Experimentations by Ustad Amir Khan

 [1] RAGAS, TALS, BANDISHES, TARANAS ETC-APPLIED BY USTAD

      AMIR KHAN: -

 

Applied Ragas and Tals:

In all kind of his vocal presentations, Ustad Amir Khan applied ragas which include both, shuddha [pure] and mishrit [mixed or complex]. ON the basis of information available, the list of ragas presented by him is as under: -

1-Yaman 2-Bhairav 3-Bhoopali 4-Kedar 5-Marwa 6-Purvi 7-Malkauns 8-Bageshri 9-Bihag 10-Jaunpuri 11-Shuddha kalyan 12-Darbari 13-Lalit 14-Miyan malhar 15-Multaani 16-Todi 17-Puriya 18-Jayjayvanti 19Shuddha sarang 20-Chhayanat 21-Chandrakauns 22-Hansadhvani 23-Kalavati 24-Shahana 25-Jog 26-Vasant mukhari 27-Komal rishabh asavari 28-Gujari todi 29-Megha 30-Ramdasi malhar 31-Abhogi kanhada 32-Suha 33-Bageshri kanhada 34-Jansammohini 35-Priya kalyan 36-Bilaskhani todi 37-Bhatiyar 38-Rageshri 39-Chandani kedar 40-Puriya kalyan 41-Nand kalyan 42-Kafi kanhada 43-Bairagi 44-Charukeshi 45-Kaunsi kanhada 46-Ahir bhairav 47-Chandramadhu 48-Nameless self composed raga 49-Hansakali [composed by combining hansadhvani and kalavati] 50-Kalashri 51-Shankara 52-Vasant 53-Vasant bahar 54-Vibhas 55-Jogiya 56-Puriya dhanashri 57-Desi 58-Sur malhar.


According to the information received from Goswami Gokulotsavji Maharaj, Amir Khan Saheb has performed some non prevalent ragas also; such as- Sarparda, Lachchasakh, Alhaiya, Sawani, Nayaki kanhada, Sugharai, Sampurna malkauns, Megha ranjani, Lalitagauri, Shivmat bhairav, Shri, Maligaura, Bhairvi hindoli etc.

 

Among the tals, Khan Saheb has particularly applied Jhumra, ektal, Trital, Jhaptal and Rupak. For vilambit khayal, he selected jhumra; yet he has presented bada khayal in jhaptal, rupak, ektal and trital also. In comparison to jhumra, the laya of other tals has been kept some what faster. In chhota khayals and taranas, he has used mostly ektal and trital in madhya and drut laya.

 

Performed Bandishes and Taranas:

The traditional bandishes of all the gharanas were applied by Ustad Amir Khan; which include compositions of Sadarang and Adarang of Mughal period. The details of used bandishes for the ragas mainly sung by him are as under: -

 

Raga yaman:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Kajra kaisay darun

piya nahin aayay meray mandarva.

2-Drut khayal, tal trital

Aiso sughar sundarva baalamva,

maika surang chunariya daiho mangaya.

3-Drut khayal, tal trital

Avagun na keejiyay. . . .

 

Raga marwa:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra or trital

Piya moray anat des gayilva,

na janu kab ghar aavengay.

Unkay daras dekhabay ko ankhiya taras rahin,

na janu kab ghar aavengay.

2-Drut khayal, tal trital

Guru bin gyaan na paavay,

mana murakh soch-soch kaahay pachhataavay.

Satguru ki sangat kar ray,

agyani tab guniyan men guni kahaavay.

 

Raga malkauns:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra or trital

Jinkay mana ram birajay,

vaakay saphal hovay sab kaj.

2-Drut khayal, tal trital

Aaj moray ghar aayila balma,

karungi adarang son rangraliyan.

Atar aragaja sugandh phool basan pehru,

phool bin saij bichhaun chun-chun kaliyan.

 

Raga bageshri:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Bahugun kam na aayay sajani,

jab lag karam na jaagay.

2-Tarana, tal trital

 

Raga shuddha kalyan:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Ay karam karo kripalu dayalu,

tum ho sab jag kay daata.

2-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Mandar baajo - - - [famous bandish of Kirana Gharana]

3-Rubayeedar tarana, tal trital

 

Raga darbari:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Airee bir ree jako mana chahay,

vo na chahay aapko,

to kaisay ke rain dina bhariyay

2-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Hazarat turkmaan - - -

3-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Jhan jhanakva bajay bichua - - - [prevalent bandish of Kirana Gharana]

4-Rubayeedar tarana, tal ektal

 

Raga lalit:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Kahan jagay raat,

So pyara mora ray.

2-Rubayeedar tarana, tal trital

 

Raga miyan malhar:

1-vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Karim naam tero - - - [prevalent bandish composed by Adarang]

2-chhota khayal, tal trital

Barsan lagi ray badariya - - -.

 

Raga hansadhvani:

1-vilambit khayal, tal Ektal

Jai maatay vilamb taj day,

mangan gun day.

Vidya guna amar day janani jag ki.

[Composed by Ustad Aman Ali Khan of Bhindi Bazar, pen name-‘Amar’]

2-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Lagi lagan pati sati san - - - [composed by Aman Ali Khan]

3-Rubayeedar tarana, tal trital

 

Raga Shahana:

1-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Sundar angana baithi nikas kay,

chhin liyo mana mero hans kay - - - [bandish composed by Ustad Aman Ali Khan]

 

Raga Jog:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal rupak

O! balama ab ghar aao,

tumharay bina kal nahin mana men.

Mag jovat moray dinava bitat hay,

baigi daras dikhao.

2-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Saajan moray ghar aayay - - - [famous bandish of Agra Gharana]

3-Rubayeedar tarana, tal trital

 

Raga komal rishabh asavari:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Jagat sapana,

kaa par karat guman bawaray

 

Raga megha:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Barkha ritu aayee,

bundan jhar laayee,

chamakat bijariya,

jiyara larjayee.

2-Rubayeedar tarana, tal ektal

 

Raga abhogi kanhada:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhaptal

Charan ghar aayay - - - [famous bandish of Kirana Gharana]

2-tarana, tal trital

 

Raga bilaskhani todi:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Bairagi roop dharay,

bhabhoot ramaayay,

samaayay meray mana.

2-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Bajay neeki ghunghariya,

chalat na chaal saheli.

Anupam chaal chalat matang gati,

maano pag parat paheli.

 

Raga chandani kedar:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Airi tu dhan dhan,

dhan tero bhag,

jo tu chatur sughar piya pyari.

 

Raga puriya kalyan:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Aaj su bana byahan aaya,

lad ladavan day maayee.

2-Rubayeedar tarana, tal trital

 

Raga nand kalyan:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Airi varay saiyan,

tohay sakal bana-bana dhundu - - - [famous vilambit khayal of Agra Gharana]

 

Raga ahir bhairav:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Jaagray banday rab sumarlay,

yason hovay nistar tero.

 

Raga chandra kauns:

1-Rubayeedar tarana, tal ektal.

 

After the age of fifty, Ustad Amir Khan became specially inclined towards bhakti rasa [sentiment of devotion]. He has also sung compositions of Vallabha sect, which are set in raga darbari; as the lyric of Mahaprabhu Hariraiji – ‘meri palakan son mag jharun. He has also sung a lyric of Dhondhi, set in raga darbari – ‘Chalo sakhi sautan kay ghar jaihen’.

 

[2] Self-Composed Compositions under Pen-Name ‘Sur Rang’: -

Ustad Amir Khan was a composer also. He had assumed his pen-name ‘Sur Rang’. In some of his self-composed bandishes, he has used this pen-name; and also some of them are without pen-name. Following are the available bandishes composed by him.

 

Self-Composed Bandishes in Self-Composed Ragas: -

A raga named chandra madhu and an untitled raga based on swara mel of vachaspati – these two ragas also were composed by Ustad Amir Khan. 

 

Raga chandra madhu:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra or trital

Bairan bhayee raina,

maika piya bhavan na bhavay.

Bin daikhay pee kay rahiyo na javay,

‘sur rang’ kab lag tarsavay.

 

It is to be noted that this raga of audav type is also composed by Khan Saheb. He has considered a mixture of chandra kauns and madhukauns in it. By considering the pancham swara of madhu kauns as keynote and by improvisation of chandra kauns, this raga is produced. Generally the difference of this raga from madhukauns can not be experienced clearly. The dominance of tivra madhyam in chandra madhu distinguishes it from madhu kauns; because as nishad swara is salient in chandra kauns, while pancham swara being accepted as shadja [keynote], the tivra madhyam replaces nishad. Besides this, in uthav [raising] of the raga and for the final note of avaroha, the pancham swara should have to be given that much importance which is generally accorded to the shadja in other ragas. That is, keeping the swaras of madhu kauns, generating emotions like that of chandra kauns is the specialty of this raga. The ascending [aroha] and descending [avaroha] of chandra madhu are as follows: -

 

 p n s, g m, p, n S.

 S n p, m g s, n p.

 

Self-composed ‘Untitled raga’:

1-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Paar karo gun nahin momen,

ham murakh tum chatur khiwaiya.

 

Creating Compositions in Other Ragas:

Raga charukeshi:

1-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Laaj rakho tum mori gusaiyan,

dhyan dharun aur laagun paiyan.

Tumhari baat kay dhang nyaray,

dukhiyan kay ek tum hi sahaaray,

‘sur rang’ tum par bal-bal jaiyan.

 

During his stay in Bombay, Ustad Amir Khan used to visit the main temple of Pushti sect. At that time, he composed this composition for Shri Vitthalnathji son of Mahaprabhu Vallabhacharyaji. This information was obtained from Goswami Gokulotsavji Maharaj.

 

Raga bairagi:

1-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Mana sumarat nis din tumaro naam,

ab tum hi sudharo sagaray kaam.

Hon avgun kachhu gun nahin momay,

tumaray sharan ab liyo vishraam.

 

Raga abhogi:

1-Chhota khayal, tal Ektal

Laaj rakh leejyo mori,

saheb sattaar, nirakar jag kay daata.

Tu rahim raam tu hi,

teri maya aprampar,

mohay tero karam ko aadhar jag kay daata.

 

Raga rageshri:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal trital

Baigun ko gun deejay daata,

tumharay karam ki hay mohay aasha.

 

Raga ahir bhairav:

1-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Piya parbeen [praveen] param sukh chatur,

mohini murat natnagar.

Rom rom chahay baran na jayay moson,

aiso shyam sundar natnagar [gun sagar].

 

Raga ramdasi malhar:

1-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Chhayay badara karay-karay,

umad ghumad ghan garajat barasat,

taison jiyara umado hi aayay.

Nisi andhiyari karee bijuri chamakay,

pavan chalat sananananananananana,

piya bin jiyara nikso hi jayay.

 

Raga nand kalyan:

1-Chhota khayal, tal Ektal

Mana bair-bair chahat,

tumharay daras daikhan ko o! balma.

 

Raga malkauns:

1-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Laagila manva tum sang,

moray mitva surjanva.

 

According to Pt. Amarnath, Ustad Amir Khan had not composed antara of above bandish of malkauns.

 

Raga basant mukhari:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhaptal

Prabhu daata vidhaata saban kay,

jap ray mana ghari pal chin.

 

Raga lalit:

1-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Jogiya moray ghar aayay,

ghar-ghar alakh jagayay.

Kaanan kundal garay bich saili,

ang bhabhoot ramayay.

 

Raga bhimpalasi:

1-Chhota khayal, tal jhaptal

Chinta na kar ray,

rab ko sumar ray.

 

Raga priya kalyan:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhumra

Sarmad! gham-e ishque bul-hawas ra na dihand.

Soz-e-dil-e-parwana magas ra na dihand.

 

The wordings of above composition in priya kalyan are originally of the Persian poet, Sarmad. Khan Saheb made this rubayee of Sarmad worth singing by giving it swara composition in the form of bada khayal.

 

Raga darbari:

1-Vilambit khayal, tal jhaptal

Mori aali ree,

jab say bhanak pari piya kay aavan ki.

 


Raga jansammohini:

1-Chhota khayal, tal trital

Kaun jatan son piya ko manaun,

mora piya monsay ruth raho ray.

Na aavay na patiyan pachavay,

kab lag yeh dukh paun.

 

Pt. Amarnath, in his lecture demonstration at Bharat Bhavan, Bhopal, in 1987, has confirmed that above mentioned bandishes of raga bairagi, ahirbhairav, rageshri, lalit, malkauns, nand kalyan, bhimpalasi, and ramdasi malhar were composed by Khan Saheb.

 

The following bandish of raga darbari was jointly composed by Khan Saheb and his wife, Sharifan.

 

Raga darbari:

Sthayee- Kin bairan kaan bharay, mora piya mosay bolat nahin.

Antara- Hun to vaki charanan dasi, charanan sees dharay.

The sthayee was composed by Sharifan and antara by Ustad Amir Khan.

 

It is to be noted that under the title ‘Performed bandishes and taranas’, mentioned previously, the taranas of various ragas were self-composed by Khan Saheb. The Persian rubayees coming there in, were taken from the literature of famous Persian poets, such as Amir Khusro, Hafiz, Sarmad etc, and were set in swaras by Khan Saheb.

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