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OPERATING SYSTEM POSES
PAD ANS START KERNEL
LOAD AND START BOOTLOADER
-START UP PROGRAMS AND APPS
-ANTI VIRUS SOFTWARE
WAYS TO CONNET TO THE INTERNET: (Comming soon: Spanish documetation in ways to connet to the internet)
INTERNET:is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP, although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide.
It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies
The term is used in contrast to internet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization.
Sometimes, the term refers only to the organization's internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure, and may be composed of multiple local area networks.
The objective is to organise each individual's desktop with minimal cost, time and effort to be more productive, cost efficient, timely, and competitive.
DIAL-UP NETWORKING (DUN):
Uses a modem to dial an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and connect to the internet through regular, analog phone lines.
DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL):
High-speed connections made over regular analog phone lines.
Internet connection made over the same lines that carry cable television signals.
Internet connections made by sending and receiving signals from satellites in orbit around the earth
Internet connections made through a call phone or laptop’s cellular network PC card on a cellular phone network.
Used to connect users in hotspots, where wirelesses internet service is provided by an employer, business, or government unit, such as a city. Wireless connections can also be made over a cellular phone network.
LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)
Users’ internet communications are funneled in and out out of a gateway server that’s located on the LAN and maintained by the organization. Internet connections through LANs are probably the most frequently used of type of connection in most organizations.
VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN):
A network connection that uses encryption and security protocols to create a private network over a public network
The amount of data that can travel over a communication line or wired/wireless connection in a given length of time is called BANDWIDTH, or line speed.
The greater the bandwidth, the faster communication can be, because more data can move through the communication line in a given time. For DIGITAL DATA TRASMITION, bandwidth is measure by the number of data bits per second (bps) that can be communicated over a given line or connection.
One thousand bits per second is noted as one kilobit per second (kbps), and one million bits per second is noted as one megabit per second (mbps)
Network Internet connections can have varying bandwidths, depending on the service provided by the ISP and the physical connection
It’s important to remember that the useable bandwidth of any communication line is determined by the smallest link in the line.
If the sever is connected to an ISP via a 384 kbps DSL, but the modem in the computer has a capacity of only 128 kbps, then the connection has a maximum capacity of 128 kbps, the smallest link.
What do I need to connect to the Internet?
You need an Internet service provider (ISP) and some hardware to connect to the Internet.
- ISP. An ISP provides access to the Internet.
- You sign up for an account with an ISP just as you do for telephone service or utilities.
- Hardware. For a broadband connection , such as Dia-UP, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable, you need a DSL or cable modem.
- This might be included as part of the start-up hardware from your ISP when you sign up for a broadband account.
- For a dial-up connection, you need a dial-up modem. Many computers come with a dial-up modem already installed.
How communications using the internet is measure?
The measure of data transfer related to bandwidth using internet is kilobytes per second (KBPS) and megabytes per second (MBPS).
UPSTREAM: information sent out from your computer to internet. Ex. Sending an e-mail with pictures.
DOWNSTREAM: getting information from other computer into your computer.
Ex. Getting an e-mail attachment with pictures and saving the pictures in your computer.
What are the different Internet connection methods?
Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a dialed connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) via telephone lines. Dial-up modems connect to the Internet by dialing a telephone number over a telephone line. Dial-up modems usually provide Internet access at a much slower speed than broadband modems Older computers have dial-up modems, which connect to the Internet by dialing a telephone number over a telephone line. Communication speed: 1kbps-56kbps
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a family of technologies that provide internet access by transmitting digital data over the wires of a local telephone network. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is widely understood to mean asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), the most commonly installed DSL technology. DSL service is delivered simultaneously with wired telephone service on the same telephone line. This is possible because DSL uses higher frequency bands for data separated by filtering. On the customer premises, a DSL filter on each outlet removes the high frequency interference, to enable simultaneous use of the telephone and data.
DSL services typically ranges from 256 kbit/s to 40 Mbit/s
The modem is usually connected to a cable or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and is then connected to your computer through an Ethernet cable and network adapter.
A router sends information between your network and the Internet.
WiFi: is a popular technology that allows an electronic device to exchange data wirelessly. With a wireless router, you can connect computers to your network using radio signals instead of wires. You will use the wireless router to share your broadband connection and make an acesspoint.
There are a few different types of wireless network technologies, including 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g. We recommend using a router that supports 802.11g because it is fast and provides a strong wireless signal.
What is mobile broadband?
Mobile broadband technology, also called wireless wide area network (WWAN) technology, provides wireless high-speed Internet access through portable devices. This technology is supported in this version of Windows. With mobile broadband, you can connect to the Internet from any location where there is GSM or CDMA-based cellular service available for mobile Internet connectivity. With mobile connectivity, you can maintain your Internet connection even as you move from place to place.
Mobile broadband is available with most 3G/4G and WiMax cellular and mobile networks.
Mobile broadband terminology
- A data card is a small card or device that provides mobile broadband Internet access. Removable data cards can be in the format of PC cards, USB cards or dongles, or ExpressCards. Data cards can also be embedded laptop modules.
- A subscriber identity module (SIM) is a small, removable card that contains subscriber identity and security information for mobile broadband services. Some data cards might not have physically identifiable or removable SIMs.
- An access point name (APN) or access string is a combination of letters and numbers provided by your mobile operator to identify the type of network access you have. A mobile operator might have different APNs that offer different types of services.
- Autoconnect refers to the mobile broadband connection manager that automatically establishes a connection to a mobile broadband network.
- Autoselect refers to the mobile broadband connection manager that automatically selects a mobile operator to connect to when the home network provider isn't available.
- Just as with a mobile phone, roaming refers to moving outside your usual area of usage, such as a state, country, or region. When roaming, you connect to your mobile operator through a partner network, and you're usually charged more for data service.
- 2G/3G/4G or WiMax networks are cellular networks that support different connection speeds and technologies.
- You can share your mobile broadband if you have a smartphone by making a hotspot or Tethering to a laptop.
- Share your mobile broadband using router ex. CradlePoint
What you need to use mobile broadband
To connect to the Internet using mobile broadband, you need a mobile broadband data card (either a PC card, USB card, ExpressCard, or embedded laptop module), the correct drivers installed, and a mobile broadband subscription.
To learn how to connect to the Internet using mobile broadband technology, see Use mobile broadband to connect to the Internet.
Recommended data plans
Mobile operators often offer many different types of data plans. For a full-featured Internet experience, we recommend that you select a high-speed, unlimited data usage plan with no restrictions on the types of programs you can use to connect to the Internet.
How do I change the modem settings?
- Click to open Phone and Modem.
- You might need to provide information, such as your country or region, and any special phone dialing rules in the Location Information dialog box before you can access the Phone and Modem dialog box.
- Click the Modems tab.
- Select the modem you want to change settings for, and then click Properties.
- Change the settings you want, and then click OK.
How do I install a modem?
Most broadband modems are external devices. You install one by plugging it into a network port on your computer.
Many dial-up modems are internal and come pre-installed on computers. If you are installing an internal dial-up modem on a desktop computer, you'll need to open your computer case and plug the card into an empty slot. To install an external dial-up modem, plug it into a modem port on your computer. All dial-up modems plug into a telephone line.
Windows will find and automatically install the necessary drivers when it detects that you're installing a new modem. If Windows can't find or install the right driver for your modem, you might need to install the modem manually. For more information, see Install or remove a modem.
What is TAPI?
The Telephony Application Programming Interface (TAPI) is a standard protocol in Windows that allows your computer to use telephone lines for communication services.
What is Modem on Hold (MOH) and how do I determine if my modem has it?
Modem on Hold is a feature that allows your dial-up modem to work with call waiting. If you have Modem On Hold running and receive a call on the line that the modem is using, the modem can go into a hold state and pick up where you left off after you complete the call.
Modem on Hold requires that your modem supports it (as well as your Internet service provider (ISP)). Contact your ISP and check your modem settings to determine if you can use Modem on Hold. For more information, see Change modem settings.
Set up a broadband (DSL or cable) connection
To set up a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable connection, you first need an account with an Internet service provider (ISP). For DSL, the ISP is usually a phone company; for cable, it's usually a cable TV provider.
You will also need a modem, a router, or a device that combines the two. Some ISPs will provide you with these devices; if your ISP doesn't, you'll need to buy them. When you have your modem, router, or combination device, either follow the instructions provided by your ISP, or follow the corresponding steps below.
If you have one device (a combined modem and router)
A combined modem and router plugged in
- Plug the device into an electrical outlet.
- Plug one end of a phone cord or cable into the wide area network (WAN) port of the device, and then plug the other end into the wall jack. The WAN port should be labeled "WAN." (DSL users: Don't use a DSL filter on the phone line.)
- Plug one end of an Ethernet cable into the local area network (LAN) port on the device, and then plug the other end into the networking port of the computer that you want to connect to the Internet. The LAN port should be labeled "LAN." (If you are connecting wirelessly, skip this step.)
- Start (or restart) the computer.
- Click to open the Connect to the Internet wizard.
- Follow the steps in the wizard.
If you have two devices (a separate modem and router)
A modem and router plugged in
- Plug the modem into an electrical outlet.
- Plug one end of a phone cord or cable into the modem, and plug the other end into the wall jack. (DSL users: Don't use a DSL filter on the phone line.)
- Plug one end of an Ethernet cable into the modem, and plug the other end into the wide area network (WAN) port on the router.
- Plug the router into an electrical outlet.
- Plug one end of an Ethernet cable into the local area network (LAN) port on the router, and plug the other end into the networking port on the computer that you want to connect to the Internet. (If you are connecting wirelessly, skip this step.)
- Start (or restart) the computer.
- Click to open the Connect to the Internet wizard.
- Follow the steps in the wizard.
Setting up the modem and Internet connection
Once you have all of the equipment, you'll need to set up your modem and Internet connection. If your modem wasn't set up for you by your Internet service provider (ISP), follow the instructions that came with your modem to connect it to your computer and the Internet. If you're using Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), connect your modem to a phone jack. If you are using cable, connect your modem to a cable jack. For more information, see Set up a broadband (DSL or cable) connection.
Positioning the wireless router
Put your wireless router somewhere where it will receive the strongest signal with the least amount of interference. For the best results, follow these tips:
- Position your wireless router in a central location. Place the router as close to the center of your home as possible to increase the strength of the wireless signal throughout your home.
- Position the wireless router off of the floor and away from walls and metal objects, such as metal file cabinets. The fewer physical obstructions between your computer and the router's signal, the more likely that you'll be using the router's full signal strength.
- Reduce interference. 802.11g networking equipment uses a 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) radio frequency. This is the same frequency as most microwaves and many cordless phones. If you turn on the microwave or get a call on a cordless phone, your wireless signal might be temporarily interrupted. You can avoid most of these issues by using a cordless phone with a higher frequency, such as 5.8 GHz.
Securing your wireless network
Security is always important; with a wireless network, it's even more important because your network's signal could go beyond the boundaries of your home. If you don't secure your network, people with computers nearby might be able to access the information stored on your network computers and use your Internet connection to get onto the web. To help secure your network, do the following:
- Protect your router by changing the default user name and password. Most router manufacturers have a default user name and password on the router as well as a default network name. Someone could use this information to access your router without you knowing it. To avoid that risk, change the default user name and password for your router. Check the information that came with your device for instructions.
- Set up a security key for your network. Just as file cabinets have keys and safes have combinations, wireless networks have a network security key to help protect them from unauthorized access. To set up a network security key, follow these steps:
- Click to open Network and Sharing Center.
- Click Set up a new connection or network.
- Click Set up a new network, and then click Next.
The wizard will walk you through creating a network name and a security key. If your router will support it, the wizard will default to Wi‑Fi Protected Access (WPA or WPA2) security. We recommend that you use WPA2, if possible, because it offers better security than WPA or Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) security. With WPA2 or WPA you can also use a passphrase, so you don’t have to remember a cryptic sequence of letters and numbers. For more information, see What are the different wireless network security methods
A network adapter is a device that connects your computer to a network. To connect your laptop or desktop computer to your wireless network, the computer must have a wireless network adapter. Most laptops—and many desktop computers—come with a wireless network adapter already installed. To check if your computer has a wireless network adapter, follow these steps:
- Click to open Device Manager. If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
- Double-click Network adapters.
- Look for a network adapter that includes "wireless" in the name.
Device Manager showing a wireless network adapter
If your computer needs a wireless network adapter, you can purchase one from a computer or electronics store and install it yourself. The universal serial bus (USB) type are a nice choice because they are small, easy to install, and they can be moved around to different computers. Make sure you get the same type of adapters as your wireless router. The type of adapter is usually marked on the package, typically with a letter, such as G or A.
WiMAX is an IP based, wireless broadband access technology that provides performance similar to 802.11/Wi-Fi networks with the coverage and QOS (quality of service) of cellular networks. WiMAX is also an acronym meaning
"Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX).
WiMAX is a wireless digital communications system, also known as IEEE 802.16, that is intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks".
WiMAX can provide broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile stations.
In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m).
With WiMAX, WiFi-like data rates are easily supported, but the issue of interference is lessened. WiMAX operates on both licensed and non-licensed frequencies, providing a regulated environment and viable economic model for wireless carriers.
At its heart, however, WiMAX is a standards initiative. Its purpose is to ensure that the broadband wireless radios manufactured for customer use interoperate from vendor to vendor. The primary advantages of the WiMAX standard are to enable the adoption of advanced radio features in a uniform fashion and reduce costs for all of the radios made by companies, who are part of the WiMAX Forum™ - a standards body formed to ensure interoperability via testing. The more recent Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard is a similar term describing a parallel technology to WiMAX that is being developed by vendors and carriers as a counterpoint to WiMAX.
Secure your Wireless Network
These days wireless networking products are so ubiquitous and inexpensive that just about anyone can set up a WLAN in a matter of minutes with less than $100 worth of equipment. This often includes little or no wireless network security, and this widespread use of wireless networks means that there may be dozens of potential network intruders lurking within range of your home or office WLAN.
What can you do?
Most WLAN hardware has gotten easy enough to set up that many users simply plug it in and start using the network without giving much thought to security. Nevertheless, taking a few extra minutes to configure the security features of your wireless router or access point is time well spent. Here are some of the things you can do to protect your wireless network:
1) Secure your wireless router or access point administration interface
Almost all routers and access points have an administrator password that's needed to log into the device and modify any configuration settings. Most devices use a weak default password like "password" or the manufacturer's name, and some don't have a default password at all. As soon as you set up a new WLAN router or access point, your first step should be to change the default password to something else. You may not use this password very often, so be sure to write it down in a safe place so you can refer to it if needed. Without it, the only way to access the router or access point may be to reset it to factory default settings which will wipe away any configuration changes you've made.
2) Don't broadcast your SSID
Most WLAN access points and routers automatically (and continually) broadcast the network's name, or SSID (Service Set IDentifier). This makes setting up wireless clients extremely convenient since you can locate a WLAN without having to know what it's called, but it will also make your WLAN visible to any wireless systems within range of it. Turning off SSID broadcast for your network makes it invisible to your neighbors and passers-by (though it will still be detectible by WLAN "sniffers").
3)Enable WPA encryption instead of WEP
802.11's WEP (Wired Equivalency Privacy) encryption has well-known weaknesses that make it relatively easy for a determined user with the right equipment to crack the encryption and access the wireless network. A better way to protect your WLAN is with WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access). WPA provides much better protection and is also easier to use, since your password characters aren't limited to 0-9 and A-F as they are with WEP. WPA support is built into Windows XP (with the latest Service Pack) and virtually all modern wireless hardware and operating systems. A more recent version, WPA2, is found in newer hardware and provides even stronger encryption, but you'll probably need to download an XP patch in order to use it.
4) Remember that WEP is better than nothing
If you find that some of your wireless devices only support WEP encryption (this is often the case with non-PC devices like media players, PDAs, and DVRs), avoid the temptation to skip encryption entirely because in spite of it's flaws, using WEP is still far superior to having no encryption at all. If you do use WEP, don't use an encryption key that's easy to guess like a string of the same or consecutive numbers. Also, although it can be a pain, WEP users should change encryption keys often-- preferably every week.
5) Use MAC filtering for access control
Unlike IP addresses, MAC addresses are unique to specific network adapters, so by turning on MAC filtering you can limit network access to only your systems (or those you know about). In order to use MAC filtering you need to find (and enter into the router or AP) the 12-character MAC address of every system that will connect to the network, so it can be inconvenient to set up, especially if you have a lot of wireless clients or if your clients change a lot. MAC addresses can be "spoofed" (imitated) by a knowledgeable person, so while it's not a guarantee of security, it does add another hurdle for potential intruders to jump.
6) Reduce your WLAN transmitter power
You won't find this feature on all wireless routers and access points, but some allow you lower the power of your WLAN transmitter and thus reduce the range of the signal. Although it's usually impossible to fine-tune a signal so precisely that it won't leak outside your home or business, with some trial-and-error you can often limit how far outside your premises the signal reaches, minimizing the opportunity for outsiders to access your WLAN.
7) Disable remote administration
Most WLAN routers have the ability to be remotely administered via the Internet. Ideally, you should use this feature only if it lets you define a specific IP address or limited range of addresses that will be able to access the router. Otherwise, almost anyone anywhere could potentially find and access your router. As a rule, unless you absolutely need this capability, it's best to keep remote administration turned off. (It's usually turned off by default, but it's always a good idea to check.)
The following chart outlines the time required to transmit and receive popular media files using Dial-up versus two common residential broadband services.
DATA STORAGE: COMPAC DISK
120 mm plastic discs
74 minute CD holds 650 mb.
80 minute CD holds 700 mb.
DATA STORAGE: DIGITAL VIDEO DISK
DATA STORAGE: BD: BLUE-RAY DISC
The major application of Blu-ray Discs is as a medium for video material such as feature films.
Besides the hardware specifications, Blu-ray Disc is associated with a set of multimedia formats.
Generally, these formats allow for the video and audio to be stored with greater definition than on DVD.
Blue-ray is 120 mm in diameter and 1.2 mm thick
Conventional (pre-BD-XL) Blu-ray Discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual layer discs (50 GB) being the industry standard for feature-length video discs.
Triple layer discs (100 GB) and quadruple layers (128 GB) are available for BD-XL re-writer drives.
Fact Sheet: Internet Growth and Investment
Both within the network and at its edges, where companies use the network to deliver goods and
services, investment and innovation have flourished under the Open Internet rules.
Venture capital financing of “Internet-specific” businesses has doubled in the past four years,
from $3.5 billion in 2009 to $7.1 billion in 2013 (National Venture Capital Assoc.)
Venture capital financing of the telecommunications industry has risen from $582 million in
2009 to $643 million in 2013 (National Venture Capital Assoc.)
Broadband capital expenditures have risen steadily, from $64 billion in 2009 to $68 billion in
2012 (U.S Telecom)
The Progressive Policy Institute identified the telecommunications/cable industry as one of its
“Investment Heroes of 2013,” investing $50.5 billion in 2013
Traffic on the Internet has more than doubled from the equivalent of 17 billion DVDs worth of
data per year in 2010 to 36 billion DVDs per year in 2012 (U.S. Telecom)
Mobile investment in particular has grown during that time.
Annual investment in U.S. wireless networks grew more than 40% between 2009 and 2012,
from $21 billion to $30 billion, and exceeds investment by the major oil and gas or auto
companies (White House Office of Science and Technology)
A total of $8.33 billion has been raised since 2007 on mobile media ventures (SNL Kagan Media
Private investment in wireless infrastructure over the next 5 years will generate $1.2 trillion in
economic growth and create 1.2 million jobs (PCIA)
Whole new product markets have blossomed, and the app market has exploded.
The number of tablet users in the United States has increased from 2.6 million in the second
quarter of 2010 to almost 70 million by the end of 2012. Overall app use in 2013 posted 115%
year-over-year growth (SNL Kagan Media Trends)
Over 20 independent non-carrier mobile apps stores offered over 3.5 million apps for 14
different operating systems by 2012 (CTIA)
The Wall Street Journal reported in March 2013 that app sales were approaching $25 billion
The “App Economy” had created 752,000 jobs in the U.S. as of July 2013, the fifth anniversary of
Apple’s App Store (Michael Mandel, Progressive Policy Institute
Finally, we have seen tremendous growth in the online video market.
The number of hours Americans spend watching video over the Internet has grown 70% since
June 2010 (Nielsen)
Revenues from online video services grew by 175% between 2010-2012, from $1.86 billion to
$5.12 billion (SNL Kagan)
Real-time streaming of entertainment in prime time grew from 42.7% of downloads in 2010 to
67% by Sept. 2013 (Sandvine Global Internet Phenomena Report)
February 19, 2014
AT&T started process to FCC to change their classification to become broadband provider and obsolete traditional phone services.
AT&T has the classification of POST/PSTN providing services in communications with 100 years old technology.
“POST” Plain old telephone service and “PSTN” Public switched telephone network technology
AT&T U-Verse is a copper-based PSTN Service!!!
AT&T has sent the Federal Communications Commission a bait and switch checklist that, despite the stated purpose of modernizing telecommunications networks, would also allow the company to completely abandon its landline network and win near-complete deregulation of its broadband service.
On Tuesday, August 28, Christopher Heimann and I met with Matthew Berry and Nicholas Degani, respectively Chief of Staff and Legal Advisor to Commissioner Pai, to discuss actions the Commission can and should take to facilitate the retirement of legacy TDM-based networks and services and transition to an IP-based Network/Ecosystem, consistent with federal policies and objectives, including those enunciated in the National Broadband Plan.
At the request of Commissioner Pai, AT&T has prepared and is submitting herewith a checklist of those actions, which identifies the critical first steps the Commission should undertake without delay to begin the transition as well as additional steps that would facilitate completion of that transition.
Under the existing statutory and regulatory framework, carriers already can undertake the steps necessary to make the transition, including, in some cases, steps requiring Commission approval (such as withdrawing legacy TDM-based services). But, insofar as the transition raises a number of novel and likely contentious issues, Commission action on the items included on the attached list would greatly facilitate and thus hasten completion of the transition. The steps we identify implicate an array of issues raised in the above-referenced dockets. Accordingly, we are filing the checklist in each such docket.
Robert W. Quinn, Jr.