Philosophy through the Centuries

A selection of important texts from the tradition

This website collects various philosophy texts from the Western tradition. It also contains outlines, summaries, and some lecture notes. The selection is unsystematic, driven by personal curiosity. 

Thematically, this collection is mainly focused on Western philosophy. The texts address major questions in philosophy: what is reality (metaphysics), what can I know (epistemology), what should I do (ethics).  Some texts also address intersections between philosophy and social and political questions (Frankfurt School, Political Theory, Ethics), and theories of the subject. Texts that address theological and religious questions can be found here.  

I have summarized the basic ideas about metaphysics, the core discipline of Western philosophy, in a separate Metaphysics Blog

I also maintain a blog with my own writing at  

A few other small websites contain text materials for specific classes or other projects (see "Other Projects.

I hope you enjoy this website. Sign up for my mailing list if you want to receive updates or engage in philosophical discussion. Feel free to  send me an email if you have suggestions or feedback. 

 Philosophy Overview: Areas, Methods, Movements

Western Philosophy has an almost  3000-year history, with origins in ancient Greece and Rome, to its fully established form today. It is the intellectual discourse that accompanied Western civilization. At its core, philosophy is thinking, a process of reflection that operates on ideas, propositions, and their history. Philosophy as a discipline can be further divided by the particular questions it pursues. Its core disciplines are metaphysics ( what is reality?) ethics (how should we act?) and epistemology (what can we know?).

Like other disciplines, philosophy also employs different methods to investigate these questions. It uses a system of concepts created from differentiations and distinctions. (i.e. Scholasticism, Analytic Philosophy.) Thinking itself can be understood as a dynamic process with particular characteristics (dialectics.) Philosophy can also be understood as the reflection on the phenomena that appear to us: how does reality organize itself in human consciousness (phenomenology)? Some philosophers consider the nature of ideas, and warn against too much speculation. Their goal is not to pursue elusive concepts, but to find useful insights that help us improve our lives. They ask how ideas function in the world - what is their impact? (Pragmatism). In recent years, philosophy became increasingly self-absorbed: Is there really an underlying coherence to the discipline of philosophy, or is it not more like a  literary genre? (Postmodernity.)

Philosophy can also be subdivided by the area it focuses on: there is the philosophy of nature, philosophy of science, philosophy of language, or philosophy of the mind. There is also a very influential field called "political philosophy," a field that reflects on the political systems that organize human societies.

Every philosopher develops his or her unique style of thinking. Sometimes philosophers are the founders of schools, like Plato, Aristotle, Kant, or Hegel. It is probably best to start with a particular philosopher if one wants to understand philosophy better. Some of them are excellent writers or teachers, but others require hard work in order to become accessible. This website offers a selection of texts that should make it easy for beginners to find their "favorite" thinker.

List of Philosophers on this Website, Sorted alphabetically