Plato's Allegory of the Cave   pdf                 

            Audio book

             YouTube - Gendler      TedTalk     YouTube 1        YouTube 2       YouTube3         YouTube4

             How do you know what a chair is? -   Essence vs Forms (youtube)

              Light and Darkness:  Judaism: Chabad, Talmud
                                                    Christianity:  John 1
                                                    Islam:  Koran -The Light  Sura 24.35
                                                    Judeo-Christian: Isaiah 9:2 
                                                    Hinduism: Bhagavad Gita chp 5

Epictetus (how to be happy)
  My dynamic equivalent

Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative (right from wrong) 
    3 maxims: 
(1) Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law without contradiction.
(2) Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never merely as a means to an end, but always at the same time as an end. 
(3) Therefore, every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in the universal kingdom of ends.

Anselm's Ontological Argument (see Proslogion 3)