What pattern connects the crab to the lobster, and the orchid to the primrose and all four of them to me? And me to you? 

(Gregory Bateson)

What are the organizing principles for the sciences? There are two major criteria for the differentiation  of sciences:

The scientific method is a method of inquiry which regards itself as fallible; it purposely tests and criticizes itself in order to correct and improve its findings. The goal is to let reality speak for itself, and to build a model of a certain aspect of reality. Systematic observation leads to a hypothesis as an explanation of phenomena: Why does it appear that way? The hypothesis has to be refutable, which means it has to be provable and testable. A hypothesis should allow the creation of predictions, which generates the design of tests. Experiments lead to the verification or rejection of the underlying hypothesis. Furthermore, this scientific procedure must be repeatable in order to exclude errors.

There is an ongoing philosophical discussion about the nature of scientific theories and their relationship to reality, or to truth.  Even the falsification of a hypothesis that is derived from a particular theory may not lead to the rejection of the theory, but only to its modification. Scientific theories integrate related hypotheses into larger coherent structures. They also allow us to organize, document, and archive scientific knowledge, thereby making it possible to transmit and teach scientific insights to the next generation of researchers.

The scientific field itself can be subdivided in various ways. The boundaries between sciences are fluid, therefore there is much emphasis today on multidisciplinary approaches to certain phenomena. Generally, we distinguish between the following dimensions of science:

Natural Sciences

Science is complex and multi-faceted, but the most important characteristics of science are straightforward:


Internet Encyclopedia: Links about Logic, Math,and Science. 

arXiv is a free distribution service and an open-access archive for over 2.2 million scholarly articles in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics, electrical engineering and systems science, and economics. 

NewScientist: New Scientist reports, explores and interprets the results of human endeavour set in the context of society and culture.

An Overview of Logic: from Wesley Salmon. It's an older text, but well organized, clear and easy to understand.