Lorain County, Ohio
Fire Hydrant Flushing
Fire hydrant flushing begins on Monday, May 21 through the month of June, Mondays - Thursdays.
May 24, 2018 (Lorain County, Ohio) - Humans aren’t the only creatures that like to enjoy picnics in the summertime. Ticks are bugs that like to turn humans into a snack. Tick bites can be more than bothersome, they can spread disease to people and dogs. The most common disease ticks spread is Lyme disease, which can cause headache, fatigue, and rash, and might spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system. There have been no cases of Lyme Disease reported in Lorain County this year.
“By taking some simple precautions, you can prevent tick bites and Lyme disease and still enjoy time outdoors,” says David Covell, MPH, RS, health commissioner at Lorain County Public Health. “Many people in areas of the country make tick checks a daily habit, and it’s time for people across Ohio to get into the same routine.”
Prevent tick bites by following these steps:
- For humans
- Stay out of areas with tall grass and lots of plants, where ticks like to hide, and walk in the center of trails to avoid contact with ticks.
- Wear light-colored clothing to make it easier to find ticks, and tuck pants into sock tops or boots.
- Use bug repellants - follow instructions carefully.
- Check yourself, children, and pets for ticks after spending time outside.
- Bathe or shower after walking through tall grass or plants to wash off ticks and help you find them easier.
- For dogs and cats
- Check dogs and cats for ticks since they can get sick with a tick-borne disease, and because pets can carry ticks into the house as a risk to people.
- Ask your veterinarian about tick control treatments for pets.
- Mow the yard and other places where pets and people play so ticks won’t like to hide there.
For more information on how to live healthy, contact Lorain County Public Health at 440-322-6367 or visit LorainCountyHealth.com. Follow your local health department on Twitter@LorainCoHealth, Facebook, or YouTube.
June Vaccine Schedule
Vaccines can help people stay healthy to avoid missed activities and work, and to have time for what matters most – family, friends and hobbies. To protect against serious diseases such as meningitis, shingles, whooping cough, hepatitis A and B, and chicken pox, Lorain County Public Health (LCPH) offers recommended vaccines for children, teens, and adults at locations across the county. Vaccine appointments can be made at 440-284-3206; walk-ins are also welcome. Vaccine clinics this June include:
·Weekdays, 8:30 a.m. – 3:30 p.m.
Lorain County Public Health, 9880 South Murray Ridge Rd., Elyria
*Extended vaccine clinic hours are available on June 6 through 6 p.m.
· Wednesday, June 13, 2 p.m. – 5:30 p.m.
Wellington Town Hall, 115 Willard Memorial Square, Wellington
·Wednesday, June 20, 9:30 a.m. – 11:30 a.m. and 1 p.m. – 3 p.m.
Avon VFW, 36950 Mills Rd., Avon
·Wednesday, June 27, 2 p.m. – 5:30 p.m.
Lorain County Free Clinic, 5040 Oberlin Ave., Lorain
Clinic times and dates are subject to change. Bring vaccine record if available, insurance card, and cash, check, or Visa/MasterCard. All children under age 18 must be accompanied by a parent or guardian. LCPH participates in the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program to provide vaccines to children who qualify; no child in the VFC program is denied vaccines for inability to pay.
Now is prime time for summer breaks, service trips, and vacations. We help travelers stay healthy with travel vaccines and comprehensive educational materials specific to travelers’ needs. Call to make a travel clinic appointment.
Recycling at Home
An average American generates nearly 1 ton of trash a year, but all that waste doesn't have to go to the landfill. Rumpke has made significant investments in recycling technology to make recycling easy and convenient at your home.
Rumpke’s program, called single-stream recycling, allows all recyclables to be mixed together, and it is sorted at one of Rumpke’s advanced recycling facilities. Single stream programs focus on all recyclable materials generated by residents – not just individual items. This comprehensive approach helps divert the greatest volume of recyclable materials from landfills.
Residents can typically recycle the following items:
Plastic bottles and jugs
Glass bottles and jars
Steel cans and lids
Paperboard (like cereal boxes)
Envelopes and junk mail
Newspapers, magazines, and inserts
Telephone books and catalogs
Rumpke offers curbside recycling and public recycling drop boxes throughout its service region.
Lorain County Emergency Notification System
February 18, 2015 -- The link below is to register for the County's Emergency Notification System. It's free to all residents of Lorain County. Emergency Notification System
Wrap Mattresses and Upholstered Furniture in Plastic for Disposal
Due to the increasing number of bed bug infestations, all mattresses and upholstered furniture MUST be wrapped in plastic in order to be picked up. If a mattress has been ordered for removal and is out for collection on your scheduled bulk pickup day and it is not wrapped in plastic, the hauler will NOT remove the mattress. ALL mattresses, whether infested with bed bugs or not, are now required to be wrapped in plastic. It is a health hazard to the drivers, workers, and residents for the mattresses to be exposed.
The plastic isn't necessary when disposing mattresses and upholstered furniture during Dumpster Days.
Press Release from the Lorain County Commissioners - February 7, 2018
Elyria, OH - The Lorain County Board of Commissioners awarded a contract today to Facemeyer Landscaping, LLC, of Galena, OH in the amount of $656,874.11 for the Lake Avenue Stream and Wetland restoration project. The County received 16 bids for this project.
The Lake Avenue Stream Restoration Project will restore approximately 1,400 lf of the Clinton Avenue Ditch, creating flood plain and substrate that will improve water quality and habitat. Ten acres of wetlands will be enhanced providing increased habitat, storm water detention and filtering of the flood waters removing sediment, heavy metals and nutrients before they get to the Black River and Lake Erie.
This project is being funded with a Section 319 Grant through the Ohio EPA and the Lorain County Storm Water Management District providing the funding
Commissioner Lori Kokoski commented: “This project has taken some time and been redesigned to meet the needs of the site while retaining benefits. Working with the Our Lady of the Wayside, Elyria Township and Ohio EPA among other groups has resulted in a better project”
Commissioner Ted Kalo stated: “Protecting our greatest resource while providing storm water management positively impacting Elyria Township, Sheffield Township and the City of Lorain is another step along the way of progress for all of our communities.”
Commissioner Matt Lundy emphasized: “The County has been working towards this project and we are now about to see the fruits of that labor bringing a multitude of benefits to the Townships and the municipalities. This is an example of what County Government can do in partnership and with resources.”
The Board of Sheffield Township Trustees have changed the night and time of their regular monthly meeting to the third Tuesday of the Month beginning January 16, 2018. The meetings will now begin at 7:00 p.m.
Please mark your calendars.
Independence Day 2018: Wednesday, July 4, 2018
Customers with service on Monday will NOT be affected by Independence Day.
Service will NOT occur on Tuesday, July 4, and service will be delayed one day for the rest of the week (Tuesday will move to Wednesday; Wednesday will move to Thursday; Thursday will move to Friday; Friday will move to Saturday). Rumpke will return to its regular collection schedule the following week.
EXCEPTION: Logan County and Lithopolis Residents – Customers in Logan County and Lithopolis will NOT be affected by the holiday.
Labor Day 2018: Monday, Sept. 3, 2018
Service will NOT occur on Monday, Sept. 3.
Service will be delayed one day during the rest of the week (Monday will move to Tuesday; Tuesday will move to Wednesday; Wednesday will move to Thursday; Thursday will move to Friday; Friday will move to Saturday). Rumpke will return to its regular collection schedule the following week.
EXCEPTIONS: Logan County and Lithopolis Residents – Customers in Logan County and Lithopolis will NOT be affected by the holiday.
Columbus Day 2018: Monday, Oct. 8, 2018
EXCEPTION: City of Columbus Residents – please refer to the schedule provided by the City of Columbus.
Veteran’s Day 2018: Sunday, Nov. 11, 2018
Friendships are just plain good for you. In fact, social connectedness is strongly linked to a person’s overall health, including risk for chronic diseases, depression, happiness, and suicide. To better connect Lorain County adults ages 55 and over to the community, the Lorain County General Health District is launching the Buddy Connect Pilot Program—for no cost. Starting this fall, two phone calls from a volunteer buddy will help you or a loved one to connect to the community; home visits are also available. Call 440-567-4120 to sign up or to volunteer.
Need Help with your Gas Bill?
FirstEnergy’s (NYSE: FE) Ohio utilities, remind customers having difficulty paying their utility bills that they may be eligible for special financial assistance programs. In Ohio, customer assistance programs include:
• Percentage of Income Payment Plan Plus (PIPP Plus)
The Percentage of Income Payment Plan Plus (PIPP Plus) is an extended payment arrangement that allows Ohio customers meeting program guidelines to pay a percentage of their income or $10.00 per month, whichever is greater, instead of
their usual electricity bill. Eligible customers must have a household income at or below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. For more information, call (800) 282-0880.
• Home Energy Assistance Program (HEAP)
HEAP is a federally funded grant program administered by the State of Ohio Department of Development through a network of local community action agencies. HEAP provides customers help with paying winter heating bills, and occasionally summer cooling bills. For more information, call (800) 633-4766 (Ohio Edison and Toledo Edison customers); or (800) 589-3101 (Illuminating Company customers).
• Salvation Army Emergency Hardship Programs
The Salvation Army organizations across the Ohio utility territories offer emergency assistance programs for those who have suffered a recent financial hardship and need temporary help to pay their electricity bill. Program funding is provided by FirstEnergy’s Ohio employees and customers. The distribution of funds is administered by Salvation Army agencies located throughout Ohio. Contact your local Salvation Army agency to learn more.
• Emergency Assistance
Additional help in paying utility bills may also be available to low-income residents through local county departments of human services, community action agencies, soldier’s relief commissions or veteran’s services offices. Listings for these resources can be found in the blue pages at the front of your local telephone directory, or you can call your county government or visit them online to learn
Ohio residential customers of FirstEnergy’s utilities looking for a convenient way to manage their electric bills also can sign up for the FirstEnergy Installment Plan, which allows customers to make consistent monthly payments to avoid the impact of seasonal highs and lows in their electricity bills. To apply or learn more about programs to help keep electricity bills affordable, visit www.firstenergycorp.com or call Ohio Edison customer service at (800) 633-4766; The Illuminating Company customer service at (800) 589-3101; and Toledo Edison customer service at (800) 447-3333. Ohio Edison, a subsidiary of FirstEnergy Corp., serves more than 1 million customers across 32 Ohio counties. Connect with Ohio Edison at www.ohioedison.com, on Twitter @OhioEdison and on Facebook at www.facebook.com/OhioEdisonThe Illuminating Company serves more than 750,000 customers across Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake and Lorain counties. Follow The Illuminating Company on Twitter @IlluminatingCo and on Facebook at www.facebook.com/IlluminatingCo. Toledo Edison serves more than 300,000 customers in northwest Ohio. FollowmToledo Edison on Twitter @ToledoEdison or on Facebook at www.facebook.com/ToledoEdison.
FirstEnergy is dedicated to safety, reliability and operational excellence. Its 10 electric distribution companies form one of the nation’s largest investor-owned electric systems, serving customers in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, Maryland and New York. The company’s transmission subsidiaries operate more than 24,000 miles of transmission lines that connect the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions. Visit FirstEnergy online at www.firstenergycorp.com and follow on Twitter at @FirstEnergyCorp.
Lorain County Office on Aging
The core services offered by Lorain County Office on Aging are designed to promote the health, well-being, and independence of at-risk aging and disabled adults living throughout Lorain County. Services include:
- Aging & Disability Resource Network (residents 60+ & adults with a disability)
- Information & Assistance
- Benefits Screening & Assistance
- Options Counseling to help aging & disabled adults remain safely in community settings
- Home Energy Assistance Program (HEAP)
- Support Services to maintain health, well-being & independence
- Housekeeping Services
- Chore Services
- Home Delivered Meals
- Transportation Assistance to Health Care Appointments
- Food Pantry Services (including home delivery of commodities and fruits & vegetables)
- Senior Dining Program
- RSVP (volunteer opportunities for Lorain County residents 55+ years)
- Senior Years Newspaper
- Health Education Services
- Kinship Care Program
320 N. Gateway Blvd., 2nd Floor
Elyria, OH 44035
Services: Benefits Assistance, Support Services, Options Counseling, Information & Assistance, Senior Dining, Food Pantry Services, Chore Services, Housekeeping Services, Transportation to Healthcare Appointments, Kinship Services, RSVP Volunteer Program, Senior Years Newspaper, Health Education Services.
Service Area: Lorain County
County-Wide Launch of Dolly Parton’s Imagination Library
October 26, 2016 -- The Stocker Foundation (Website | Profile) Board approved a five-year grant of $400,000 toward the county-wide implementation of the Dolly Parton's Imagination Librarybook distribution program. The Stocker Foundation will serve as the backbone agency, supporting a coalition of nonprofit organizations and governmental entitites. The program is scheduled to launch next summer prior to the start of school year 2017-18. Patricia O'Brien, Executive Director of The Stocker Foundation states, "The Stocker Foundation aims for lasting impact, ensuring Lorain County's youngest learners enter formal education kindergarten ready and stay on-track for grade-level reading by the end of third grade. Dolly Parton's Imagination Library is another example of the Board's commitment to this goal." Dolly Parton's Imagination Library was established in 1995 by The Dollywood Foundation to benefit young children living in eastern Tennessee. Within five years, the program was successful enough locally to be scaled nationally.
Today, is available in all fifty states, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia. The goal of this book distribution program is to improve kindergarten readiness and later school performance by building awareness of the importance of parents reading to their children every day as well as instilling in young children an early love of reading. O'Brien advices, "In the first six years, children learn at a much faster pace than at any other time in their lives. Reading opens the door to early academic success. Numerous studies have shown that when children learn to read at an early age, they have greater general knowledge, expand their vocabulary and become more fluent readers. They also have improved attention spans and better concentration which are important skills to develop before entering kindergarten. Dolly Parton's Imagination Libraryis open to all children from birth to age five. Each month, registered children will receive a brand new book mailed directly to their home at no-cost, regardless of income. O'Brien said, "If a parent were to sign up their son or daughter at birth, the child would enter kindergarten with an at-home library of seventy-two books. The first book each child receives is The Little Engine that Could and the month the child turns five, s/he receives Look Out Kindergarten, Here I Come!" In 2015, Dolly Parton's Imagination Library celebrated its twentieth anniversary, distributing more than ten million books in a single year. Since inception, the program has distributed 70 million books to approximately 938,417 children around the world.
The decision to scale Dolly Parton's Imagination Library program into a county-wide initiative emerged from the success of Elyria's Ready, Set, Go to Kindergarten pilot program and research conducted by Lorain County Literacy Collaborative.
O'Brien explained, "Stocker Foundation Office & Grants Manager, Melanie Wilson, continues to meet regularly with a core group of 21 individuals, solidifying plans for the launch of the program. In Lorain County, there are just over 18,000 children under the age of five eligible to participate. By using a roll-out strategy that targets zip codes with higher percentages of children living in poverty, LCDPIL anticipates enrolling at least 60% of all eligible children within five years.
The Stocker Foundation was established by Beth K. Stocker in 1979. Over time, the foundation has evolved into a mature grant-making organization with current approximate assets of $50 million. Annually, The Stocker Foundation awards three million to tax-exempt 501(c)(3) nonprofit organizations across the United States. Currently eligible are communities located in Lorain and Cuyahoga counties, Ohio; Pima County, Arizona; Alameda and San Francisco counties, California; Dona Ana County, New Mexico; King County, Washington; and Hartford County, Connecticut. Competitive grantmaking focuses upon lessening the reading literacy achievement gap so that all students read at or above grade-level by the end of third grade.
NOPEC Press Release
ELECTRIC CUSTOMERS WILL PAY THE PRICE FOR LEGISLATION TO PROP UP NUCLEAR PLANTS
Latest Attack On Free Market Helps Big Utilities While Hurting Consumers
(Solon, Ohio) – The proposal introduced this week in the Ohio Legislature forcing Northern Ohio electric customers to subsidize uncompetitive and aging nuclear plants will further erode Ohio’s march toward a free market energy economy and cost consumers billions of dollars, said the Northeast Ohio Public Energy Council (NOPEC).
“We oppose this bill,” said Chuck Keiper, executive director of NOPEC. “This is yet another subsidy for big utilities that hit Northern Ohio electric customers in their pocketbooks. People who believe in a free market must defeat this bad idea.”
The legislation would create zero-emission credits for FirstEnergy Corp.’s Perry Nuclear Power Plant and the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station near Toledo. Under the proposal, the credits would be paid for by increasing electric rates for individuals and businesses up to 5 percent of their June 2015 total rate. The rate increase would hit 2 million Northern Ohio electric customers, including over 480,000 NOPEC customers.
NOPEC is a nonprofit council of governments that helps communities negotiate better deals on electricity and natural gas and currently offers energy choice to electric customers in 13 Northern Ohio counties.
“We’re not chipping away at the free market system. We’re taking chunks out of it,” said Ron McVoy, chairman of the NOPEC Board of Directors and a North Kingsville Village councilman. “We’re going to stand up for the free market and for our electric consumers.”
Download the full press release: Electric Customers will Pay the Price for Legislation to Prop Up Nuclear Power Plants
Do Not Knock Registry
Tired of unwanted door-to-door sales? Sign up for the Do Not Knock Registry at blocktheknock.com.
How will a door-to-door solicitor know to not come to my house? Solicitors must request a permit from the Sheffield Township Fiscal Officer, Pat Echko, to be able to sell door-to-door. At that time, Pat will provide them with the Do Not Knock Registry listing the addresses that they are not allowed to go to. You will also receive a Do Not Knock window cling to place near your front door for further notification to solicitors that you’re on the Do Not Knock Registry.
Does the Do Not Knock Registry prevent ALL door-to-door solicitors from coming to my house? No. Non-profit organizations are still allowed to knock on your door.
What should you do if a solicitor still knocks on your door? Ask what organization they’re with. Non-profit organizations like public schools or churches are not regulated by the same rules as for-profit solicitors. Request identification. If you feel the solicitor is in violation of the Do No Knock Registry contact Pat or one of the Trustees to report them. And remember never, ever give anyone a copy of your utility bill.
For more information, go to blocktheknock.com.
THE NORTHEAST OHIO PUBLIC ENERGY COUNCIL (NOPEC)
Our new relationship manager for NOPEC is Pat McNamara. If any of the Sheffield Township residents have a problem with electric or natural gas, please contact Pat McNamara at 440.249.7832, 440.623.3455, or firstname.lastname@example.org.
If another company solicits electric or gas quotes, ask if they have a solicitor’s permit from Sheffield Township. Pat Echko, Fiscal Officer, issues the permits. She can be reached at 440.324.9462 or email@example.com.
The Northeast Ohio Public Energy Council (NOPEC) serves members in over 200 communities within 13 counties in Northeast Ohio. For 15 years, they have saved communities and members more than $260 million in cumulative energy savings.
Benefits for NOPEC Residential Customers:
- Discounted energy rates negotiated exclusively for NOPEC customers
- myNOPEC – A free online resource for NOPEC members
- Interactive Tip House – Energy saving tips for every season
For questions regarding your electric bill or service call Ohio Edison at 800.633.4766. For questions regarding your natural gas bill contact Columbia Gas of Ohio at 800.344.4077.
New Supplier Press Release
NOPEC, NextEra Energy team up to provide low price electricity to 500,000 Ohio customers with added sustainability focus.
(Solon, Ohio) – The Northeast Ohio Public Energy Council (NOPEC) has reached an agreement for NextEra Energy Services Ohio, LLC (NESO) to become the supplier of electricity for a program that currently serves almost 500,000 customers in 13 Northern Ohio counties.
This three-year agreement with NESO will replace the current electricity supply contract for NOPEC customers. In late October, NOPEC’s current supplier announced that it was terminating its contract effective January 2017. The NESO agreement will commence as the current contract ends.
NOPEC’s new agreement with NESO assures that its customers will continue to receive the benefits of NOPEC membership which have resulted in about $250 million of electric cost savings to date. NOPEC considers itself most fortunate to have a new supplier with both an extremely strong financial standing and a nationally-recognized brand in the clean energy space, said Chuck Keiper, executive director of NOPEC.
NOPEC customers should expect to receive their opt-out notices for service under the new program in the next few weeks.
“We’re thrilled to expand our relationship with NESO,” Keiper said. “This is a world-class clean energy company and we know that NOPEC electricity customers will be in very capable hands.”
NESO and NOPEC have entered into a separate agreement under which NESO will provide NOPEC with additional EarthEraTM Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) for 2017 that, when added to the RECs specifically required by applicable Ohio Renewables Portfolio Standard, will equal 50% of NOPEC customers’ energy usage in NOPEC’s footprint. Besides the provision of this increased REC quantity, NOPEC’s EarthEra program participation is also expected to direct over $10 million of NESO’s electricity sales revenues from these 13 Northern Ohio counties to be used for the construction of future NextEra Energy Resources renewable energy projects. This separate agreement will not result in any additional costs to NOPEC customers.
“All of this is good news on the green and renewable energy front,” NOPEC’s Keiper said. “NOPEC knows that it’s fostering a more sustainable future and that $10 million of NESO’s revenue is guaranteed to be spent on building new renewable energy generation.”
NESO’s parent is the largest generator of renewable energy from the wind and sun in North America. NOPEC and NESO have been working together to purchase Ohio-sourced natural gas and provide low- cost service to over 300,000 customers in 173 member communities since April 2014, and electricity to AEP member communities since August 2015.
Under the NOPEC-NESO retail electric aggregation supply agreement, customers will receive initial pricing from January 2017 through the summer high-demand period that will generate savings comparable to the expiring NOPEC contract savings. After the initial price period, customers will receive competitive variable rates based on favorable wholesale purchase prices than available in the market. There will be zero cancellation or early termination fees.
NOPEC-NESO electricity customers also will have the option to choose a variable rate that will mirror the percentage off utility price savings contained in the expiring contract. That variable rate will be available for as many as 10,000 customers.
“Our focus and goal since our recent contract termination has been to quickly find a supplier so that the power and savings would keep flowing to NOPEC customers as seamlessly as possible,” Keiper said. “But we also knew it was crucial to find a financially strong company that was first-in-class among energy suppliers. With NESO, we have all that, plus the familiarity from our existing successful partnerships. This is a slam-dunk and a great opportunity for our customers.”
“We are pleased to have the opportunity to expand our business relationship with NOPEC and increase our business presence in the Buckeye State. We have been working hard to deliver results for NOPEC over many years now, and the level of confidence that they have expressed in our capabilities is quite humbling,” said Vice President of NESO Mark Palanchian.
For more information on the new NOPEC-NESO electricity agreement, visit NOPEC’s website atwww.nopecinfo.org/electricupdate or call 855-667-3201 (855-NOPEC01).
About the Northeast Ohio Public Energy Council: The Northeast Ohio Public Energy Council (NOPEC) is the largest public retail aggregation in the United States. Our members are communities (residential and small businesses) throughout Northeast Ohio. Currently, we serve more than 200 communities in 13 counties. For 15 years we have saved our communities and members more than a quarter of a billion dollars in cumulative electric savings and have provided more than $16 million in NOPEC community energy efficiency grants. Our flagship product, myNOPEC, is an online tool designed to help our members to understand that they have the power to control how much energy they use through rebates, energy saving tips and products, and technologies offered through our online store. For more information about NOPEC or how to become a member of myNOPEC, visit us at nopecinfo.org.
About NextEra Energy Ohio, LLC.: NextEra Energy Ohio, LLC is the Ohio retail affiliate of NextEra Energy, Inc. (NYSE: NEE). NEE is a leading clean energy company with consolidated revenues of approximately $17.5 billion, and approximately 14,300 employees in 27 states and Canada as of year-end 2015, as well as approximately 45,000 megawatts of generating capacity, which includes megawatts associated with noncontrolling interests related to NextEra Energy Partners, LP (NYSE: NEP), as of April 2016. For more information about NextEra Energy companies, visit these websites: NextEraEnergy.com, FPL.com, NextEraEnergyResources.com.
FirstEnergy & NOPEC
FirstEnergy Solutions (FES) has recently terminated its agreement with Northeast Ohio Public Energy Council (NOPEC) for the energy aggregation program serving your community. The termination is effective in January 2017.
Both FES and NOPEC have separately reached out to you to provide notice of this termination and to supply you with suggested Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) to assist you in communicating with your community members. Toward the mutual goal of reducing customer confusion, NOPEC and FES have conferred and developed a set of jointly approved FAQs: Final Joint NOPEC-FES FAQs.pdf .
We ask that you please use this revised FAQ and replace any prior version or suggested customer communication you may have previously received from either FES or NOPEC.