Gods and Goddesses of Nicopolis in the time of Elagabalus

During the time of Elagabalus 218-222 AD, the Roman provincial cities, including Nicopolis ad Istrum generally were generally worshiping the Greek gods and goddesses.This page shows the coins from Nicopolis ad Istrum that I have with the Greek gods and goddesses on them.I provide a link to Wikipedia (w) and www.pantheon.org (p) or other (o) external sources if Wikipedia does not have information on them.  The pronunciation in italics is also from www.pantheon.org.  In parenthesis, I have the Roman equivalent.

Note: Markianopolis is currently the main focus of my collection. I have expanded to Nicopolis ad Istrum as a secondary city.

Athena a-thee'na (Minerva) (w)(p) Goddess of wisdom, weaving, crafts, and war.  Holding spear and shield. Sometimes shown with a serpent and an olive tree. Sometimes holding Nike. Sometimes enthroned. Daughter of Zeus  (example2)




air'-eez (Mars) (w)(p) God of war. Son of Zeus and Hera. Usually in military dress.Either holding a shield and spear or a patera and cornucopia

Apollo a-pol'-lo (Apollo, also Roman) (w)(p) Archer god of medicine and healing and a bringer of death dealing plague.  He was also god of music and poetry.  He was increasingly identified with the sun.  Usually shown with a cloak and a serpent staff OR holding a patera (sometimes over a flaming altar) and a branch.  Son of Zeus.

 or Heracles (Hercules) (w) Greek mythological hero. Shown naked left, strangling Nemean lion OR resting on club and holding lion-skin sometimes draped over a club

Hermes (w)(p) (Mercury) God of commerce, boundaries and of travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators of wit, of literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures and invention and commerce in general, and of the cunning of thieves and liars. He was also the messenger from the gods to humans. Son of Zeus. Usually shown with a purse and a caduceus. Sometimes with a cock at his feet. Sometimes an altar to his side. Sometimes holding caduceus over altar.

Nike ny'-kee (Victory) (w)(p) Goddess who personified triumph and victory. She was capable of flying or running at great speeds.  Usually shown winged and holding a wreath and palm OR standing right and emperor standing left in military attire, holding spear, erecting trophy, which stands between them, with two seated captives at base. Nike sometimes appears on coins of others.

River-god (w) Personification of rivers.Usually reclining with reed above flowing water from urn, vase or rock. Sometimes on a boat or with a prow to the side. Sometimes with a cornucopia. Usually represented the regional river closest to the city.

Serapis sə-ˈrā-pəs (w)(p) God of the underworld (See link for more info).  Usually a bust wearing kalathos OR holding scepter.  (example2)

Tyche tie'-kee (Fortuna) (w)(p) Goddess who governed fortune and prosperity. Usually shown with a cornucopia and a ships rudder, sometimes on a globe. Sometimes wearing kalathos and sometimes the rudder is on a globe. (example2)

Zeus zoos (Jupiter) (w)(p) Leader of the gods.  Usually shown holding a scepter as well as a patera or phiale.  Sometimes with thunderbolt or Nike or an eagle at feet. See my patera vs phiale page.

Gods or goddesses that appeared on coins of Elagabalus from Nicopolis ad Istrum that I don’t have yet in my collection:

Artemis (Diana) Virgin goddess of the hunt, wild animals, wilderness, moon, childbirth and sometimes fertility. Shown with a bow and arrow, sometimes with a hound at her side.

Asklepios or Asclepius, Greek god of healing.Shown with a serpent-staff. Sometimes shown with Hygieia his daughter and her snake. Sometimes shown with them as well as his son Telesphoros

Cybele (Magna Mater) Deification of Earth Mother.Holding scepter and drum, riding on back of lion

Demeter (Ceres) Goddess of agriculture.Holding corn-ears and resting on torch

Dionysos (Bacchus) God of wine.Representing the intoxicating power as well as its social and beneficent influences. Patron deity of both agriculture and theater. Usually holding thyrsos and grapes or kantharsos. Sometimes riding on back of lion right, holding scepter. Son of Zeus.

Emperor (Elagabalus, included in list for type). Shown on horseback with raised arm, sometimes with spear to lion below OR in military attire standing left, holding reversed spear in left hand, right hand extended, right foot on prostrate captive; crowned by Nike, holding wreath; another captive and weapons between emperor and Nike OR sacrificing over flaming altar, holding fold of his dress in left hand OR wearing radiate crown, standing facing head left, holding patera over altar and reversed spear

Eros (Cupid) God of lust, love and sex. Shown on dolphin right, holding bow and arrow

Eutychea or Eutychia (Felicitas) Greek personification and Goddess of happiness. Shown standing left, holding patera and scepter

Helios (Sol) God/personification of the sun. Shown naked, radiate, riding on two horses left, holding scepter

Hemus Personification of the snow capped Balkan mountains. Shown seated on rock left, right hand on head, holding branch in left; bear right at foot of rock, stag to left; sometime with tree behind

Hera (Juno) Goddess of marriage.Wife and sister to Zeus. Shown holding a scepter and a patera. Sometimes with a peacock at her feet. 

Homonoia or Harmonia (Concordia) Goddess of harmony and concord.Usually shown holding a patera and cornucopia. Sometimes holding patera over lighted altar. Sometimes holding patera over lighted altar

Hygieia (Salus) Goddess of health, cleanliness and sanitation and later the moon. Daughter of Aesklepios and sister of Telesphoros. Usually shown feeding serpent from patera.

Nemesis Spirit of divine retribution.Shown with scales and usually a wheel. Sometimes with a cornucopia, cubit-rule, scepter, or whip.

Pan (Faunus) God who watches over shepherds and their flocks. Shown with horns and legs of goat, standing left head right holding shepherds’ crook and syrinx (pan pipes); left foot on panther lying on its back.

Priapus (Mutinus Mutunus) Rustic fertility god of purely phallic character, protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia.Usually raising his dress with both hands, sometimes with a basket with fruits set on his phallus

Triptolemus or Triptolem "Primordial man" and teacher of the art of agriculture to the Greeks. Connected with Demeter. Shown in chariot drawn right by two winged serpents right

Main page for coins of Elagabalus from Nicopolis ad Istrum

Reverse types of Elagabalus from Nicopolis ad Istrum

Provincial Gods and Goddesses (Same as this page, without the "don't have yet" section, with examples from other cities)

Gods and Goddesses of Markianopolis (Same as this page, except for the city of Markianopolis only)

Reverse types of Elagabalus (Markianopolis)

My main Elagabalus page

Site Map