SOVIET LUNAR PHOTOS

51 YEARS AGO THE SOVIETS GOT TO THE MOON FIRST WITH UNMANNED SPACECRAFT.
THEIR ACHIEVEMENT WAS 20th CENTURY,  BUT THEIR PHOTOGRAPHY LOOKED 19th CENTURY UNTIL
AFTER 1965. LOOK BELOW AT THE MANY PHOTOS AND ALSO NOTE THE
FULL
EARTHRISE COLOR
SHOTS OF THE MOON FROM ZOND-7 PLUS SEVERAL RETURNED  LUNAR SOIL SAMPLE PICTURES.

COMPARE THE EARLY SOVIET MOON PHOTOS WITH THAT OF THE VERY FIRST LUNAR PHOTO EVER 
TAKEN WHICH WAS ALSO THE FIRST ASTROPHOTO - BY JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER  (IN 1839)
.
IF THIS PHOTO DOES NOT DOWNLOAD  BELOW  THEN CLICK ON THIS LINK:
http://www.fotoart.gr/photography/history/historyphotos/onephotoonestory/thefirstphotoofthemoon.htm

SCROLL DOWN FOR HIS PICTURE AND CAPTION -- HIS  BIOGRAPHY IS AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE -
BOTH FROM WIKIPEDIA

 

THE FIRST PHOTO OF THE MOON

1839

 


PHOTO BY: JOHN W.DRAPER IN 1839




John William Draper was born in England and immigrated in the U.S.A.
There he became a chemistry professor in the New York University.
The silver platinum plate (Daguerreotype print) of the moon was
the first of a series that where shot using a telescope. This series
was later presented at the Science Academy. Draper was also the
first to shoot a portrait in America, the portrait of his sister
Dorothy - Catherine . In 1864 he became chairman of the American Photographic
Association.


PHOTO AND ARTICLE ABOVE ARE FROM THE WEBSITE AT:

http://www.fotoart.gr/photography/history/historyphotos/onephotoonestory/thefirstphotoofthemoon.htm


John William Draper
John William Draper
John William Draper
Born May 5, 1811
St. Helens, Merseyside, England
Died January 4, 1882
Hastings-on-Hudson, New York
Nationality American
Known for photochemistry
**********************************************************************************************************


THE SOVIET PHOTOS BELOW ARE FROM:

http://www.mentallandscape.com/C_CatalogMoon.htm
  

 

Russian probes returned the first images of the Lunar far side and the first images from the Lunar surface. While a manned landing was never accomplished, the final phase of Soviet exploration included a number of impressive robotic missions, returning samples and roving the surface. (Click on images to see full-sized versions)

Luna-3

On October 7, 1959, Luna-3 returned the first images of the hidden side of the Moon. Using a phototelevision camera, pairs of images were simultaneously exposed through 200mm and 500mm lenses. The Luna-3 camera was developed by P.F. Bratslavets and I.A. Rosselevich at the Leningrad Scientific Research Institute of Television. The images were processed and analyzed by Iu.N. Lipskii and his team at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute.

The camera held 40 frames of film, and 15 images (frames 26 to 40) were received via frequency-modulated analog video. Frames 39 and 40 may have contained calibration patterns. The full moon appears to have very little detailed texture, because the lunar mountains and terrain casts no shadows when lit from overhead. A special thanks to Dr. Vladislav Shevchenko at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute for making scans of the original film recordings for me. Blank frames indicate images that I do not have yet:

Luna-3 Frame 26 Frame 26 Luna-3 Frame 27 Frame 27 Luna-3 Frame 28 Frame 28
Luna-3 Frame 29 Frame 29 Luna-3 Frame 30 Frame 30 Luna-3 Frame 31 Frame 31
Luna-3 Frame 32 Frame 32 Luna-3 Frame 33 Frame 33 Luna-3 Frame 34 Frame 34
Luna-3 Frame 35
Frame 35
Luna-3 Frame 36 Frame 36 Luna-3 Frame 37 Frame 37
Luna-3 Frame 30 Frame 38

The video signal from Luna-3 was higher quality than usually supposed. A photograph made in 1965 from the magnetic tape shows sharper detail and greater dynamic range:

Luna-3 Frame 26, 1965 recording
Frame 26 (1965 recording)

Two types of test patterns were included on the Luna-3 film, a standard Soviet television chart and a type of zebra-stripe resolution chart called Shtrichovaya Mira. These are not actual images from Luna-3, they just illustrate what was imprinted on the film.

Television Test Card 0249 Television Test Card 0249 Resolution ChartShtrichovaya Mira

Zond-3

One July 20, 1965, Zond-3 was the second spacecraft to view the far side of the Moon. This model 3MV spacecraft was actually designed for missions to Mars and Venus. Using a phototelevision camera, 29 frames were exposed. The Zond-3 camera was developed by A.S. Selivanov and his team at the Institute of Space Device Engineering. The images were processed and analyzed by Iu.N. Lipskii and his team at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute. Frames 1 and 2 were probably pre-exposed test patterns and have not been published, frames 8-10 contained an ultraviolet spectrum, and frame 25 was never received. Using digital pulse-position modulation, all frames were scanned and transmitted in 67-line resolution, and selected images were retransmitted at 1100-line resolution:
Zond-3 Frame 3 Frame 3 Zond-3 Frame 4 Frame 4 Zond-3 Frame 5 Frame 5 Zond-3 Frame 6 Frame 6
Zond-3 Frame 7 Frame 7 Zond-3 UV Spectra in Frames 8 to 10 Frames 8 to 10 Zond-3 Frame 11 Frame 11 Zond-3 Frame 12 Frame 12
Zond-3 Frame 13 Frame 13 Zond-3 Frame 14 Frames 14 Zond-3 Frame 15 Frame 15 Zond-3 Frame 16 Frame 16
Zond-3 Frame 17 Frame 17 Zond-3 Frame 18 Frames 18 Zond-3 Frame 19 Frame 19 Zond-3 Frame 20 Frame 20
Zond-3 Frame 21 Frame 21 Zond-3 Frame 22 Frames 22 Zond-3 Frame 23 Frame 23 Zond-3 Frame 24 Frame 24
Zond-3 Frame 26 Frame 26 Zond-3 Frame 27 Frames 27 Zond-3 Frame 28 Frame 28 Zond-3 Frame 29 Frame 29

Luna-9

On February 3, 1966, Luna-9 became the first spacecraft to land on the Moon. On February 4 and 5, it transmitted 3 cycloramic panoramas from an optical-mechanical camera. The camera was developed by A.S. Selivanov and his team at the Institute of Space Device Engineering, and the results were analyzed at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute and by A.I. Lebedinskii at Moscow University. The images were transmitted as analog FM video signals at one stroke per second over a 250 Hz subcarrier (equivalent to 500 pixels/line).

Luna-9 Panorama 1

Panorama 1

Luna-9 Panorama 2

Panorama 2

Luna-9 Panorama 3

Panorama 3

The photo below, shows a section of Panorama 2 printed from a British recording of the Luna-9 signal at Jodrell Bank Radio Observatory:

British recording of part of Panorama 2

Luna-12

Luna-12 entered orbit on October 25, 1966, carrying two phototelevision cameras of the same variety as Zond-3. This was the first Soviet craft to take close up pictures from orbit, but only a few images have ever been published:

Luna-12 Photograph Luna-12 Photograph Luna-12 Photograph Luna-12 Photograph

Luna-13

On December 24, 1966, Luna-13 made the second Soviet landing on the Moon. It transmitted 5 cycloramas over a period of several days (note shadows becoming less elongated).

Luna-13 Panorama 1

Panorama 1

Luna-13 Panorama 2

Panorama 2

Luna-13 Panorama 3

Panorama 3

Luna-13 Panorama 4

Panorama 4

Luna-13 Panorama 5

Panorama 5

Zond-5

On September 18, 1968, Zond-5 became the first spacecraft to circle the Moon and return to land on Earth. The camera systems on Zond-5 through Zond-8 were designed by a team under Boris N. Rodionov at the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK). They also performed most of the analysis of the returned images. It photographed the Earth from a distance of 90,000 km, but a subsequent malfunction of the orientation system prevented it from photographing the Moon:

Zond-5 Photo of Earth

Zond-6

Zond-6 flew around the Moon on November 14, 1968. It carried the AFA-BAM camera with 400 mm objecitve, shooting on 13 × 18 cm frames of isopanchromatic film. A session of 111 frames was performed at a distance of 9290-6843 km, and another session of 58 frames from 2660-2430 km.

A crash landing on Earth flattened and broke open the film canister, but 52 photographs were recovered with some degree of laceration and fogging. Only a few fragments of Zond-6 images have been published. A mosaic image was constructed from the recovered imagery, shown below as the last image. Poor print quality, not film damage, is the reason for the low quality of the first and thrid image below:

Zond-6 Photo of the Moon Zond-6 Photo of the Moon Zond-6 Photo of Earth and Moon
Zond-6 Photo of the Moon Zond-6 Photo of the Moon (another print of previous photo) Zond-6 Photo of the Moon (another print of previous photo)

Zond-7

Zond-7 photographed the Earth on August 9 and performed two photo sessions at the Moon on August 11, 1969. It shot 35 pictures with the SKD camera and 300 mm objective, on 5.6 × 5.6 cm frames of color and panchromatic film. The two left colored photos are enlarged below:

Zond-7 Photo of Earth and Moon Zond-7 Photo of Earth and Moon Zond-7 Photo of Earth and Moon (another print)
Zond-7 or Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Zond-7 Photo of the Moon Zond-7 Photo of the Moon
Zond-7 Photo of Earth http://www.mentallandscape.com/C_Zond07_9.jpg  
http://www.mentallandscape.com/C_Zond07_1.jpg 
 

http://www.mentallandscape.com/C_Zond07_6.jpg

Zond-8

Zond-8 flew by the Moon on October 24, 1970 and returned to Earth with high quality photographs, some from as close as 1350 km. Images were shot with the 400 mm AFA-BAM camera, on 13 × 18 cm frames of isopanchromatic film. A session of 20 full-Moon pictures was followed by a session of 78 Lunar-surface pictures (including 17 shots of the Earth over the Lunar horizon).

The images below are 20 percent of full size. Frames flagged with a star are from 6000 × 8000 pixel images digitized in Moscow from the original negatives. The remainder are from lower resolution scans of film copies in the archives of the US Geological Survey.

Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 1 * Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 5 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 6
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 7 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 8 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 9 *
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 10 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 14 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 15 *
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 19 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 20 * Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 25
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 26 * Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 31 * Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 35
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 36 * Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 39 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 40
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 41 * Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 45 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 47 *
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 48 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 49 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 50
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 53 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 54 * Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 55
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 57 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 58 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 59 *
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 60 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 63 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 64 *
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 66 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 67 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame 69 *
Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame X2* Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame X38* Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Frame X?

A few sections at full resolution show the true quality of the Zond camera system:

Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Detail from Frame 9 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Detail from Frame 59 Zond-8 Photo of the Moon Detail from Frame X38

Luna-16

Luna-16 landed in the Sea of Fertility on September 20, 1970. It had two cycloramic optical-mechanical cameras of higher light sensitivity than Luna-9, with lamps and a wide lens aperture, since this mission landed at night. The artificial illumination failed, and unpublished panoramic images are reported to contain only a few light spots seen in Earthlight.

Luna-16 Lunar Soil Sample Luna-16 Lunar Soil Sample
Luna-16 Lunar Soil Sample Luna-16 Lunar Soil Sample
Luna-16 Lunar Soil Sample Luna-16 Lunar Soil Sample

Photos above show portions of the 101 gram sample of lunar rock and soil retuned to Earth by the spacecraft.

Luna-17 with Lunokhod-1

Luna-17 landed on the Moon on November 15, 1970. The robotic rover, Lunokhod-1 rolled off the landing platform to explore the surface of the Moon for about a month. Two cycloramic cameras on either side of the rover were oriented for 180° horizontal panoramas (500 × 3000 pixels). These panoramas are sometimes geometrically warped to correct for the 15° tilt of the camera.

Two other cameras were oriented for 360° vertical panoramas of 500 × 6000 pixels, including images of the sky for star locations. A level indicator was placed below these cameras, with a bull's eye pattern and a small metal ball bearing. This level indicator can be seen as the "dixie cup" in the horizontal pans.

Over 200 panoramas were returned. Two cameras transmitted simultaneously, on 130 and 190 KHz subcarriers. Analysis of these images was carried out by the Sternberg Astronomical Institute (SAI), the Vernadskii Geophysical Institute (GEOKhI), and the Space Research Institute (IKI). The cameras were built by Arnold Selivanov's team at RNIIKP.

As with many Soviet space images, generation loss prevents us from seeing the original quality. Most Lunokhod images are derived from scanning printed images or second-generation film copies. Each stage of photography, printing and scanning introduces noise, nonlinear brighness mapping, and (worst of all) clamping to white or black. The images below only hint at the appearance of the original video signal.

Camera No. 2 (Left Side)

01. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

02. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

02b. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

03. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

04. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

05. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

06. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

07. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

08. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

09. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

10. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

11. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

12. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

13. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

13b. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

14. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

Camera No. 4 (Right Side)

01. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

02. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

03. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

03b. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

04. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

05. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

05b. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

06. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

06b. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

07. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

08. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

09. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

10. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

11. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

12. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

12b. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

13. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama 13b. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

14. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama 14b. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama 14c. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

15. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

15b. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

16. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

17. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama 17b. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama 18. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama 18b. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

Cameras No. 1 and 3 (Vertical Panoramas)

It is difficult to distinguish left and right side views, and like all Lunokhod pans, publishers routinely flip the images. Selivanov identifies 01 and 08 as coming from camera no. 3. Pan 09 might be from Lunokhod-2.

01. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

02. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

02b. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

03. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

04. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

05. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

06. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

07. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

08. Luna-17 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

09. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

Video Pictures

Over 20,000 low-resolution video pictures were transmitted, primarily for use by the drivers to navigate the rover. Note the usual horizontal scanlines of a TV camera, as opposed to the vertical scanlines of the cycloramic cameras.

Luna-17 Video Picture

Luna-19

Luna-19 was a heavy orbiter based on the Luna-17 spacecraft and a lunokhod housing. It entered a low (100 km above surface) orbit on October 3, 1971 and returned 5 panoramas scanned by two linear optical-mechanical cameras as it passed across the Moon. These panoramas scanned a 150° "fish-eye" view from horizon to horizon, at 4 strokes/second, perpendicular to the path of the spacecraft. Very few of the Luna-19 images have been published, the best image being this photo of a lunar crater:

Fragment of Luna-19 Panorama

The image above is actually a cropped version of the panorama seen below left. Two poor-quality reproductions of fragments are seen below, which will hopefully be upgraded. Smaller printed fragments show the whole signal, including the square-wave retrace signal. They suggest that the camera scanned at 45° to the orbital path:

Fragment of Luna-19 Panorama Fragment of Luna-19 Panorama
Fragment of Luna-19 Panorama Fragment of Luna-19 Panorama
Fragment of Luna-19 Panorama Fragment of Luna-19 Panorama

Luna-20

Luna-20 landed on the Moon on February 21, 1972. Like Luna-16, it was a robotic mission that returned lunar soil to the Earth. It carried a stereo pair of optical-mechanical cycloramic cameras, working at 4 lines per second and 300 pixels per line. Angled at 50° from the vertical, these cameras returned 360° panoramas, including the lunar surface and portions of the spacecraft and sky. It also scanned the drilling site before and after sampling. Published fragments of panoramas show the soil drilling apparatus in the foreground and views of the lunar horizon to either side.

Fragments of Luna-20 panorama

Like Luna-16, a stereo pair of cameras were included, spaced 0.5 meters apart. The view from the other camera is seen below (microfilm of a newspaper photo):

Fragment of Luna-20 panorama

A second view of the panorama, below left, is constructed from frames of a film, as it emerges from a printer. The dark object upper left is the printer head.

Luna-20 panorama fragment Luna-20 Lunar Soil Sample Luna-20 Lunar Soil Sample

Luna-20 returned 55 grams of lunar material, the first samples ever seen from the ancient Lunar highlands. It was the second attempt in that dangerous rugged terrain, landing about a mile from the crash site of its sister ship Luna-18. The anorthosite composition of the soil seen above was found again when Apollo 16 and 17 landed in highland locations later that year.

Luna-21 with Lunokhod-2

Luna-21 entered Lunar orbit on January 12, 1973, and landed on January 15. The robotic rover, Lunokhod-2 rolled off the landing platform to explore the surface of the Moon for about 4 months. Like Lunokhod-1, it had two vidicon television cameras for navigational control, and four optical-mechanical cycloramic cameras. It returned 86 panoramas and over 80,000 navigational video pictures. Lunokhod-2 pans don't contain a level indicator ("dixie cup") on one of the sides.

Camera No. 2 (Left Side)

01. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

02. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

03. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

04. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

07. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

Camera No. 4 (Right Side)

01. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

02. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

03. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

04. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

05. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

06. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

07. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

08. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

09. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

10. Luna-21 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

STS Camera

The Lunokhod rovers also had two vidicon-tube television cameras mounted on the front. These returned 250-line images at 10 frames per second, for the drivers to guide the vehicle.

Luna-21 STS Video Frame Luna-21 STS Video Frame Luna-21 STS Video Frame

Luna-21 STS Video Sequence
Sample of STS Video Sequence

Luna-22

Luna-22, a second heavy orbiter, reached the Moon on June 2, 1974 and operated for more than a year. To perform photo surveying of the surface, an elliptical orbit was established, coming as close as 15 to 30 km above the Lunar surface. From June 9 to 13, it returned 10 panoramas from its optical-mechanical camera, and then returned to a higher circular orbit to perform other experiments. The thin line running along the image is from a spacecraft strut protruding into the scanline of the camera. Portions of the square-wave retrace pattern can be seen in some sections, above and below the video signal. These panoramas are reconstructed from scanned photos.

Luna-22 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

Luna-22 Optical-Mechanical Panorama

Two other fragments have been found, which hopefully can be upgraded with better quality images someday:

Fragment of Luna-22 Panorama

Fragment of Luna-22 Panorama   Fragment of Luna-22 Panorama

Luna-24

Luna-24 was the last spacecraft to land on the Moon (Soviet or American), on August 18, 1976. Boring 2.25 meters into the Moon, it obtained a 170.1 gram core sample 1.6 meters in length. The drilling apparatus packed the sample into a 8mm diameter plastic tube, which was wound into a helical container. At the Vernadsky Institute, the core was initially transfered to a flat spiral container to be x-rayed, then transfered to a series of trays.

Luna-24 did not carry cycloramic cameras. Photos of the returned sample are shown below:

Luna-24 Lunar Core Sample Luna-24 Lunar Core Sample
Luna-24 Lunar Core Sample Luna-24 Lunar Core Sample X-Ray Of Core Sample
Luna-24 Core Sample Spread Out

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Phil Stooke for Luna-12, 13, 20, 22 and Zond-6, 8 photos, scanned at IKI and MIIGAiK in Moscow. Thanks to Alexander Basilevsky and Arnold Selivanov for information about Luna-16, 20 and 24 missions and imagery. Thanks to Don Davis for some high quality Zond-7 scans. Thanks also to Sergei Hlynin for Luna-12 and 19 images.

Luna-3 and Zond-3 frames and spectra were gathered from various sources, including inverse halftoning and processing of images published in Atlas Obratnoi Storony Luny. Luna-9 and 13 images were similarly processed from sources including Pervye Panoramy Lunnoi Poverkhnosti and an extra fragment supplied by Phil Stooke from another source. Lunokhod images were published by the Sternberg Astronomical Institute, and others supplied by Phil Stooke and in Peredvizhnaia Laboratoriia na Lune Lunokhod-1.

Home, Back to Catalog


Copyright © 2003,2004 Don P. Mitchell. All rights reserved.

BIOGRAPHY OF JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER FROM WIKIPEDIA


John William Draper (May 5, 1811, – January 4, 1882) was an American (English-born) scientist, philosopher, physician, chemist, historian, and photographer.

Contents

 Early life

John William Draper was born May 5, 1811 in St. Helens, Merseyside, England to John Christopher Draper, a Wesleyan clergyman and Sarah (Ripley) Draper. He also had three sisters, Dorothy Catherine, Elizabeth Johnson, and Sarah Ripley. On June 23, he was baptized by the Wesleyan minister Jabez Bunting. His father often needed to move the family due to serving various congregations throughout England. John William was home tutored until 1822, when he entered Woodhouse Grove School. He returned to home instruction (1826) prior to entering University College London in 1829.[1]

On September 13, 1831, John William married Antonia Coetana de Paiva Pereira Gardner (c.1814-1870), the daughter of Daniel Gardner, a court physician to John VI of Portugal and Charlotte of Spain. Antonia was born in Brazil after the royal family fled Portugal with Napoleon's invasion. There is dispute as to the identity of Antonia's mother. Around 1830, she was sent with her brother Daniel to live with their aunt in London.[2]

Following his father's death in July, 1831, John William's mother was urged to move with her children to Virginia. John William hoped to acquire a teaching position at a local Methodist college.[3]

  Virginia

In 1832, the family settled in Mecklenburg County, Virginia 7 1/2 miles (12 km) east (on Virginia State Route 47) from Christiansville (now Chase City). Although he arrived too late to obtain the prospective teaching position, John William established a laboratory in Christiansville. Here he conducted experiments and published eight papers before entering medical school. His sister, Dorothy Catherine Draper provided finances through teaching drawing and painting for his medical education. In March 1836, he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. That same year, he began teaching at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia.[4]

  New York

In 1837, he took an appointment at New York University; he was elected professor of chemistry and botany the next year. He was a professor in its school of medicine from 1840 to 1850, president of that school from 1850 to 1873, and professor of chemistry until 1881. He was a founder of the New York University Medical School.

  Work

He did important research in photochemistry, made portrait photography possible by his improvements (1839) on Louis Daguerre's process, and published a textbook on Chemistry (1846), textbook on Natural Philosophy (1847), textbook on Physiology (1866), and Scientific Memoirs (1878) on radiant energy. He was also the first person to take an astrophotograph; he took the first photo of the Moon which showed any lunar features in 1840. Then in 1843 he made daguerreotypes which showed new features on the moon in the visible spectrum. In 1850 he was making photo-micrographs and engaged his then teenage son, Henry, into their production.

He developed the proposition in 1842 that only light rays that are absorbed can produce chemical change. It came to be known as the Grotthuss-Draper law when his name was teamed with a prior but apparently unknown promulgator Theodor Grotthuss of the same idea in 1817.

Contributions to the discipline of history: He is well known also as the author of The History of the Intellectual Development of Europe (1862), applying the methods of physical science to history, a History of the American Civil War (3 vols., 1867-1870), and a History of the Conflict between Religion and Science (1874). The last book listed is among the most influential works on the conflict thesis, which takes its name from Draper's title.

He served as the first president of the American Chemical Society between 1876 and 1877.[5]

 Children

  • John Christopher Draper, 1835-1885
  • Henry Draper, 1837-1882 - ALSO A FAMOUS ASTRONOMER - died Nov 20 in same year as his father
  • Virginia Draper Maury, 1839-1885
  • Daniel Draper, 1841-1931
  • William Draper, 1845-1853
  • Antonia Draper Dixon, 1849-1923

 Death

He died on January 4, 1882 at his home in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York at the age of 70.[6] The funeral was held at St Mark's Church in-the-BoweryNew York City. He was buried in Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York.[7] in

The Draper House

 Legacy

In 1975, Draper's house in Hastings was designated a National Historic Landmark.

In 1976, New York University founded the John W. Draper Interdisciplinary Master's Program in Humanities and Social Thought (Draper Program) [1] in honour of his life-long commitment to interdisciplinary study.

In 2001, Draper was designated an ACS National Historical Chemical Landmark in recognition of his role as the first president of American Chemical Society.[2]

  References

  1. ^ Fleming, Donald. John William Draper and the Religion of Science. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950.
  2. ^ Ibid., p. 7-8.
  3. ^ Ibid., p. 8.
  4. ^ Ibid., p.9-13
  5. ^ ACS Presidents, accessed October 22, 2006
  6. ^ New York Times, January 5, 1882.
  7. ^ New York Times, January 11, 1882.

  Bibliography

  • Barker, George Frederick. Memoir of John William Draper: 1811-1882. Washington, D.C., 1886.
  • Fleming, Donald. John William Draper and the Religion of Science. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950.
  • Miller, Lillian B., Frederick Voss, and Jeannette M. Hussey. The Lazzaroni: Science and Scientists in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1972.

  Draper's Publications

  External links

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Presidents of the American Chemical Society


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