The Manu Project--details

With the help of the National Science Foundation's Biotic Surveys & Inventories program, The Field Museum (Chicago) and the Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad de San Marcos (Lima) pursued expanded zoological surveys in Manu Biosphere Reserve in southeastern Peru.  B.D. Patterson, D.F. Stotz, J.W.O. Ballard, and S. Solari directed the program (DEB-9870191 and supplements) from 1998 to 2003.  Large, diverse reference collections of mammals, birds and their ectoparasites were made, curated, databased and shared by FMNH and MUSM.  Many new taxa were uncovered, and numerous Peruvian and American students participated in the surveys.  Subsequently, a number of the Peruvian participants have completed or are pursuing graduate degrees in universities outside of Perú:

Lily Arias, M.Sc. (2008) Texas Tech University; Ph.D. (2012?) Indiana State University
Lucia Luna, M.Sc. (2002) University of Illinois at Chicago; Ph.D. (2010?) University of Michigan
Ursula Paredes, Ph.D. (2006) Liverpool University
Sergio Solari, Ph.D. (2007) Texas Tech University
Edith Suazo Guillén, M.Sc. (2004) CICESE, Baja California, Mexico
Paúl Velazco, M.Sc. (2002) San Marcos Univ.; Ph.D. (2009) University of Illinois at Chicago

More about the objectives, logistics, and accomplishments of this project can be found on the project webpages.

Profile of Trachops cirrhosus (photo by B. D. Patterson, 2001)

Sergio Solari, Jessica Amanzo, Paúl Velazco, and Tatiana Pequeño on the Alto Madre de Dios, en route to Aguas Calientes in 1999.

Projects funded by NSF's Biotic Surveys & Inventories program are intended to produce well curated and accessible collections and databases. Here are some of the articles that have been produced from the study of these collections.


1.   Luna Wong, L.A. 2002. A new genus and species of rodent from Peru (Muridae: Sigmodontinae) and its phylogenetic relationships. Unpubl. M.Sc. thesis, Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, 138 pp.

2.   Patterson, B.D. 2002. On the continuing need for scientific collecting of mammals. Mastozoología Neotropical 9:253-262. pdf (280 kb).

3.   Luna, L. & B.D. Patterson. 2003. A remarkable new mouse from Peru (Muridae: Sigmodontinae), with comments on the affinities of Rhagomys rufescens (Thomas, 1886). Fieldiana: Zoology, new ser. 101:1-24. pdf (1.2 Mb).

4.   Velazco, P.M. & S. Solari. 2003. Taxonomia de Platyrrhinus dorsalis y P. lineatus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Perú. Mastozoología Neotropical 10:303-319. pdf (185 kb).

5.   Dick, C.W., M.R. Gannon, W.E. Little & M.J. Patrick. 2003. Ectoparasite associations of bats from central Pennsylvania. Journal of Medical Entomology 40:813-819. pdf (280 kb).

6.   Pacheco, V. 2003. Phylogenetic analyses of the Thomasomyini (Muroidea: Sigmodontinae) based on morphological data. Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, New York, 398 pp.
7.  Paredes-Esquivel, Ú.M. 2003.  Relaciones filogenéticas dentro del género Lagothrix “mono choro” (Primates: Atelidae). Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. cyber thesis

8.   Solari, S. 2004. A new species of Monodelphis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from southeastern Peru. Mammalian Biology 69(3):145-152. pdf (380 kb).

9.   Pacheco, V., S. Solari & P.M. Velazco. 2004. A new species of Carollia (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from the Andes of Peru and Bolivia. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University 236:1-15. pdf (480 kb).

10. Graciolli, G. & C.W. Dick. 2004. A new species of Metelasmus (Diptera: Streblidae: Streblinae) from southern South America. Zootaxa 509:1-8. pdf (229 kb).

11. Tantaleán, M. & J. Chavez. 2004. Wild animals endoparasites (Nemathelminthes and Platyhelminthes) from the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru. Revista Peruana de Biología 11:219-222. pdf (698 kb).

12. Tello, J.G. 2004. Understanding neotropical diversification: Implications from phylogenetic patterns in two avian genera. Unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, 307 pp.

13. Solari, S., R.A. Van den Bussche, S.R. Hoofer & B.D. Patterson. 2004. Geographic distribution, ecology, and phylogenetic affinities of Thyroptera lavali Pine 1993. Acta Chiropterologica 6:293-302. pdf (362 kb).

14. Dick, C.W. 2005. Ecology and host specificity of bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) and their chiropteran hosts. Ph.D. Dissertation. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, 253 pp.

15. Velazco, P.M. 2005. Systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the broad-nosed bats, Genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae). Fieldiana: Zoology, new series 105:iv + 1-53. pdf (1.4 Mb)

16. Dick, C.W. & D. Gettinger. 2005. Faunal survey of streblid flies (Diptera: Streblidae) associated with bats in Paraguay. Journal of Parasitology 91:1015-1024. pdf (301 kb)

17. D’Elia, G., L. Luna, E.M. González & B.D. Patterson. 2006. On the Sigmodontinae radiation (Rodentia, Cricetidae): An appraisal of the phylogenetic position of Rhagomys. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38:558-564 pdf (280 kb).

18. Graciolli, G., C.W. Dick & D. Gettinger. 2006. A faunal survey of nycteribiid flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) associated with bats in Paraguay. Zootaxa 1220:35-46. pdf (301 kb).

19. Gregorin, R., E. Gonçalves, B.K. Lim & M.D. Engstrom. 2006. New species of disk-winged bat Thyroptera and range extension for T. discifera. Journal of Mammalogy 87:238-246. pdf (301 kb).

20. Solari, S. & R.J. Baker. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA sequence, karyotypic, and morphologic variation in the Carollia castanea species complex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) with description of a new species. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University 254:1-16. pdf (460 kb).

21. Hoofer, S.R. & R.J. Baker. 2006. Molecular systematics of vampyressine bats (Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) with comparison of direct and indirect surveys of mitochondrial DNA variation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39:424-438. pdf (523 kb).

22. Dick, C.W. & B.D. Patterson. 2006. Bat flies - obligate ectoparasites of bats. Pp. 179-194 in Micromammals and macroparasites: from evolutionary ecology to management (S. Morand, B. Krasnov & R. Poulin, eds.). Springer-Verlag, Tokyo. pdf (121 kb).

23. Patterson, B.D., D.F. Stotz & S. Solari (eds.). 2006. Mammals and Birds of the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru. Fieldiana: Zoology, new series 110:iii+1-49. pdf (93 kb).

24. Patterson, B.D., D.F. Stotz & S. Solari. 2006. Biological surveys and inventories in Manu. Pp. 3-12 in Mammals and Birds of the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru (B.D. Patterson, D.F. Stotz & S. Solari, eds.). Fieldiana: Zoology, new series 110pdf (1.27 Mb).

25. Solari, S., V. Pacheco, L. Luna, P.M. Velazco & B.D. Patterson. 2006. Mammals of the Manu Biosphere Reserve. Pp. 13-22 in Mammals and Birds of the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru (B.D. Patterson, D.F. Stotz & S. Solari, eds.). Fieldiana: Zoology, new series 110. pdf (221 kb).

26. Walker, B., D.F. Stotz, T. Pequeño & J.W. Fitzpatrick. 2006. Birds of the Manu Biosphere Reserve. Pp. 23-49 in Mammals and Birds of the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru (B.D. Patterson, D.F. Stotz & S. Solari, eds.). Fieldiana: Zoology, new series 110. pdf (242 kb).

27. Price, R.D. & J.D. Weckstein. 2006. Picicola Clay and Meinertzhagen (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from jacamars and puffbirds (Piciformes: Galbulidae, Bucconidae), with descriptions of five new species. Zootaxa 1367:37-50. pdf (199 kb).

28. Patterson, B.D. & P. Velazco. 2006. A distinctive new cloud-forest rodent (Hystricognathi: Echimyidae) from the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru. Mastozoología Neotropical 13:175-191. pdf (799 kb).

29. Dick, C.W. & R.L. Wenzel. 2006. A new genus and species of trichobiine bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea: Streblidae) from Costa Rica. Insect Systematics & Evolution 37:433-442. pdf (364 kb).

30. Dick, C. W. 2006. High host specificity of obligate ectoparasites. Ecological Entomology 31:1-5. pdf (300 kb).

31. Remsen, J.V., Jr., C.D. Cadena, A.Jaramillo, M. Nores, J.F. Pacheco, M.B. Robbins, T.S. Schulenberg, F.G. Stiles, D.F. Stotz & K.J. Zimmer. 2007. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union.

32. Gruber, K.F., R.S. Voss & S.A. Jansa. 2007. Base-compositional heterogeneity in the RAG1 locus among didelphid marsupials: implications for phylogenetic inference and the evolution of GC content. Systematic Biology, 56(1): p. 83-96. pdf (3.45 Mb)

33. Tello, J.G. & J.M. Bates. 2007. Molecular phylogenetics of the Flatbill and Tody-tyrant assemblage of Tyrant Flycatchers (Aves: Tyrannidae). Auk 124:134-154. pdf (7.1 Mb)

34. Morales-Malacara, J.B. & R. Guerrero. 2007. A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the Genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus. Journal of Medical Entomology 44:8-13. pdf (500 kb).

35. Solari, S. 2007. New species of Monodelphis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Peru, with notes on M. adusta (Thomas 1897. Journal of Mammalogy 88:319-329. pdf (262 kb)

36. Brumfield, R.T., J.G. Tello, Z. A. Cheviron, M.D. Carling, N. Crochet, & K.V. Rosenberg. 2007. Phylogenetic conservatism and antiquity of a tropical specialization: Army-ant-following in the typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45:1-13. pdf (889 kb)

37. Salazar-Bravo, J. & T.L. Yates. 2007. A new species of Thomasomys (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from central Bolivia. Pp. 747-774 in The quintessential naturalist: honoring the life and legacy of Oliver P. Pearson ( D.A. Kelt, E.P. Lessa, J. Salazar-Bravo & J.L. Patton, eds). University of California Publications in Zoology 134, 981 pp. pdf (1.3 Mb)

38. Vargas, A. & B.D. Patterson. 2007. Comunidades de murciélagos montanos en Bolivia. Pp 82–86 in Historia Natural, Distribución y Conservación de los Murciélagos de Bolivia (L.F. Aguirre, ed.). Editorial, Centro de Ecología y Difusión Simón I. Patiño, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. pdf (945 kb).

39. Schulenberg, T.S., D.F. Stotz, D.F. Lane, J.P. O'Neill, & T.P. Parker III. 2007. Birds of Peru. Princeton Field Guide Series, Princeton, NJ, 656 pp. examine book here

40. Patterson, B.D. & P.M. Velazco. 2008. Phylogeny of the rodent genus Isothrix (Hystricognathi, Echimyidae) and its diversification in Amazonia and the Eastern Andes. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 15:181-201. pdf (534 kb)

41. Hoofer, S.R., W.E. Flanary, R.J. Bull, & R.J. Baker. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of vampyressine bats and allies (Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) based on DNA sequences of a nuclear intron (TSHB-I2). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47:870-876 pdf (263 kb)

42. Solari, S. & R.H. Pine. 2008. Rediscovery and redescription of Marmosa (Stegomarmosa) andersoni Pine (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae), an endemic Peruvian mouse opossum, with a reassessment of its affinities. Zootaxa 1756:49-61. pdf (1.12 Mb)

43. Hoofer, S.R., S. Solari, P.A. Larsen, R.D. Bradley & R.J. Baker. 2008. Phylogenetics of the fruit-eating bats (Phyllostomidae: Artibeina) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Occasional Papers Museum of Texas Tech University 277:1-15. pdf (589 kb)
44. Redondo, R.A.F., L.P.S. Brina, R.F. Silva, A.D. Ditchfield, and F.R. Santos. 2008. Molecular systematics of the genus Artibeus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49:44-58. pdf (370 kb)

45. Smith, V.S., J.E. Light & L.A. Durden. 2008. Rodent louse diversity, phylogeny, and cospeciation in the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 95:598-610. pdf (251 kb)

46. Velazco, P.M. & B.D. Patterson. 2008. Phylogenetics and biogeography of the broad-nosed bats, Genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49:749-759. pdf (1.3 Mb)

47. Velazco Garcia, P.M. 2009. Historical diversification in the Neotropics: evolution and variation of the bat genus Platyrrhinus. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, 300+ pp.

48. Velazco, P. M., and A. L. Gardner. 2009. A new species of Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from western Colombia and Ecuador, with emended diagnoses of P. aquilus, P. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 122:249-281. pdf (2.1 Mb)

49.  Solari, S., S.R. Hoofer, P.A. Larsen, A.D. Brown, R.J. Bull, J.A. Guerrero, J. Ortega, J.P. Carrera, R.D. Bradley & R.J. Baker. 2009. Operational criteria for genetically defined species: Analysis of the diversification of the small fruit-eating bats, Dermanura (Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae). Acta Chiropterologica 11:279-288.

50.  Velazco, P.M., A.L. Gardner & B.D. Patterson. 2010. Systematics of the Platyrrhinus helleri complex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), with descriptions of two new species.  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 159:785-812. pdf (1.49 Mb

51. Laurance, W.F. et al. (numerous co-authors). 2011. Global warming, elevational ranges and the vulnerability of tropical biota.  Biological Conservation 144: 548-557.  pdf (870 kb)

52. Meyer, C.F.J. et al. (numerous co-authors). 2011. Accounting for detectability improves estimates of species richness in tropical bat surveys. Journal of Applied Ecology 48:777-787. pdf (590 kb)

  53. Solari, S., P.M. Velazco & B.D. Patterson. 2012. Hierarchical organization of Neotropical mammal diversity and its historical basis. Pp. 145-156 in Bones, clones, . and biomes: the history and geography of Recent Neotropical mammals (B.D. Patterson & L.P. Costa, eds.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  54. Patterson, B.D., S. Solari & P.M. Velazco. 2012. The role of the Andes in the diversification and biogeography of Neotropical mammals. Pp. 351-378 in Bones, clones, and biomes: the history and geography of Recent Neotropical mammals (B.D. Patterson & L.P. Costa, eds.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  55. Jiménez, F.A., and B.D. Patterson. 2012. A new species of Pterygodermatites (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) from the Incan shrew opossum, Lestoros inca. Journal of Parasitology, 98: 604-607. pdf (939 kb)

  56.  Presley, S.J., L.M.Cisneros, B.D. Patterson & M.R. Willig. 2012. Vertebrate meta–community structure along an extensive elevational gradient in the tropics: a comparison of bats, rodents, and birds. Global Ecology and Biogeography 21: 968–976.

 57. Velazco, P.M. & B.D. Patterson*. 2013. Diversification of the Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in the New World tropics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68:683-698. *corresponding author: pdf (4.07 Mb)

 58.  Ojala-Barbour, R., C.M. Pinto, J. Brito M., L. Albuja V., T.E. Lee, Jr. & B.D. Patterson. 2013. A new species of shrew-opossum (Caenolestidae, Paucituberculata) with a phylogeny of extant caenolestids. Journal of Mammalogy 94:967-982 + cover. pdf  SOM1  SOM2

 59.  Upham, N.S., R. Ojala-Barbour, J. Brito, P.M. Velazco & B.D. Patterson›*››. 2013. Transitions between Andean and Amazonian centers of endemism in the radiation of some arboreal rodents. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13:191. *corresponding author. open access 

 60. Cisneros, L.M., K.R. Burgio, L.M. Dreiss, B.T. Klingbeil, B.D. Patterson, S.J. Presley & M.R. Willig. 2014. Multiple dimensions of bat biodiversity along an extensive tropical elevational gradient.  Journal of Animal Ecology 83:1124-1136. pdf

 61Patterson, B.D. & N.S. Upham. 2014. A study in contrasts: two extensive Neotropical radiations. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 2(44):1-2. open access

 62. Patterson, B.D. & N.S. Upham. 2014. A newly recognized family from the Horn of Africa, the Heterocephalidae (Rodentia: Ctenohystrica). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172 (4):942-963. pdf

 63.  Dreiss, L.M., K.R. Burgio, L.M. Cisneros, B.T. Klingbeil, B.D. Patterson, S.J. Presley & M. R. Willig. 2015. Taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic dimensions of rodent biodiversity along an extensive tropical elevational gradient. Ecography 38:001-013. doi: 10.1111/ecog.00971  pdf