51 YEARS AGO THE SOVIETS GOT TO THE MOON FIRST WITH UNMANNED SPACECRAFT.
THEIR ACHIEVEMENT WAS 20th CENTURY, BUT THEIR PHOTOGRAPHY LOOKED 19th CENTURY UNTIL
AFTER 1965. LOOK BELOW AT THE MANY PHOTOS AND ALSO NOTE THE FULL EARTHRISE COLOR
SHOTS OF THE MOON FROM ZOND-7 PLUS SEVERAL RETURNED LUNAR SOIL SAMPLE PICTURES.
FIRST PHOTO OF THE MOON
PHOTO BY: JOHN W.DRAPER IN 1839
John William Draper was born in England and immigrated in the U.S.A.
There he became a chemistry professor in the New York University.
The silver platinum plate (Daguerreotype print) of the moon was
the first of a series that where shot using a telescope. This series
was later presented at the Science Academy. Draper was also the
first to shoot a portrait in America, the portrait of his sister
Dorothy - Catherine . In 1864 he became chairman of the American Photographic
PHOTO AND ARTICLE ABOVE ARE FROM THE WEBSITE AT:
THE SOVIET PHOTOS BELOW ARE FROM:
Russian probes returned the first images of the Lunar far side and the
first images from the Lunar surface. While a manned landing was never
accomplished, the final phase of Soviet exploration included a number
of impressive robotic missions, returning samples and roving the
surface. (Click on images to see full-sized versions)
On October 7, 1959,
returned the first images of the hidden side of the Moon. Using a
pairs of images were simultaneously exposed through 200mm and 500mm
The Luna-3 camera was developed by P.F. Bratslavets and I.A.
Rosselevich at the Leningrad Scientific Research Institute of
The images were processed and analyzed by Iu.N. Lipskii and his team at
the Sternberg Astronomical Institute.
The camera held 40 frames of film, and 15 images (frames 26 to 40)
were received via frequency-modulated analog video.
Frames 39 and 40 may have contained calibration patterns.
The full moon appears to have very little detailed texture, because the
lunar mountains and terrain casts no shadows when lit from overhead.
A special thanks to Dr. Vladislav Shevchenko at the Sternberg
Astronomical Institute for making scans of the original film recordings
for me. Blank frames indicate images that I do not have yet:
The video signal from Luna-3 was higher quality than usually
supposed. A photograph made in 1965 from the magnetic tape shows
sharper detail and greater dynamic range:
Frame 26 (1965 recording)
Two types of test patterns were included on the Luna-3 film, a
standard Soviet television chart and a type of zebra-stripe resolution
chart called Shtrichovaya Mira.
These are not actual images from Luna-3, they just illustrate what was imprinted on the film.
Television Test Card 0249
One July 20, 1965, Zond-3 was the second spacecraft to view the far
side of the Moon. This model 3MV spacecraft was actually designed for
missions to Mars and Venus. Using a
29 frames were exposed.
The Zond-3 camera was developed by A.S. Selivanov and his team at the
Institute of Space Device Engineering.
The images were processed and analyzed by Iu.N. Lipskii and his team at
the Sternberg Astronomical Institute.
Frames 1 and 2 were probably pre-exposed test patterns and have not
been published, frames 8-10 contained an ultraviolet spectrum, and
frame 25 was never received.
Using digital pulse-position modulation, all frames were scanned and
transmitted in 67-line resolution, and selected images were
retransmitted at 1100-line resolution:
Frames 8 to 10
Luna-9On February 3, 1966, Luna-9 became the first spacecraft
to land on the Moon. On February 4 and 5, it transmitted 3 cycloramic
panoramas from an
The camera was developed by A.S. Selivanov and his team at the
Institute of Space Device Engineering, and the results were analyzed at
the Sternberg Astronomical Institute and by A.I. Lebedinskii at Moscow
The images were transmitted as analog FM video signals at one stroke
per second over a 250 Hz subcarrier (equivalent to 500 pixels/line).
The photo below, shows a section of Panorama 2 printed from a
British recording of the Luna-9 signal at Jodrell Bank Radio
Luna-12Luna-12 entered orbit on October 25, 1966, carrying
two phototelevision cameras of the same variety as Zond-3. This was the
first Soviet craft to take close up pictures from orbit, but only a few
images have ever been published:
Luna-13On December 24, 1966, Luna-13 made the second
Soviet landing on the Moon. It transmitted 5 cycloramas over a period
of several days (note shadows becoming less elongated).
Zond-5On September 18, 1968, Zond-5 became the first
spacecraft to circle the Moon and return to land on Earth.
The camera systems on Zond-5 through Zond-8 were designed by a team
under Boris N. Rodionov at the Moscow State University of Geodesy and
Cartography (MIIGAiK). They also performed most of the analysis of the
It photographed the Earth from a distance of 90,000 km, but a
subsequent malfunction of the orientation system prevented it from
photographing the Moon:
Zond-6Zond-6 flew around the Moon on November 14, 1968. It
carried the AFA-BAM camera with 400 mm objecitve, shooting on 13 × 18
cm frames of isopanchromatic film.
A session of 111 frames was performed at a distance of 9290-6843 km,
and another session of 58 frames from 2660-2430 km.
A crash landing on Earth flattened and broke open the film
canister, but 52 photographs were recovered with some degree of
laceration and fogging. Only a few fragments of Zond-6 images have been
A mosaic image was constructed from the recovered imagery, shown below
as the last image.
Poor print quality, not film damage, is the reason for the low quality
of the first and thrid image below:
Zond-7Zond-7 photographed the Earth on August 9 and
performed two photo sessions at the Moon on August 11, 1969. It shot 35
pictures with the SKD camera and 300 mm objective, on 5.6 × 5.6 cm
frames of color and panchromatic film. The two left colored photos are enlarged below:
Zond-8Zond-8 flew by the Moon on October 24, 1970 and
returned to Earth with high quality photographs, some from as close as
Images were shot with the 400 mm AFA-BAM camera, on 13 × 18 cm frames
of isopanchromatic film.
A session of 20 full-Moon pictures was followed by a session of 78
Lunar-surface pictures (including 17 shots of the Earth over the Lunar
The images below are 20 percent of full size.
Frames flagged with a star are from 6000 × 8000 pixel images digitized in Moscow from the original negatives.
The remainder are from lower resolution scans of film copies in the archives of the US Geological Survey.
Frame 1 *
Frame 9 *
Frame 15 *
Frame 20 *
Frame 26 *
Frame 31 *
Frame 36 *
Frame 41 *
Frame 47 *
Frame 54 *
Frame 59 *
Frame 64 *
Frame 69 *
A few sections at full resolution show the true quality of the Zond camera system:
Detail from Frame 9
Detail from Frame 59
Detail from Frame X38
Luna-16Luna-16 landed in the Sea of Fertility on September
It had two cycloramic optical-mechanical cameras of higher light
sensitivity than Luna-9, with lamps and a wide lens aperture, since
this mission landed at night. The artificial illumination failed, and
unpublished panoramic images are reported to contain only a few light
spots seen in Earthlight.
Photos above show portions of the 101 gram sample of lunar rock and soil retuned to Earth by the spacecraft.
Luna-17 with Lunokhod-1Luna-17 landed on the Moon on
November 15, 1970. The robotic rover, Lunokhod-1 rolled off the landing
platform to explore the surface of the Moon for about a month. Two
cycloramic cameras on either side of the rover were oriented for 180°
horizontal panoramas (500 × 3000 pixels). These panoramas are sometimes
geometrically warped to correct for the 15° tilt of the camera.
Two other cameras were oriented for 360° vertical panoramas of 500
× 6000 pixels, including images of the sky for star locations. A level
indicator was placed below these cameras, with a bull's eye pattern and
a small metal ball bearing.
This level indicator can be seen as the "dixie cup" in the horizontal
Over 200 panoramas were returned.
Two cameras transmitted simultaneously, on 130 and 190 KHz subcarriers.
Analysis of these images was carried out by the Sternberg Astronomical
Institute (SAI), the Vernadskii Geophysical Institute (GEOKhI), and the
Space Research Institute (IKI). The cameras were built by Arnold
Selivanov's team at RNIIKP.
As with many Soviet space images, generation loss prevents us
from seeing the original quality. Most Lunokhod images are derived from
scanning printed images or second-generation film copies. Each stage of
photography, printing and scanning introduces noise, nonlinear
brighness mapping, and (worst of all) clamping to white or black. The
images below only hint at the appearance of the original video signal.
Camera No. 2 (Left Side)
Camera No. 4 (Right Side)
Cameras No. 1 and 3 (Vertical Panoramas)It is difficult to
distinguish left and right side views, and like all Lunokhod pans,
publishers routinely flip the images. Selivanov identifies 01 and 08 as
coming from camera no. 3. Pan 09 might be from Lunokhod-2.
Video PicturesOver 20,000 low-resolution video pictures
were transmitted, primarily for use by the drivers to navigate the
rover. Note the usual horizontal scanlines of a TV camera, as opposed
to the vertical scanlines of the cycloramic cameras.
Luna-19Luna-19 was a heavy orbiter based on the Luna-17
spacecraft and a lunokhod housing. It entered a low (100 km above
surface) orbit on October 3, 1971 and returned 5 panoramas scanned by
linear optical-mechanical cameras
as it passed across the Moon.
These panoramas scanned a 150° "fish-eye" view from horizon to horizon,
at 4 strokes/second, perpendicular to the path of the spacecraft. Very
few of the Luna-19 images have been published, the best image being
this photo of a lunar crater:
The image above is actually a cropped version of the panorama seen
below left. Two poor-quality reproductions of fragments are seen below,
which will hopefully be upgraded.
Smaller printed fragments show the whole signal, including the
square-wave retrace signal. They suggest that the camera scanned at 45°
to the orbital path:
Luna-20Luna-20 landed on the Moon on February 21, 1972.
Like Luna-16, it was a robotic mission that returned lunar soil to the
Earth. It carried a stereo pair of optical-mechanical cycloramic
cameras, working at 4 lines per second and 300 pixels per line.
Angled at 50° from the vertical, these cameras returned 360° panoramas,
including the lunar surface and portions of the spacecraft and sky. It
also scanned the drilling site before and after sampling.
Published fragments of panoramas show the soil drilling apparatus in
the foreground and views of the lunar horizon to either side.
Like Luna-16, a stereo pair of cameras were included, spaced 0.5 meters apart.
The view from the other camera is seen below (microfilm of a newspaper photo):
A second view of the panorama, below left, is constructed from
frames of a film, as it emerges from a printer. The dark object upper
left is the printer head.
Luna-20 returned 55 grams of lunar material, the first samples
ever seen from the ancient Lunar highlands. It was the second attempt
in that dangerous rugged terrain, landing about a mile from the crash
site of its sister ship Luna-18.
The anorthosite composition of the soil seen above was found again when
Apollo 16 and 17 landed in highland locations later that year.
Luna-21 with Lunokhod-2Luna-21 entered Lunar orbit on
January 12, 1973, and landed on January 15. The robotic rover,
Lunokhod-2 rolled off the landing platform to explore the surface of
the Moon for about 4 months.
Like Lunokhod-1, it had two vidicon television cameras for navigational
control, and four optical-mechanical cycloramic cameras. It returned 86
panoramas and over 80,000 navigational video pictures. Lunokhod-2 pans
don't contain a level indicator ("dixie cup") on one of the sides.
Camera No. 2 (Left Side)
Camera No. 4 (Right Side)
STS CameraThe Lunokhod rovers also had two vidicon-tube
television cameras mounted on the front. These returned 250-line images
at 10 frames per second, for the drivers to guide the vehicle.
Sample of STS Video Sequence
Luna-22Luna-22, a second heavy orbiter, reached the Moon on
June 2, 1974 and operated for more than a year. To perform photo
surveying of the surface, an elliptical orbit was established, coming
as close as 15 to 30 km above the Lunar surface. From June 9 to 13, it
returned 10 panoramas from its
and then returned to a higher circular orbit to perform other
experiments. The thin line running along the image is from a spacecraft
strut protruding into the scanline of the camera.
Portions of the square-wave retrace pattern can be seen in some
sections, above and below the video signal.
These panoramas are reconstructed from scanned photos.
Two other fragments have been found, which hopefully can be upgraded with better quality images someday:
Luna-24Luna-24 was the last spacecraft to land on the Moon
(Soviet or American), on August 18, 1976.
Boring 2.25 meters into the Moon, it obtained a 170.1 gram core sample
1.6 meters in length. The drilling apparatus packed the sample into a
8mm diameter plastic tube, which was wound into a helical container. At
the Vernadsky Institute, the core was initially transfered to a flat
spiral container to be x-rayed, then transfered to a series of trays.
Luna-24 did not carry cycloramic cameras. Photos of the returned sample are shown below:
AcknowledgementsThanks to Phil Stooke for Luna-12, 13, 20,
22 and Zond-6, 8 photos, scanned at IKI and MIIGAiK in Moscow. Thanks
to Alexander Basilevsky and Arnold Selivanov for information about
Luna-16, 20 and 24 missions and imagery. Thanks to Don Davis for some
high quality Zond-7 scans. Thanks also to Sergei Hlynin for Luna-12 and
Luna-3 and Zond-3 frames and spectra were gathered from various
sources, including inverse halftoning and processing of images
published in Atlas Obratnoi Storony Luny. Luna-9 and 13 images were similarly processed from sources including Pervye Panoramy Lunnoi Poverkhnosti
and an extra fragment supplied by Phil Stooke from another source.
Lunokhod images were published by the Sternberg Astronomical Institute,
and others supplied by Phil Stooke and in Peredvizhnaia Laboratoriia na Lune Lunokhod-1.
Copyright © 2003,2004 Don P. Mitchell. All rights reserved.
BIOGRAPHY OF JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER FROM WIKIPEDIA
John William Draper (May 5, 1811, – January 4, 1882) was an American (English-born) scientist, philosopher, physician, chemist, historian, and photographer.
John William Draper was born May 5, 1811 in St. Helens, Merseyside, England to John Christopher Draper, a Wesleyan clergyman and Sarah (Ripley) Draper. He also had three sisters, Dorothy Catherine, Elizabeth Johnson, and Sarah Ripley. On June 23, he was baptized by the Wesleyan minister Jabez Bunting.
His father often needed to move the family due to serving various
congregations throughout England. John William was home tutored until
1822, when he entered Woodhouse Grove School. He returned to home instruction (1826) prior to entering University College London in 1829.
On September 13, 1831,
John William married Antonia Coetana de Paiva Pereira Gardner
(c.1814-1870), the daughter of Daniel Gardner, a court physician to John VI of Portugal and Charlotte of Spain. Antonia was born in Brazil after the royal family fled Portugal with Napoleon's
invasion. There is dispute as to the identity of Antonia's mother.
Around 1830, she was sent with her brother Daniel to live with their
aunt in London.
Following his father's death in July, 1831, John William's mother was urged to move with her children to Virginia. John William hoped to acquire a teaching position at a local Methodist college.
In 1832, the family settled in Mecklenburg County, Virginia 7 1/2 miles (12 km) east (on Virginia State Route 47) from Christiansville (now Chase City).
Although he arrived too late to obtain the prospective teaching
position, John William established a laboratory in Christiansville.
Here he conducted experiments and published eight papers before
entering medical school. His sister, Dorothy Catherine Draper provided
finances through teaching drawing and painting for his medical
education. In March 1836, he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. That same year, he began teaching at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia.
In 1837, he took an appointment at New York University;
he was elected professor of chemistry and botany the next year. He was
a professor in its school of medicine from 1840 to 1850, president of
that school from 1850 to 1873, and professor of chemistry until 1881.
He was a founder of the New York University Medical School.
He did important research in photochemistry, made portrait photography possible by his improvements (1839) on Louis Daguerre's process,
and published a textbook on Chemistry (1846), textbook on Natural
Philosophy (1847), textbook on Physiology (1866), and Scientific
Memoirs (1878) on radiant energy. He was also the first person to take
an astrophotograph; he took the first photo of the Moon
which showed any lunar features in 1840. Then in 1843 he made
daguerreotypes which showed new features on the moon in the visible
spectrum. In 1850 he was making photo-micrographs and engaged his then
teenage son, Henry, into their production.
He developed the proposition in 1842 that only light rays that are
absorbed can produce chemical change. It came to be known as the Grotthuss-Draper law when his name was teamed with a prior but apparently unknown promulgator Theodor Grotthuss of the same idea in 1817.
Contributions to the discipline of history: He is well known also as the author of The History of the Intellectual Development of Europe (1862), applying the methods of physical science to history, a History of the American Civil War (3 vols., 1867-1870), and a History of the Conflict between Religion and Science (1874). The last book listed is among the most influential works on the conflict thesis, which takes its name from Draper's title.
He served as the first president of the American Chemical Society between 1876 and 1877.
- John Christopher Draper, 1835-1885
- Henry Draper, 1837-1882 - ALSO A FAMOUS ASTRONOMER - died Nov 20 in same year as his father
- Virginia Draper Maury, 1839-1885
- Daniel Draper, 1841-1931
- William Draper, 1845-1853
- Antonia Draper Dixon, 1849-1923
He died on January 4, 1882 at his home in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York at the age of 70. The funeral was held at St Mark's Church in-the-BoweryNew York City. He was buried in Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York. in
In 1975, Draper's house in Hastings was designated a National Historic Landmark.
In 1976, New York University founded the John W. Draper Interdisciplinary Master's Program in Humanities and Social Thought (Draper Program)  in honour of his life-long commitment to interdisciplinary study.
In 2001, Draper was designated an ACS National Historical Chemical Landmark in recognition of his role as the first president of American Chemical Society.
- ^ Fleming, Donald. John William Draper and the Religion of Science. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950.
- ^ Ibid., p. 7-8.
- ^ Ibid., p. 8.
- ^ Ibid., p.9-13
- ^ ACS Presidents, accessed October 22, 2006
- ^ New York Times, January 5, 1882.
- ^ New York Times, January 11, 1882.
- Barker, George Frederick. Memoir of John William Draper: 1811-1882. Washington, D.C., 1886.
- Fleming, Donald. John William Draper and the Religion of Science. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950.
- Miller, Lillian B., Frederick Voss, and Jeannette M. Hussey. The
Lazzaroni: Science and Scientists in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America.
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1972.
of Chemistry, Including the Most Recent Discoveries and Applications of
the Science to Medicine and Pharmacy, and to the Arts. by Robert Kane and John William Draper. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1842.
- History of the American Civil War. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1867-70.
- History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science. New York: D. Appleton, 1874.
- History of the Intellectual Development of Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1864., 1900 edition, v.1,v.2
- Human Physiology, Statistical and Dynamical; or, the Conditions and
Course of the Life of Man. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1856.
- Life of Franklin, Edited by Ronald S. Wilkinson. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.
- Science in America: Inaugural address of Dr. John W. Draper, as president of the American Chemical Society New York: J.F. Trow & Son, Printers, 1876.
- Scientific Memoirs; Being Experimental Contributions to a Knowledge of Radiant Energy. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1878.
- Text-Book on Chemistry. For the Use of Schools and Colleges. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851., 1861 edition
- Text-Book on Natural Philosophy. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1847.
- Thoughts on the Future Civil Policy of America. 3rd ed. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1867.
- Treatise on the Forces Which Produce the Organization of Plants.
With an Appendix Containing Several Memoirs on Capillary Attraction,
Electricity, and the Chemical Action of Light. New York: Harper &