Publications are also continuously updated at

Main Research Interests: Egyptology, Ancient Egyptian Language, hieroglyphs, Classifier Studies, Egypt and Canaan, Alphabetic Writing, Hieratic, Cognitive Linguistics, Semiotics, Semiotics of Script, Sociolinguistics.


From Icon to Metaphor

From Icon to Metaphor. Studies in the Semiotics of the Hieroglyphics. (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis: Universitätsverlag Freiburg Schweiz Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht: Göttingen,) - Publication subsidized by the Swiss Academy of Humanities. 1995.

Lovers, Prophets and Giraffes: Wor[l]d Classification in Ancient Egypt

Prophets, Lovers and Giraffes - Wor[l]d Classification in Ancient Egypt. (Göttinger Orientforschungen, Otto Harrassowitz: Wiesbaden). 2002.


Studies on Egyptian Syntax - A Tribute to Sarah Israelit-Groll (Lingua Aegyptia 9). In collaboration with Deborah Sweeney. 2000.

The Challenge of the Hyksos – Cultural Interference in New Kingdom Egypt (Untersuchungen der Zweigstelle Kairo des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes, hgb. Von M. Bietak, Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften), Wien. In preperation.


Goldwasser, O. and Naveh, J. 1976. ‘The Origin of the Tet-Symbol” Israel Exploration Journal 26: 15–19.

Goldwasser, O. 1980. “Hekanahte and the ‘Boat Metaphor’” Göttinger Miszellen 40: 21–22.

Goldwasser, O. 1980. “An Egyptian Store-Jar from Haruvit” Qadmoniot 13: 34 [Hebrew].

Goldwasser, O. 1982. “The Lachish Hieratic Bowl Once Again” Tel- Aviv 9: 137–138.

Goldwasser, O. 1984. “Hieratic Inscriptions from Tel Seraʿ in Southern Canaan” Tel-Aviv 11: 77-93.

Goldwasser, O. 1985. “A Late Egyptian Epistolary Formula as an Aid to Dating Ramesside Texts” in: Pharaonic Egypt, Ed. Sarah. I. Groll, 50–57. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.

Goldwasser, O. 1989. “Egyptian Finds” in: Hazor III–IV, Text, Ed. A. Ben-Tor, Jerusalem: Hebrew University.

Goldwasser, O. 1990. “On the Choice of Registers - Studies in the Grammar of Papyrus Anastasi I” in: Studies in Egyptology Presented to Miriam Lichtheim, Ed. S.I.Groll, 120–149. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.

Goldwasser, O. 1990. “A Cartouche of Semenekhkare from Canaan” Göttinger Miszellen 115: 29–32.

Goldwasser, O. 1991. “Hieratic Sherd from Tel Haror” Qadmoniot 24:19. [Hebrew].

Goldwasser, O. 1991. “On Dynamic Canonicity in Late-Egyptian: The Case of the Literary Letter and Personal Prayer” Lingua Aegyptia 1: 129-141.

Goldwasser, O. 1992. “On the Date of Seth from Qubiebeh” Israel Exploration Journal 42: 47-51.

Goldwasser, O. and Laor N. 1991. “The Allure of the Holy Glyphs: A Psycholinguistic Perspectiveon the Egyptian Script” Göttinger Miszellen 123: 37–51.

Goldwasser, O. 1991. “An Egyptian Scribe from Lachish and the Hieratic Tradition of the Hebrew Kingdoms” Tel Aviv 18: 248-253.

Goldwasser, O. 1992. “Literary Late Egyptian as a Polysystem” Poetics Today 13: 447-462.

Goldwasser, O. 1992. ‘The Narmer Palette and the ‘Triumph of Metaphor’” Lingua Aegyptia 2: 67-85.

Goldwasser, O. 1995. “On the Conception of the Poetic Form — A Love Letter to a Departed Wife. Ostracon Louvre 698” Israel Oriental Studies 15: 57–69.

Goldwasser, O. 1997. “Itn - the ‘Golden Egg’ (CT IV, 292b-c)”, in: Essays on Ancient Egypt in the Honour of Herman te Velde. Ed. J. van Dijk, Groningen: STYX publications, 79-84.

Goldwasser, O. and S. Wimmer, 1999. “Hieratic Fragments from Tell el-Far'ah [South]” BASOR 313: 39-45.

Goldwasser, O. 1999. ‘“Low” and “High” Dialects in Ramesside Egyptian, in: Textcorpus und Wörterbuch. Aspekte zur aegyptischen Lexicographie. Eds. S. Grunert & I. Hofmann Probleme der Ägyptologie 14. Leiden: Brill.

Goldwasser, O. 1999. “The Determinative System as a Mirror of World Organization” Göttinger Miszellen 170: 73-93.

Goldwasser, O. 2000. “Poetic License in 19th Dynasty Non-Literary Late Egyptian” Lingua Aegyptia 9: 123-138.

Goldwasser, O. 2001. ‘HIEROGLYPHS’, in: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford and N.Y.: Oxford University Press.

Goldwasser, O. 2002. “A ‘Kirgipa’ Commemorative Scarab of Amenhotep III from Beit Shean” Ägypten und Levante XI: 191–192.

Goldwasser, O. 2003. “The Building Blocks of a Conceptual Category: The Ancient Egyptian Evidence” in: Philosophers and Hieroglyphs, Eds. L. Morra & C. Bazzanella, 219–236 Rosenberg & Sellier: Torino.

Goldwasser, O. 2005. “Where is Metaphor?: Conceptual Metaphor and Alternative Classification in the Hieroglyphic Script” Metaphor and Symbol 20(2), 95-113.

Goldwasser, O. 2006. “A Comparison between Classifier Language and Classifier Script: The Case of Ancient Egyptian” in: A Festschrift for Hans Jakob Polotsky, Ed. G. Goldenberg, 16-39, Magnes Press: Jerusalem.

Goldwasser, O. 2006. “King Apophis of Avaris and the Emergence of Monotheism” in: Timelines. Ed. E. Czerny et al., vol. II, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 149/II, 129-133, Peeters: Leuven.

Goldwasser, O. 2006. “The Essence of Amarna Monotheism” in: in.t Dr.w —Festschrift für Friedrich Junge, Eds. H. Sternberg & G. Moers, 267–279, Seminar für Ägyptologie und Koptologie: Göttingen.

Goldwasser, O. 2006. “Canaanites Reading Hieroglyphs. Part I – Horus is Hathor? Part II – The Invention of the Alphabet in Sinai” Ägypten und Levante XVI, 121-160.

Goldwasser, O. 2006. “On the New Definition of Classifier Languages and Scripts” Lingua Aegyptia 14, 473–484.

Goldwasser, O. 2009. “La force de l'icône - le ‘signifié élu’ ”. Image et conception du monde dans les écritures figuratives. Actes du colloque Collège de France -Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris, 24-25 janvier 2008. Edités par N. Beaux, B. Pottier et N. Grimal. Paris: AIBL-Soleb

Goldwasser, O. 2010. “ How the Alphabet was Born from Hieroglyphs” Biblical Archaeology Review 36, No. 2 (March/April): 40-53. (See also:

Goldwasser, O. 2010. “A Small Hieroglyphic Inscription on a Bone” In: Excavations at Tel Beth-Shean, 1989–1996. Volume III, The 13th - 11th centuries BCE (Areas S and N). Ed. A. Mazar and N. Panitz-Cohen.

Goldwasser, O. 2010. “The Aten is the ‘Energy of Light’: New Evidence from the Script”. JARCE 46. 159-165.

Goldwasser, O. 2011. “The Advantage of Cultural Periphery: The Invention of the Alphabet in Sinai (circa 1840 B.C.E)” In: Culture Contacts and the Making of Cultures: Papers in Homage to Itamar Even-Zohar. Eds. Rakefet Sela-Sheffy and Gideon Toury. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University/ Unit of Culture Research. 251–316.

Goldwasser, O. and C. Grinevald, 2012. “What Are Determinatives Good For?” in: Lexical Semantics in Ancient Egyptian, Eds. E. Grossman, St. Polis. & J. Winand, Lingua Aegyptia Studia Monographica. 17–53.

Goldwasser, O. forthcoming. “The Hyksos Challenge – The Cultural Hypothesis” In: The Challenge of the Hyksos – Cultural Interference in New Kingdom Egypt. Eds. O.Goldwasser, M. Bietak and E. Grossman. In: Contributions to the Archaeology of Egypt and the Levant IV, Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.

Goldwasser, O. 2012. “ The Miners that Invented the Alphabet — a Response to Christopher Rollston”. Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 4:3, 9–22.

Goldwasser, O. 2013. "Out Of The Mists Of The Alphabet — Redrawing The “Brother Of The Ruler Of Retenu". Ägypten und Levante 22, 353–374.

Goldwasser, O. 2015. "The Invention of the Alphabet: On 'Lost Papyri' and the Egyptian Alphabet" in: Origins of the Alphabet: Proceedings of the First Polis Institute Interdisciplinary Conference. Eds. Christophe Rico and Claudia Attucci. Cambridge. 124–140.

Goldwasser, O. and E. D. Oren, 2015. "Marine Units on the 'Ways of Horus' in the Days of Seti I". Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 7:1 25–38.

Goldwasser, O. 2016. "Was 'nʿm rb nqbn' Among the Inventors of the Alphabet? A Comparative Paleographic Analysis of the Inscription on his Block Statue and on Inscriptions in the Turquoise Mines". In: Joseph Naveh Volume. Eds. I. Eph'al and A. Mendel. Eretz Israel 32. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society. 21–32. (Hebrew)

גולדווסר, אורלי. 2016. "האם "נעמ רב נקבנ" היה בין ממציאי האלפבית? – ניתוח פליאוגרפי משווה של הכתובת על פסלו וכתובות במכרות הטורקיז."בתך: ספר יוסף נוה, ארץ ישראל ל"ב, עורכים י. אפעל וע. מנדל . ירושלים: הוצאת החברה לחקירת ארץ ישראל ועתיקותיה

גולדווסר, אורלי. 2016. לידת האלפבית מכתב החרטומים המצרי במדבר סיני. בתוך: קטלוג תערוכת 'פרעה בכנען', מוזיאון ישראל ירושלים, 2016

Goldwasser, O. 2016 "From Iconic to Linear –The Egyptian Scribes of Lachish and the Modification of the Early Alphabet in the Late Bronze Age." In: Alphabets, Texts and Artefacts in the Ancient Near East, Studies presented to Benjamin Sass, eds. I. Finkelstein, C. Robin and T. Römer. Paris: Van Dieren, 118-161.

Goldwasser, O. 2017. "Cuneiform and Hieroglyphs in the Bronze Age: Script contact and the creation of new scripts," in: P. Pearce, P. Creasman and R. H. Wilkinson. (eds.) Pharoah's land and beyond: Ancient Egypt and its neighbors. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 183-193.

Goldwasser, O. 2017. “What Is a horse? –Lexical acculturation and classification in Egyptian, Sumerian, and Nahuatl,” in: T. Pommerening and W. Bisang (eds.), Classification from Antiquity to Modern Times. de Gruyter: Berlin/Boston, 45-66.

Selz, G., O. Goldwasser and C. Grinevald. 2017. “The Question of Sumerian Determinatives: Inventory, Classifier Analysis, and Comparison to Egyptian Classifiers.” In: Proceedings of the Conference ‘Crossroads: Whence and Whither?’ 17-20 February, 2016. Berlin. Lingua Aegyptia. PDF:

Goldwasser, Orly. in press. “Was There an “Animal” in Ancient Egypt? Studies in Lexica and Classifier Systems, with a Glimpse Towards Sumer,” in: Seen Not Heard: Composition, Iconicity, and the Classifier Systems of Logosyllabic Scripts. March 2–3, 2017 Proceedings.


C. Forceville, Pictorial Metaphor in Advertising, (Routledge: London & N.Y, 1996), in: Journal of Pragmatics 31: 1999, 609-618.