Or So Steiner Said
Who or what is God, according to Rudolf Steiner? Waldorf school students are expected to recite prayers, written by Steiner, that address “God,” “God’s spirit,” and/or the “Creator Spirit.”  To whom are these prayers directed?
Steiner spoke of the Godhead, which may be taken as the creative force behind the universe. Most people in the Western world, hearing of the Godhead, think of the monotheistic God recognized in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. But Steiner described a universe populated by a vast number of gods. He said that polytheism is correct; monotheism is only an ideal vision:
In Steiner's view, there is no One and Only God, at least not yet. The reality encompassed by the concept of monotheism is still being evolved: It is a condition the universe may reach eventually, not a condition that exists now, or so Steiner taught.
To repeat, then: To whom are Steiner's prayers directed?
Here is some of what Steiner said about the Godhead. He identified the Godhead as divine will. He characterized the Godhead as a nebulous force that activates good gods, and good humans, and everything else aside, perhaps, from evil gods and all the beings that lack real spirit. The Godhead is the “creator spirit” or the “kingdom” into which the good may enter. In this sense, it is blessedness.
Atma, as described by Steiner, is the highest evolutionary stage of human consciousness. Buddhi is a second, lower stage, consisting of the transformed etheric body — one of the three nonphysical bodies that humans possess, according to Steiner. (Manas, not mentioned in this quotation, is the third, still lower stage, consisting of the transformed astral body — another of our three nonphysical bodies). 
Steiner's vision was Christian, in a sense. It was also Hindu, in a sense (Atma, Buddhi...). Steiner placed great emphasis on Christ, teaching that Christ is a key embodiment of divine will. On the other hand, he also said that Christ is the Sun God, one of the vast panoply of gods inhabiting our polytheistic universe. [See "Sun God".] Thus, Christ — like all other beneficent beings — is a fulfillment of the Godhead. Thus, we may find the Godhead in Christ.
The Godhead is a spirit that incarnates in true existence (false existence incarnates evil or it has no spiritual component at all). The Godhead, incarnated in Christ and enduring Christ's Passion (the Crucifixion), sacrificed itself for our sake. We ourselves can follow the world process that, if properly unfolded, will lead to our Christ-informed spiritual evolution — toward our own divinity, which may be considered the ultimate fulfillment of the Godhead.
The Godhead is beyond our current comprehension and, in a manner of speaking, the Godhead is outside our universe. The Godhead may be deemed the mysterious trinity standing above all ranks of gods — it is the transcendent union of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, or Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu. In this sense, the Godhead is a union of three separate, highest gods. [See "Trinity".] All that exists — including the gods — arises from the Godhead and aspires to realize the Godhead. But, Steiner said, we cannot expect to understand the ultimate activities or purposes of divine will, at least not yet. [See "Origins".] The Godhead lies beyond. Steiner taught that for our pragmatic purposes, trying to understand how to live and what to think, we should direct our gaze at the gods who are more directly involved in the life of our solar system, our planet, and ourselves.
God the Father
The spirit realm, Steiner said, has few defining lines or distinctions. Entities and essences interweave and overlap. Thus, Christ is a god standing below the Godhead; yet Christ is also, in a sense, a member of the Godhead. The same may be said of God the Father. The Father, according to Steiner, is that fulfillment of divinity toward which we are evolving. We will actually become the Father — not as companions of the Father, but literally as Himself.
When Steiner's followers pray to God the Father — and when Waldorf students are led in such prayers — the god being addressed is not the Godhead, precisely, nor the One True God of monotheism (which Steiner said is false), but the creative aspect of divinity embodied in our spheres of spiritual activity, a godliness that we see as the Father. Anthroposophical forms of the Lord's Prayer address this power. Steiner used multiple versions of the Lord's Prayer, usually framed to direct focus to the god or gods that enact divine will for our immediate benefit. So, for example, one form of the Lord's Prayer offered by Steiner addresses not “Our Father which art in heaven” but, instead, it addresses the “All-Father of Humanity”:
"We sense You above in the heavenly heights,
All-Father of Humanity.
Consecrated be Your Name.” 
The All-Father is, in a sense, Odin, the highest god depicted in Norse myths, the father of the gods who was often referred to as All Father. Indeed, the wide pantheon of gods found in Norse mythology is more akin to Steiner's vision than is the single God of the Bible. [See "The Gods".] But in Steiner's teachings, Odin is not the Godhead; Odin is not the sole source of divine creativity. Rather, all the good gods participate in creation, and thus all of the good gods are our fathers, as it were. So another version of the Lord's Prayer used by Steiner — the version that Steiner said underlies the others — addresses not "our Father" but "ye fathers":
Has separated itself
From Your Kingdom
And forgot your names
Ye Fathers in the heavens." 
We have many spiritual fathers because there are many gods who have assisted us in our evolution, Steiner taught. Creation and evolution, in the broadest sense, are the work of "spirit." We ourselves are spiritual beings when we acknowledge our bonds to spirit:
The gods are all around us and even within us. If the Godhead is distant, the gods are present.
When we address a single Father, Steiner said, we must understand that we are not praying to Jehovah, the god of the Jews. According to Steiner, Jehovah (or Jahve) is only one of several collegial gods, the Elohim. Like many other gods, Jehovah has played a helpful role in our evolution, but we must see him in his context:
Actually, Steiner said, the god we address as Father is the presiding spirit of Saturn.
God the Son
In Christian belief, Christ is one of the three persons of God. Steiner’s conception overlaps this, but it is also extremely different. Christ is, in a way, the Son; but more particularly, according to Steiner, Christ is the Sun God — a god who has dwelled on, and ruled over, the Sun. Steiner said that the Sun God has involved Himself many times in human evolution [see "Christ Events"], and His coming to Earth was foreseen long ago, even while we lived on Atlantis:
Steiner taught that the Sun God entered Jesus, the man, for three years, after which He merged with the Earth. Early Christians understood Christ's true nature, more or less, but later Christians forgot. When humanity lost its ancient powers of clairvoyance, the reality of Christ's association with the Sun faded from our awareness:
Christ came to Earth and quit the Sun.
The life-spirit is the Buddhi, which I mentioned before. Christ "died to the Sun", meaning that he withdrew his spirit from the Sun. He, or his human embodiment, Jesus, later died on the Earth, and Christ the spirit then merged with the Earth.
Dying to the Sun and later merging with the Earth is not quite the same thing as dying to redeem our sins. Christ is not so much mankind's savior as the role model humans should follow, Steiner taught.
Christ became the inverse of the entire universe, a microcosmic or "inverse macrocosmic" being when he incarnated in human form. He brought All — the Godhead, as it were — into physical existence.
We ourselves are microcosmic men, small reflections of the entire universe, the macrocosm; and we become macrocosmic men when we properly follow Christ, who is the living Word of God, Logos. [See "All".]
Although Christ took up a unique burden when he chose to incarnate on Earth, he was not the only god to descend in one form or another, according to Steiner. [See "Avatars".] Good gods have descended to assist us, but evil gods or demons have come down to do us harm. So, during the time when Christ walked the Earth in the form of Jesus, the dire forces of the demon Ahriman were also abroad.
Steiner's polytheistic vision encompasses vast numbers of gods, some of whom try to thwart divine will and subvert the actions of the beneficent gods such as Christ. [See "Evil Ones".]
The Holy Spirit
Let’s consider the third person of the Christian triune God. The most obscure of the three, the Holy Spirit is, in a sense, what Christ bequeathed humanity. Or so Steiner indicated.
Three of Steiner’s devotees may help us, here.
Steiner taught that the Holy Spirit represents the "universal I" — the universal spiritual ego, the cosmic spark of divine selfhood and illumination. During the process of initiation, the human astral body is purified, becoming the perfect receptive human soul with its inborn wisdom: the "Virgin Sophia":
On other occasions, Steiner indicated that the Holy Spirit is itself the receptive feminine aspect of spirituality.
The procreative power of the "mother" finds expression in our souls.
In a sense, as we attain divinity and become "what is called in Christianity ‘the Father'”, we will have created God. And we will have done it thanks in large measure to the "mother" of God: Sophia/Artemis/Eve/Mary, who may be thought of as the Holy Spirit. [See "Goddess".]
If all of this is somewhat cloudy, Steiner sometimes gave a more concrete account. As we saw previously, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are three separate gods, Steiner said, and the Holy Ghost is "the Ruler of the Moon stage of Earth.” In other words, the deity we apprehend as the Holy Ghost is the particular god who presided during the Old Moon period of evolution — he was the leader of the Angels before the rebellion of Lucifer and his minions.
Here are some additional statements which may or may not tend toward illumination. Trying to make all Anthroposophical statements consistent with one another is, at a minimum, taxing. Sometimes it is better to just let the words flow.
We began by asking to whom Waldorf students are expected to pray. In some cases, using the words written by Rudolf Steiner, they pray to God or to "God's spirit," however that may be defined. [See "Prayers".] For Westerners, such prayers may seem conventionally — and therefore unobjectionably — monotheistic. But as we have seen, Steiner also advocated prayers that address multiple gods — "ye Fathers in the heavens." Devotees of Eastern religions will likely be comfortable with such prayers; others may not.
Steiner's vision is of a universe populated by multitudinous gods who have varying ranks. The rank of a group of gods reflects the evolutionary progress made by that group in their ascent toward ultimate divinity. Gods evolve along the same developmental path we humans are traveling, Steiner taught — although he said we may eventually attain a higher rank than any other upward-evolving beings. [See "Tenth Hierarchy".] At present, however, we stand below nine ranks of gods. [See "Polytheism".]
Anthroposophical prayers sometimes address or enumerate the nine ranks of gods above us. Often, if not always, Steiner's followers direct their attention to these multiple divinities:
"In the weaving of the ether
Man's web of destiny
Is received by Angels, Archangels, Archai.
Into the astral world
The just consequences of man's earthly life
Die into Exousiai, Dynameis, Kyriotetes.
In the essence of their deeds
The honest creations of man's earthly life
Are resurrected in Thrones, Cherubim, and Seraphim." 
To whom are Waldorf students expected to pray? The answer depends on the instruction individual Waldorf teachers provide to their students. Often, Steiner's complex vision is kept largely hidden from the kids. But sometimes the doctrines of Anthroposophy are revealed, to one degree or another, and the children's conception of the spiritual powers above them is affected as a result. Parents should certainly consider whether they are happy with this result.
— Roger Rawlings
"The animals, the sun, the soil, the rain, all of these are important and necessary on the farm. But only God's grace will help the animals to be born and the plants to grow."
God is honored in Waldorf schools — and so are multiple gods. Anthroposophy is polytheistic. Whenever you see a Waldorf practice that seems consistent with Western monotheistic religion, you may want to dig deeper.
[Waldorf student work, courtesy of People for Legal and Nonsectarian Schools.]
According to Steiner, God is
our evolutionary goal — the being
atop the universal hierarchies.
Eventually we ourselves will become
God the Father.
[Shown here is a traditional depiction
of the great chain of being extending upward
from hell to heaven.
RHETORICA CHRISTIANA, 1579.]
Few of Steiner's ideas were original; he took most from his extensive reading. (None of his ideas were what he claimed: results of his own clairvoyant examination of the universe — clairvoyance is a myth, it doesn't exist.)
For Christians, Steiner's most shocking tenet is that Christ is the Sun God. This heresy predated Steiner by centuries — it was imported into Christian mysticism by those who could not bear to relinquish pagan beliefs.
This mosaic dates from the first century AD, when Christianity and paganism overlapped in the Roman Empire. Christ is depicted as Helios, the Sun God. He is also given characteristics of Mithras and Sol. [J. C. Cooper, AN ILLUSTRATED ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TRADITIONAL SYMBOLS, (Thames and Hudson, 1978), p. 163.]
Steiner's conception of the Godhead
is related to that of other gnostics and mystics.
The following is from
THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA:
"Negative mysticism: God and the Godhead
"The most daring forms of Christian mysticism have emphasized the absolute unknowability of God. They suggest that true contact with the transcendent involves going beyond all that we speak of as God — even the Trinity — to an inner 'God beyond God,' a divine Darkness or Desert in which all distinction is lost. This form of 'mystical atheism' has seemed suspicious to established religion; its adherents have usually tried to calm the suspicions of the orthodox by an insistence on the necessity, though incompleteness, of the affirmative ways to God. One of the earliest and most important exponents of this teaching was the Pseudo-Dionysius, who distinguished 'the super-essential Godhead' from all positive terms ascribed to God, even the Trinity (The Divine Names, chapter 13). In the West this tradition emerged later; it is first found in Erigena in the 9th century and is especially evident in the Rhineland school in the 13th and 14th centuries. According to Eckhart, even being and goodness are 'garments' or 'veils' under which God is hidden. In inviting his hearers to 'break through' to the hidden Godhead, he exclaimed, 'Let us pray to God that we may be free of "God," and that we may apprehend and rejoice in that everlasting truth in which the highest angel and the fly and the soul are equal' (German Sermons, 52). The notion of the hidden Godhead was renewed in the teaching of Jakob Böhme, who spoke of it as the Ungrund — 'the great Mystery,' 'the Abyss,' 'the eternal Stillness.' He stressed the fact of divine becoming (in a nontemporal sense): God is eternally the dark mystery of which nothing can be said but ever puts on the nature of light, love, and goodness wherein the divine is revealed to human beings." — "Christianity." ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA, Online, 11 Dec. 2012.
In borrowing from others, Steiner sometimes stayed fairly true to his sources, although he often altered things almost beyond recognition.
Steiner called Christ Jesus the "Representative of Humanity" — He is the ideal human we may all become. Likewise, Steiner taught that humans are microcosmic reflections of the entire universe. The image above — not Anthroposophical — depicts Christ as the microcosm, embodying all the elements and powers of the universe. [J. C. Cooper, AN ILLUSTRATED ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TRADITIONAL SYMBOLS, (Thames and Hudson, 1978), p. 103.]
Sketch of background scenery used for staging
a mystery play written by Steiner —
suggesting our choice of paths
on our journey toward becoming
"what is called in Christianity ‘the Father.'"
[R.R., 2009, based on p. 25,
(Philosophical-Anthrposopsophical Press, 1961).
Painting by a young Waldorf student,
assuredly under the guidance of her/his Waldorf teacher.
[courtesy of People for Legal and Nonsectarian Schools].
For more on God, the Godhead,
Christ, and related teachings,
please see "All",
For explications of God's name
as given to Moses, see "Moses".
To delve into Steiner's teachings about
the Book of Genesis, see "Genesis".
And for the Anthroposophical view
of the Old Testament more generally,
see "Old Testament".
God or the Godhead brooding over humanity's tortuous evolution, affected by demonic powers as in the destruction of Lemuria and Atlantis. [R.R., 2014. Steiner gave the original indications for this image, which is one detail in a large ceiling mural. Gerhard Wagner painted numerous versions of the mural. My copy is based on one of Wagner's paintings — see THE GOETHEANUM CUPOLA MOTIFS OF RUDOLF STEINER (Steiner Books, 2011), p. 93. Wagner's painting is multi-colored; my sketch is black and white, with a tint added. For clarity, I have slightly heightened the contrast between figures and ground.]
Black-and-white photocopy of the upper portion of Wagner's painting.
[R. R., ~2004.]
Anthroposophy is one form of occultism existing within a wide array of such systems. Steiner attempted to systematize and reconcile the world's occult teachings. Other have made similar attempts, with similarly faulty results. Systems of falsehoods, no matter how carefully worked out, remain systems of falsehoods.
Above are charts of Ramon Lull's occult art, meant to summarize divine wisdom. [Martin Gardner, SCIENCE: GOOD, BAD AND BOGUS (Prometheus Books, 1989), p. 45.]
[Ernst Haeckel, ART FORMS IN NATURE (Dover Publications, 1974).]
There is clearly much beauty, symmetry, even "design" in nature. Whether this amounts to evidence that a designer — a Creator — exists is, perhaps, open to question. Many people in the modern, Western world — perhaps a majority — believe that God exists. But Steiner would have us believe in a vast pantheon of gods, nature spirits, and other invisible beings. To substantiate his vision, he offered essentially his unsupported word — he used "exact clairvoyance," he assured his followers. Really, he said, I did. Believe me, he said, I did. I really did. He also assured them them that if they accept his word, and follow his directions, and develop exact clairvoyance, too, then they will see exactly what he saw. Really.
To visit other pages in this section of Waldorf Watch,
use the underlined links, below.
◊◊◊ 9. WALDORF AND RELIGION ◊◊◊
Some illustrations on each page here at Waldorf Watch
are closely connected to the essay on that page;
others are not — they provide general context.
 Here are the two prayers generally used in Waldorf schools, both of them written by Steiner for the students to recite. They can be found in Rudolf Steiner, PRAYERS FOR PARENTS AND CHILDREN (Rudolf Steiner Press, 1995).
“The Sun with loving light
Makes bright for me each day;
The soul with spirit power
Gives strength unto my limbs;
In sunlight shining clear
I reverence, O God,
The strength of humankind,
That thou so graciously
Hast planted in my soul,
That I with all my might
May love to work and learn.
From Thee come light and strength,
To Thee rise love and thanks.”
“I look into the world;
In which the Sun shines,
In which the stars sparkle,
In which the stones lie,
The living plants are growing,
The animals are feeling,
In which the soul of man
Gives dwelling for the spirit;
I look into the soul
Which lives within myself.
God’s spirit weaves in light
Of Sun and human soul,
In world of space, without,
In depths of soul, within.
God’s spirit, ‘tis to Thee
I turn myself in prayer,
That strength and blessing grow
In me, to learn and work.”
Some schools substitute the term “Creator Spirit” and/or “World Creator” for “God’s spirit.” Thus, at the Rudolf Steiner School of Ann Arbor (Michigan) the second prayer ends this way:
“I look into the soul,
That lives within my being
The World Creator weaves
In sunlight and in soul light,
In world space there without
In soul depths here within.
To Thee Creator Spirit
I will now turn my heart
To ask that strength and blessing
For learning and for work
May ever grow within me.”
— I last checked this on July 1, 2009.
For an analysis of these prayers, see "Prayers".
 Rudolf Steiner, THE MISSION OF THE FOLK SOULS (Rudolf Steiner Press, 2005), p. 115.
Steiner said that the Trinity exists, but so do other trinities: The Christian triune God exists, but in a distant sense; it stands beyond a plethora of other gods who are nearer to us and more busy in our affairs. The highest attendants of God have experienced the presence of the Trinity, but perhaps only they have done so.
In a sense, on the matter of origins and ultimate powers, Steiner chose silence. He focused on events in our own solar system, which is distant from the "highest godhead," and he discouraged investigation into ultimate origins.
The Godhead as conceived by Steiner most closely resembles the Hindu Brahma. Anthroposophy is resembles Hinduism nearly as much as it resembles Christianity. Steiner said the universe is polytheistic.
Steiner tried to affirm both polytheism and monotheism, which is logically absurd.
As a point about mental concepts, this is true: One concept implies its opposite; we must have both concepts. But applied to empirical reality, the concept is wrong. In reality, the universe is either one or the other, a monotheistic reality or a pluralistic reality. Thus, there may be one and only one god (monotheism), but in order to exist this god would not require the existence of multiple other gods (polytheism). Indeed, the existence of multiple gods would mean that there is no single, one-and-only god.
So, if pushed to the wall, what would Steiner say? "Monism or monotheism in itself can only represent an ultimate ideal; it could never lead to a real understanding of the world."
For more on Anthroposophical polytheism, see "Polytheism".
 Rudolf Steiner, THE LORD'S PRAYER (Rudolf Steiner Press, 2007), p. 64.
When Steiner speaks of "Christianity," he sometimes means his own teachings and sometimes he means mainstream Christian teachings, which are often quite different from his own. When he uses terms such as "esoteric Christianity," he refers to teachings distinctly allied with his own.
Note that in some, perhaps reductive Anthroposophical interpretations, the Godhead is equated with the Holy Trinity. To understand this, however, we must remember that Anthroposophy is polytheistic, so many gods are invoked, and the Trinity itself is a sort of committee of gods. Within this polytheistic vision, the terms "God," "Godhead," and "Trinity" can be taken, sometimes, as synonymous.
The Trinity as described by Steiner (at least sometimes) consists of the gods of Saturn, the Sun, and the Old Moon. But in a broad sense, we must reconcile ourselves to the proposition that the Godhead lies beyond our comprehension.
Anthroposophists believe that a spark of divinity resides within each real, fully incarnated human being. This is called the "I" or spiritual ego, or (sometimes) the "ego body." The highest component of human spiritual nature, however, is called "spirit man," and this is sometimes described as the expression of the Godhead in human nature. [For a survey of human components as described by Steiner, see "Our Parts."]
 OCCULT SCIENCE - AN OUTLINE, p. 332, translator’s note; also Gary Lachman, RUDOLF STEINER (Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2007), p. 141.
 Rudolf Steiner, INTUITIVE THINKING AS A SPIRITUAL PATH (Wilder Publications, 2008), p. 92. A different translation is available from the Anthroposophic Press.
 Rudolf Steiner, THE LORD’S PRAYER (Rudolf Steiner Press, 2007), p. 17.
Many of Steiner's remarks come to us not from books he wrote but from lectures he delivered. Faithful adherents made transcriptions. Whether or not certain words should be put in quotation marks was, in these cases, a matter of interpretation. If the transcriber understood Steiner to put a certain spin on certain words, s/he might decide whether to put these words inside quotation marks.
 Rudolf Steiner, START NOW! A Book of Soul and Spiritual Exercises (SteinerBooks, 2004), p. 220.
 Ibid., p. 221.
 THE SPIRITUAL GROUND OF EDUCATION (Anthroposophic Press, 2004), p. 49.
 Rudolf Steiner, THE MISSION OF THE FOLK SOULS (Rudolf Steiner Press, 2005), p. 99.
 Rudolf Steiner, ROSICRUCIAN WISDOM (Rudolf Steiner Press, 2000), p. 100.
For more on Steiner's descriptions of multiple gods, see "Polytheism".
 Rudolf Steiner, THE PRINCIPLE OF SPIRITUAL ECONOMY IN CONNECTION WITH QUESTIONS OF REINCARNATION (Anthroposophic Press, 1986). p. 5.
 Rudolf Steiner, KARMIC RELATIONSHIPS, Vol. VI (Rudolf Steiner Press, 1989), p. 125.
All such spiritual truths are complex and mysterious, Steiner taught; hence, the term "Sun God" appears here in quotation marks, to stress the incomplete nature of human comprehension.
 Rudolf Steiner, KARMIC RELATIONSHIPS, Vol. VIII (Rudolf Steiner Press, 1975), p. 78.
 OCCULT SCIENCE - AN OUTLINE, p. 272.
 Rudolf Steiner, CORRESPONDENCE AND DOCUMENTS 1901-1925 (Rudolf Steiner Press, 1989), p. 83.
 Rudolf Steiner, THE FIFTH GOSPEL, (Rudolf Steiner Press), p. 225.
 Rudolf Steiner, UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN BEING (Rudolf Steiner Press, 1993), p. 75.
Note that the triune God is a formula devised by “human cleverness.” Seen from this perspective (which Steiner alternately assumed and discarded), the trinity is illusory.
 Stewart C. Easton, MAN AND WORLD IN THE LIGHT OF ANTHROPOSOPHY (Anthroposophic Press, 1989), p. 163.
 THE SPIRITUAL FOUNDATION OF MORALITY (Anthroposophic Press, 1995), introduction by Malcolm Ian Gardner, p. xiv.
 "Whitsun or Pentecost", by Karen Mortenson, WALDORF EDUCATION: A Family Guide (Michaelmas Press, 1995), edited by Pamela Johnson Fenner and Karen L. Rivers, p. 171.
Whitsun may also be mixed, at Waldorfs, with the Jewish Shavu'ot and other observances.
 Rudolf Steiner, "Christ, the Virgin Sophia, and the Holy Spirit", THE NEW ESSENTIAL STEINER (Lindisfarne Books, 2009), ed. Robert McDermott, p. 164.
For more about Sophia, see "Goddess".
The cosmic or universal I may be conceived as the Godhead, and the Holy Ghost may then be conceived as the angelic messenger bringing this emanation of the Godhead.
 Rudolf Steiner, ISIS MARY SOPHIA (SteinerBooks, 2003), p. 49.
Clear differentiations and distinctions are not always to be found in spiritual matters as depicted in Anthroposophy. Thus, for instance,
 Rudolf Steiner, THE MYSTERIES: Rudolf Steiner's Writings of Spiritual Initiation (Floris Books, 1997), ed. Andrew Welburn, p. 86.
 Sergei O. Prokofieff, THE MYSTERY OF THE RESURRECTION IN THE LIGHT OF ANTHROPOSOPHY (Temple Lodge Publishing, 2010), p. 70.
 Richard Seddon, quoting, in THE CHALLENGE OF LAZARUS-JOHN (Temple Lodge, 2015), p. 104.
 Rudolf Steiner, ROSICRUCIAN WISDOM, p. 121.
 Rudolf Steiner, THE MISSION OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL (Anthroposophic Press, 1961), lecture 4, GA 174a.
 Rudolf Steiner, “The Mystery of Golgotha” (ANTHROPOSOPHY QUARTERLY, Vol. 1 (Anthroposophical Publishing Co., 1926), a lecture, GA 214.
 Rudolf Steiner, PASTORAL MEDICINE (Anthroposophic Press, 1987), lecture 11, GA 318.
 Rudolf Steiner, “The Seeds of Future Worlds” (THE GOLDEN BLADE, 1963), a lecture, GA 207.
 Rudolf Steiner, THE DEED OF CHRIST (Steiner Book Centre, 1954), lecture 1, GA 107.
 Rudolf Steiner, THE GOSPEL OF ST. LUKE (Rudolf Steiner Press, 1964), lecture 7, GA 114.
Re. the "Nathan Jesus": see "Was He Christian?"
 Rudolf Steiner, a prayer on p. 62 of PRAYERS AND GRACES (Floris Books, 1996), compiled by Michael Jones.