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Endnote X4

By Chris Dillon. Version 6, 18 April, 2011. Latest version at: www.quickanddirty.org.uk

This guide describes EndNote X4 for Windows.

1.    Configuring EndNote

If Word has no EndNote toolbar (2003) or tab (Word 2007 and 2010), you will need to run a utility. For example, on WTS 2010, go to Start | Software E-L | EndNote and click Configure EndNote.

2.    Setting up a bibliography

When you open EndNote for the first time, it gives you three options.

·         Unless you already have a database, select the Create a new library option.

·         Give your database a name and save it. (Unless you are a specialist in two unrelated fields, you probably only need to set up one database.)

3.    Creating records

References | New Reference or Ctrl+N.

·         Select the Reference Type e.g. Book in the drop-down box at the top. Other common types include Conference Proceedings, Edited Book, Journal Article and Thesis.
The fields displayed when creating a record depend on the reference type.

·         Use the Tab key to move from one field to another, and Ctrl-W to close a record, selecting the option to save if necessary

·         If you want to attach a PDF to a reference, right-click as you are editing and select File Attachments | Attach File. (It is also possible to add PDFs automatically by right-clicking references in the list view and going to Find Full Text | Find Full Text.)

·         If you want to make notes on the reference, use the Research Notes field, not the Notes field as the latter is often used by the catalogue.

4.    Importing data from other catalogues and databases

·         You may find the catalogue in the left column, in which case click on it.

·         If you don’t, click more in the left column, select the catalogue and click Choose. Do the search. The results become part of your database.

Note: If you cannot import a record from a reputable source, it is quicker to input it yourself.

5.    Importing and downloading references

Use this if you have references from another database in a text file.

·         Go to File | Import | File and click Choose. Select the text file.

·         You can import from many formats in the Import Option drop-down box including Reference Manager (RIS). Note the Other Filters option at the bottom of this drop-down.

·         Click Import.

·         Some websites e.g. JSTOR, Nature and World of Science allow you to download directly into EndNote, without using such a text file.

·         See www.ucl.ac.uk/isd/common/software/biblio for further information about importing etc.

6.    Importing bibliographic data from PDFs

Go to File | Import | Folder | Choose and select the folder containing the PDFs from which you want to import the bibliographic data. Click Import.

Notes on all fields in your database

·         Upper case letters are used sparingly in quality bibliographic records — at the beginning of fields and in other obligatory situations only. Title case is disliked.

·         Special characters may be typed straight into EndNote if your keyboard includes them, copied from another program, or entered using the Character Map (to be found e.g. in Start | Programs | Acessories | System Tools.

·         You can store records in non-Roman characters e.g. Japanese.

Notes on specific fields in your database


·         Give the form used on the title page of the work. Jason Cole would become Cole, Jason.

·         If the author is an organisation, use a comma at the end to indicate this. For example:  U.K. Global Warming Agency,

·         Press Enter after each author.


Enter keywords to help find your record, especially if they do not occur elsewhere in the record.

7.    Viewing or editing records

·         Double-click on a reference in the Library Window to open it for viewing or editing. The Hide Empty Fields button, top right is useful.

·         You can use the Show Tab Pane/Hide Tab Pane button bottom right to preview records.

·         If a reference has a PDF attached to it, you may open the PDF by selecting the reference and clicking the Open File button (which has a folder icon).

·         Close a reference by going to File | Close Reference or pressing Ctrl+W.

8.    Sorting records

·         Sort records by clicking on the column headings in the Library Window.

9.    Selecting references for deletion etc.

·         To select more than one reference in the Library Window, hold down Ctrl as you click.

·         To select ranges of references, click the first one, hold down Shift and click the last one.

·         To delete a reference, select it in the Library Window and go to References | Move References to Trash or press Ctrl+D. You can drag deleted references from the Trash folder in the left column to All References.

10. Grouping references

·         To create a group of references in the left column, select them, right-click and go to Add References To | Create Custom Group. Give the group a name and press Enter.

References may be in more than one group. If you delete a reference from a group, it is not deleted from your library.

11. Searching for records

·         Tools | Search Library or press Ctrl-F.

12. Finding duplicate records

·         References | Find Duplicates

You can control exactly how this works in Edit | Preferences | Duplicates.

13. Output styles

By default EndNote displays references in the Annotated output style. The Author-Date, Numbered and Show All Fields output styles are available in a drop-down box on a toolbar at the top of the Library Window. Many other output styles are available in EndNote and on www.endnote.com. To add another style to the drop-down box, go to Edit | Output Styles | Open Style Manager and check the style, e.g. MLA.

Note: Selecting RefMan (RIS) Export allows you to export in Reference Manager format.

14. Exporting references

·         File | Export

·         Before exporting you need to select an appropriate output style (Edit | Output Styles).

·         You can export as plain text (use this e.g. if you’re exporting to RefMan and then References | Import Text File in RefMan), Rich Text Format (for use as a formatted bibliography), HTML (for use on the Web) and XML.

·         If you are only exporting part of a bibliography, first (search for and) select the references you wish to export, and go to References | Show Selected References. (Switch this off afterwards by going to References | Show All References.)

·         To create a subject bibliography, use Tools | Subject Bibliography.

15. Backing up your library

Go to File | Save a Copy. Select a different location, give it a name and click Save.

16. Cite While You Write

For this to work properly, EndNote needs to be configured. See Configuring endNote above.

·         Start EndNote and set it to display the references in the output style you want to use.

·         To insert citations in Word, use the Insert Citation | Find Citation button on the EndNote tab.

·         To change the style of the citations, select Select Another Style in the Style drop-down box.

·         Edit & Manage Citation(s) allows you to add prefixes, suffixes and page numbers. You may also exclude either author or year. This often saves one from having to edit a style.

·         To create a bibliography in Word, select the references you want in EndNote and choose Insert Citation | Insert Selected Citation(s) on the EndNote tab.

·         To create an EndNote library from the references used in a paper, use the Export to EndNote | Export Traveling Library button on the EndNote tab.

·         To change the output style used in Word, click the Edit and Manage Citation(s) button on the EndNote tab and click Tools (bottom left) and Format Bibliography.

17. File management in EndNote

EndNote databases have the extension .enl and include a subfolder with the same name as the file followed by .data. If you move or copy an EndNote database, you must remember to move or copy the subfolder as well!

18. Settings

Edit | Preferences.

Display Fields are the fields displayed in the Library Window — this is where to edit which fields display in which order.

19. Installation

If you are installing Word and EndNote on a stand-alone PC or Mac (including laptops), Word needs to be installed first. Otherwise, the Cite While You Write feature will probably not work without much fiddling.

20. Further information