Design Culture and Theory - Milestones in the Development of Drawing and Design to  1900

Billy Blue College of Design

 

Arachne by Marianne Elliott

The Seasons by Elizabeth Robb

Examples of a finished pen drawing (above) and a pencil modello (below) by students in  Design, Culture and Theory,  Semester 1, 2008 (click to enlarge).

 

ADDITIONAL READING FOR CLASSES

 

 UPDATE Aug 29:

This excellent little drawing manual from 1915 has useful sections on basic drawing, human proportions, pen and ink technique, perspective and composition.

Lutz, E.G., 1915. Practical Drawing.

http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Lutz-Practical_Drawing.pdf

 

O-Week: LANDMARKS in the HISTORY of WESTERN ART.

Some OPTIONAL reading suggestions for anyone with some catching up to do:

Timeline of Art History (Metropolitan Museum of Art).
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/splash.htm

Classical Greece (ca, 480-323 BC)
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tacg/hd_tacg.htm

Hellenistic Greece
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/haht/hd_haht.htm

Roman Empire (27 B.C.–393 A.D.)
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/roem/hd_roem.htm

Middle Ages
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/book/hd_book.htm (illuminated manuscripts)

Renaissance
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/leon/hd_leon.htm (Leonardo)
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/drwg/hd_drwg.htm (Renaissance drawing)

Mannerism
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/zino/hd_zino.htm
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/grec/hd_grec.htm (El Greco)

Baroque
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/crvg/hd_crvg.htm (Caravaggio)
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/rvd_p/hd_rvd_p.htm (Rubens)

Rococo
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/bouc/hd_bouc.htm (Boucher)

Neoclassicism
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/neoc_1/hd_neoc_1.htm

19th Century Academic Art
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/sara/hd_sara.htm

Romanticism and Symbolism
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/roma/hd_roma.htm
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/symb/hd_symb.htm

Realism
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/rlsm/hd_rlsm.htm
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mane/hd_mane.htm (Manet)

Impressionism
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/imml/hd_imml.htm
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hi/hi_monetclaude.htm (Monet)

 


Week 1: SEEING SHAPE.

SEE just how much you can achieve in two years drawing and painting here.

DOWNLOAD (scroll down) those slides I showed you on the basic ways of seeing here.

Two early classics on drawing available as free ebooks:

 Speed, Harold. The Practice and Science of Drawing.
http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14264

Guptill, Arthur Leighton,1922. Sketching and Rendering in Pencil.
http://www.archive.org/details/sketchingrenderi00guptuoft

 

 Week 2: CONSTRUCTION.

Vilppu Drawing Online (Glenn Vilppu):

Here are five short tutorials selected from a series of twelve in the free online version of the Vilppu Drawing Manual.

Introduction
http://mag.awn.com/index.php?ltype=Columns&column=vilppu&article_no=764 

Gesture
http://mag.awn.com/index.php?ltype=Columns&column=vilppu&article_no=573

Spherical Forms
http://mag.awn.com/index.php?ltype=Columns&column=vilppu&article_no=440

The Box
http://mag.awn.com/index.php?ltype=Columns&column=vilppu&article_no=402

Seeing Anatomical Masses
http://mag.awn.com/index.php?ltype=Columns&column=vilppu&article_no=1177


Week 3: MATERIALS.

A Drawing Glossary (Fogg Art Museum).
http://www.artmuseums.harvard.edu/fogg/drawingglossary.html

Drawing Materials and Drawing Techniques - an Introduction (Michael Miller).
http://web.archive.org/web/20070618182235/www.nyu.edu/classes/miller/guide/contents.html

Printmaking techniques - short summaries with links:
http://www.monoprints.com/info/otheraspects.html
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/prnt/hd_prnt.htm


Pen Illustration Technique Links

Ellwood, G. Montague , 1927. The Art Of Pen Drawing.
http://dli.iiit.ac.in/cgi-bin/Browse/scripts/use_scripts/advnew/metainfo.cgi?&barcode=139999  (read online)

or download whole book here:
http://www.mediafire.com/?04liryfzinb

Maginnis, Charles. Pen Drawing - An Illustrated Treatise.
http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/17502 (4.9 MB zip) OR
http://www.archive.org/details/pendrawingillust00magirich (DjVu/pdf)

Sullivan, Edmund J. 1921.  The Art Of Illustration.
http://www.archive.org/details/TheArtOfIllustration

Sullivan, Edmund J. 1922.  Line - An Art Study.
http://www.archive.org/details/lineartstudy00sulluoft

 

Week 4: COMPOSITION

 

Poore, Rankin, 1903. Pictoral Composition and the Critical Judgement of Pictures.
Good source of ideas on artistic composition current at the start of the twentieth century.
http://www.archive.org/details/pictorialcomposi00pooruoft

Dow, Arthur Wesley, 1913. Composition; a series of exercises in art structure for the use of students and teachers.
http://www.archive.org/details/compositionserie00dowauoft

Compositional Studies for Barocci's Visitation.


Week 5: PERSPECTIVE

 Some selected diagrams on perspective (see the two Loomis links below for more)
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Equallyspacedhorizontalsinperspectiv.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Cylinderinperspective.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Glassesinperspective.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Figuresinperspective1.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Figuresinperspective2.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Figuresinperspective3.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Figuresinperspective4.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Perspectiveofshadows1.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Perspectiveofshadows2.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Perspectiveofshadows3.jpg

Norman Rockwell on his use of photo reference
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Rockwell1sm.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Rockwell2sm.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Rockwell3sm.jpg
http://djcbriggs.googlepages.com/Rockwell4sm.jpg

Loomis, Andrew, from Figure Drawing for All It's Worth.
Good section on the figure in perspective.
http://fineart.sk/show.php?w=900 (to 919)
http://fineart.sk/index.php?s=8&cat=12 (index page)

 Storey, G. A. The Theory and Practice of Perspective.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/20165/20165-h.zip

Watson, Ernest. How To Use Creative Perspective.
http://www.archive.org/details/howtousecreative036957mbp (pdf 11 MB/ DjVu 7.5 MB)

Loomis, Andrew, Perspective from Successful Drawing.
http://fineart.sk/show.php?w=161 (to 210)
http://fineart.sk/index.php?s=16&cat=15 (index page)
 


Week 6: PRODUCTION WEEK
 

Week 7: LIGHT AND SHADE

Briggs, David, 2007. Basics of Light and Shade in The Dimensions of Colour
http://www.huevaluechroma.com/021.php
http://www.huevaluechroma.com/022.php
http://www.huevaluechroma.com/023.php

Loomis, Andrew, Light on the Basic Forms, from Successful Drawing.
http://fineart.sk/show.php?w=211 (to 230)
http://fineart.sk/index.php?s=64&cat=15 (index page)
 

Week 8: COLOUR

 Briggs, David, 2007. The Dimensions of Colour.
http://huevaluechroma.com

Basic Color Theory for the Desktop (Adobe)
http://dba.med.sc.edu/price/irf/Adobe_tg/color/main.html

Colour links (efg's Computer Lab)
http://www.efg2.com/Lab/Library/Color/index.html
http://www.efg2.com/Lab/Library/Color/Science.htm
http://www.efg2.com/Lab/Library/Color/AndComputers.htm

 

ASSESSMENT

Your assessment for my section of the subject will be based on a written and visual report containing:

1.  One finished A4 pen and ink drawing of a mythological scene, based on a story from the Metamorphoses of the Roman poet Ovid. You are required to design and execute an original composition showing a scene chosen from one of the seven  stories listed below. Any work that is a copy of a pre-existing work by another artist will be treated as plagiarism.

2.  Preparatory work done inside and outside class, that must include:
 (1) all of your compositional studies exploring and developing alternative compositions and tonal schemes.
 (2) your original photo reference and sketchbook studies that you have used for the figures, details, landscape settings, etc.
 (3) your full-scale final preparatory study (modello) in pencil.
 (4) three reduced-scale colour roughs exploring the expressive effect of alternative colour schemes.

3. A concise written report (a) explaining your choices, successes and difficulties in each step of the project, and (b) commenting on the relevance to contemporary multimedia and graphic design of the knowledge and techniques used, particularly in connection with the rise of digital painting and animation (approximately 200 words). (Material for the latter comments might be found by visiting the tutorial sections of student and professional forums such as http://www.conceptart.org/forums/index.php)

 You should ensure that your choice of subject allows you to demonstrate your grasp of the topics dealt with in this section of the course.  Specifically, it must  
 (1) show an effective composition, based on demonstrated exploration of alternative arrangments,
 (2) show a minimum of two figures that look "solid", and whose psychological interaction is displayed in believable and expressive gestures,
 (3) be  set in  a consistent three-dimensional environment, with all elements of the picture agreeing with each other in perspective, and
 (4) make use of original photo reference - (i.e. don't guess anything that you can find out).

Weighting: 25% of subject

TOPICS:

Choose your scene from one of the following seven stories. Remember, you must choose a scene with at least two interacting characters:

Book 2, lines 401-507.  Jupiter, Diana and Callisto
http://www.tonykline.co.uk/PITBR/Latin/Metamorph2.htm#_Toc64106117

Book 4, lines 55-166: Pyramus and Thisbe
http://www.tonykline.co.uk/PITBR/Latin/Metamorph4.htm#_Toc64106253

Book 4, lines 663-752: Perseus and Andromeda
http://www.tonykline.co.uk/PITBR/Latin/Metamorph4.htm#_Toc64106269

Book 8, lines 183-235: Daedalus and Icarus
http://www.tonykline.co.uk/PITBR/Latin/Metamorph8.htm#_Toc64106497

Book 10, lines 1-85: Orpheus and Eurydice
http://www.tonykline.co.uk/PITBR/Latin/Metamorph10.htm#_Toc64105565

Book 10, lines 560-680: Atalanta and Hippomenes
http://www.tonykline.co.uk/PITBR/Latin/Metamorph10.htm#_Toc64105575

Book 13, lines 738-788: Acis, Galatea and Polyphemus
http://www.tonykline.co.uk/PITBR/Latin/Metamorph13.htm#_Toc64105850

 

DEADLINES (due in each case at start of class)

Week 4:  SUBMIT SCANS of  first compositional roughs

Week 7: SUBMIT PHOTOCOPY  completed full-scale pencil modello of illustration

Week 9: SUBMIT final drawing and accompanying materials

 

OVID LINKS:

Text:

Ovid Metamorphoses (translated by Tony Kline)

Tony Kline's free, plain English translation should prove quite readable, even if English is not your first language. Furthermore, the pdf has a fully hyperlinked contents, making it easy to find any character in the text.
http://www.tonykline.co.uk/klineasovid.htm (pdf, 4.2 MB)

or browse online at:
http://www.tonykline.co.uk/PITBR/Latin/Ovhome.htm

 

Images and Commentary:

OVID: METAMORPHOSES  (Hans-Jürgen Günther)

"Richly illustrated by famous artists in European history"
http://www.latein-pagina.de/ovid/ovid_m1.htm
to
http://www.latein-pagina.de/ovid/ovid_m15.htm

Achilles to Zephyr: An Alphabetical Listing of Greek and Roman Art by Topic (Lilith Gallery, Toronto).
http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/greekroman/Achilles-to-Zephyr-List-of-Greek-Roman-Art.html

Theoi Project (Aaron Atsma).
http://www.theoi.com/Galleries.html

Images from Ovid's Metamorphoses. Visual Renderings from the Middle Ages to the Present
http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/shum404/gallery.htm

The Ovid Collection (University of Virginia)
http://etext.virginia.edu/latin/ovid/

The Ovid Project: Metamorphosing the Metamorphoses (Hope Greenberg, University of Vermont).
http://www.uvm.edu/~hag/ovid/

The Ambrose Collection
http://www.uvm.edu/~classics/?Page=mainpagelinks/ambrose.html

Engravings by Johannes Baur. 1703.
http://www.uvm.edu/~hag/ovid/baur1703/index.html

Images from the 1640 edition translated by George Sandys
http://www.uvm.edu/~hag/ovid/sandys1640/sandys1640.html

Ovid's Metamorphoses (Rijkmuseum)
http://www.rijksmuseum.nl/aria/aria_encyclopedia/00046929?lang=en

Greek Mythology Link  (Carlos Parada)
http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/METAMORPHOSES.html

 

 EXAMPLES OF LINE ILLUSTRATION

Flaxman's Iliad and Odyssey (pdf book)
http://books.google.com/books?vid=057SsIKCquMO884tT7w&id=azcRAAAAIAAJ

http://books.google.com/books?vid=0OYFmpcf0F-bq8xjXDn&id=wjcRAAAAIAAJ

Flaxman's Odyssey (images)
http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/ashp/flaxman_odyssey.html
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/John_Flaxman

Willy Pogany's illustrations for The Adventures of Odysseus & the Tale of Troy.
http://www.bartleby.com/75/illus.html


 EXAMPLES OF ARCHITECTURAL SETTINGS

For ideas for classical architectural settings, you could look at some of these paintings by Lawrence Alma-Tadema
http://www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/art.asp?aid=8