenitarius (class of longshoreman)

embaino

embola (loading) (C. Th AD 438)

embole (III BC)

emporium (market)

emporion

epibata (marine [soldier])

epibates

epicopus (propelled by oars) (Cicero)

epikopos

epidromus (jigger-mast)

epidromos

ergata (capstan) (Vitruvius)

ergates

etesiae (etesian winds)

etesiai

euripus (strait, canal)

euripos

euroaquilo, -onis (NE wind)

eurakulon (Acts 27.14)

eurus (E/SE wind) [Volturnus]

euros

exanclo (to bail out) (archaic)

eksantleo

facere pedem (to tack) (calque?)

podiaion poieisthai

gaulus (ship; bucket)

gaulos

gubernator (helmsman, pilot) (cognate w/ Gk word?; partial calque?)

kybernetes

helcium (tow-rope) (cf. helciarii [boat-haulers], Rougé 1966)

helkion (yoke)

hippago(go)/hippêgus (horse-transport)

hippagogos/hippegos

horrea (grain warehouses)

>> horia (AD II, Rome)

iugum (thwart) (calque?)

zeugon

lembus (boat; auxiliary galley) (Plautus)

lembos

liburna/liburnica (type of sm. galley)

liburnis/liburnikon

libs/lips (WSW wind)/libonotus (SSW wind)

lips/libonotos

malacia (calm) (Caesar)

malakia

medimnus (volume meas., esp. for grain)

medimnos

mesonauta (a class of sailor)

*mesonautes

mina (weight meas.)

mna

modius (volume meas., esp. for grain)

>> modios (IV-III BC)

moles (breakwater)

>> molos (AD VI)

musculus (type of vsl) (Isidore) (calque)

mydion

mydion (type of vsl) (Gellius)

mydion

myoparo, -onis (type of vsl)

myoparon

nauclerus (master) (Plautus) [navicularius]

naukleros

naufylax (shipkeeper) (in 2 inscrip.)

nauphylaks

naulum (freight)

naulon

naupegus (shipwright)

naupegos

nausea (seasickness)

nausia

nauta/navita (arch.) (sailor)

nautes

nauticus (nautical)

nautikos

navarchus (squadron commander) (Cicero)

nauarchos

notus (south)

notos

opisphora (braces [of yard]) (Isidore)

*opisfora

pannus (a piece of [sail-]cloth)

>> pani(on)

parasemo, -nis/parasemum (name-device)

parasemon

parastatae (mast-partners)

parastatai

paro, -onis (type of vsl)

paron

pelagus (sea)

pelagos

pentêris (quinquereme)

penteres

pes (sheet [rope]) (calque

pous

phalanga/palanga (roller for beaching; carrying pole) (AD II)

phalanga

pharos, us (lighthouse)

pharos

phaselus (merchant galley) (I BC-AD I)

phaselos

pîrâta (pirate)

peirates

pleromarius (a class of sailor) (inscrip., AD 200)

pleroma (crew)

podia (sheets [ropes]) (AD IV-V)

podia

pontus (poet.) (sea)

pontos

pristis (galley)

pristis

prodromus (NE wind preceding the etesians)

prodromos

propes (tack (rope)) (partial calque)

propous

prora (prow)

prora

proreta (bow-man) (Plautus)

proretes

prosnesium (shore-fast) (Isidore)

?*prosnesion

quadriêris (quadrireme) (partial calque)

teteres

remulcum (tow-rope)

rumoulkeo

saburra (sand; ballast)

>> saboura (AD IV)

saccus (sack)

sakkos

sagêna (type of vsl)

sagene

salum (open sea)

salos

scala (ladder; gangway)

>> skala (AD II)

scalmus (tholepin)

skalmos

scapha (boat) (Plautus)

skaphe

scopulus (reef, rock)

skopelos

securis (ax)

>> sekourion (AD 301)

sip(h)arum (topsail) (on direction of loan, Rougé 1966)

>> sipharos

sîtarchia (provisions for a journey)

sitarchia

situla (bucket)

>> sitla

spartum (Spanish broom fiber)

sparton

spongia (sponge)

sphongos

statera (steelyard)

statera

statio (anchorage) (partial calque?)

stathmos

statio, -onis (place of business)

>> station (AD 174)

stega (deck) (Plautus only)

stega

strophus/stroppus/struppus (strop)

strophos

stuppa (tow [flax])

stuppe

tabula (plank)

>> tabla (AD I)

talentum (weight meas., 60 minae)

talanton

tesserarius (dispatch boat) (20 BC)

>> tesserarios

thrascias (NNW wind)

thraskias

triêrarchus (master of a trireme)

trierarchos

triêris (trireme)

trieres

trochlea (block & tackle)

troxileia

xenodochium (inn)

xenodokeion

zephyrus (W wind)

zephyros

zopissa (recycled pitch & wax scraped from hull)

zopissa

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