Urine tests can provide diagnostic information about a number of diseases such as kidney disease or infections, diabetes, and liver disease.  The urinalysis consists of 3 parts: measuring the urine concentration using a refractometer, using a test strip to quantify protein, blood, glucose, etc., and a microscopic examination to detect cells and crystals.

Urine test strip

 Microscopic examination

The numbers and types of cells and/or material such as casts can yield a great detail of information.


The refractometer detects urine concentration.  Dilute urine can be see with kidney disease and other illnesses.

Click on the Adobe icon below to see an example of a urinalysis.