Wassce Science Syllabus


The student should be able to:

1.1.1 explain that there are various branches of science which are interrelated and relevant to the world of life.

why the need for science specialist to acquire all round knowledge in all science areas namely Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Geology, Astronomy, Agriculture, etc.

1.1.2 apply the scientific method to arrive at scientific solutions to

everyday problems.

The scientific method:

- identification of the problem,

- hypothesis formulation,

- experimentation/data

- collection, analysis and

- conclusion.


1. Explanation of scientific method should include identification of the problem, hypothesis, experimentation (observation, collection, recording and analysis of data) and conclusion.

2. The discovery of penicillin, radioactivity and the law of floatation may be used to illustrate the scientific method.

3. Explain to students that quest for knowledge and curiosity are necessary to arrive at the truth, facts and solutions to problems.



1.1.3 follow basic safety precautions in the laboratory.

1.2.1 use SI units in all measurements.

Basic units and Derived units.

The student will be able to:

1.2.2 use scientific measuring instruments accurately.

-Truthful and accurate recording of data.

-Concept of replication of results.

-Sources of errors in scientific experiments.

Use instruments such as ruler, balances, stop watches, thermometer, ammeter, measuring cylinder, calipers, pipettes, burette, hydrometer etc. to measure quantities in various units.

Teacher to assist students to acquire skills in using eyes, hands and judgment when taking measurement.

Discuss the importance of replication and checking of results by different scientists using the same procedure to ensure accuracy and consistency of results; to arrive at hypothesis; to make better predictions; to add to scientific knowledge.

NOTE: Teacher to remind students that values such as honesty, integrity and truthfulness can be developed through measuring and recording of data accurately.

1.2.3 measure density and relative density.

Review topic on density from JHS Syllabus. Carry out experiments to determine the density of equal volumes of water and salt solution. Compare densities of water and salt solution.



1.3.1 differentiate between living and non-living things.

Life processes:

Movement, nutrition, growth, respiration, excretion, reproduction, response to stimulus.

Review characteristic features and examples of living and non-living things from JHS syllabus.

Explore the school environment to observe and record diverse ways living organisms move, feed, grow, respire, reproduce and respond to stimuli.

Discuss their observations in class and relate them to the existence of biodiversity.

NOTE: Detailed treatment of the life processes not required at this stage.

1.3.2 classify living and non-living things.

Classification schemes of living and non-living things:

a) Living Things:

Kingdom, division/phylum, class, order, family, genus species.

b) Non-living things: Elements: metals and non- metals.

Classification schemes of living and non-living things.

History and importance of classification.

Important personalities such as the following should be mentioned:

Aristotle (early classification),

Linnaeus (binomial system of classifying living things)


Include naming of organisms using the Binomial System of nomenclature (Linnaeus system of classification)

Mendeleev (Periodic table of elements and classification of living societies)


The 1st to the 18th element in the period table should each be classified as metal or non-metal.

Discuss the general characteristic of Monera, Protoctista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia with examples.

General characteristics of the following kingdoms:

-Monera/Prokaryote (Blue-green algae and bacteria)

-Protoctista/Protista (Protoctists)


-Plantae (Plants)

-Animalia (Animals



1.4.1 describe the different building blocks of matter.

Particulate nature of matter: atoms, molecules and ions.


Diagrammatic representation is necessary for atoms and molecules of the 1st to 18th elements of the periodic table

Draw and label the following atoms: Oxygen, Hydrogen and Chlorine

1.4.2 differentiate between elements, compounds and mixtures.

Discuss and bring out the differences between elements, compounds and mixtures.

Classify the following materials into elements, compounds and mixtures: water, salt, iron filings sea water, Sulphur, air and glass.

1.4.3 describe the formation of covalent and ionic compounds.

Use models or diagrams to assist the students to discuss:

1. Ionic bond formation as a result of transfer of electrons from one atom to another resulting in the formation of cations and anions.

2. Electrostatic attractions between cations and anion to give ionic bond.

3. Covalent bond formation between atoms or groups to give covalent compound

4. characteristic properties of ionic and covalent compounds


IUPAC names of common compounds should be taught.

discuss the items listed under the content.

Describe the formation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and ammonia (NH3)

1.4.4 relate atomic numbers, mass numbers, isotopes and relative atomic mass among each other.

Write down mass number of a given element based on given number of protons or electrons and number of neutrons.

Explain relative atomic masses using the periodic table.


Carbon-12 isotope should be mentioned as the reference scale.

Explain the term isotopes and give three examples of elements that exhibit isotopy.

1.4.5 perform calculations using the mole concept.

Mole, molar mass and formula mass.

Relationship between grams and moles

calculate the following:

1. Formula mass and molar mass using given relative atomic masses.

2. Amount of substance in moles given its mass

NOTE: Mention should be made of the mole as a unit of the physical quantity, amount of substance.

L = 6.02 x 1023 particles as the Avogadro constant;

use of n = m/M relationship to calculate amount of substance where n is the symbol for amount of substance, m is the mass, M is the molar mass.

Calculate the amount of substance in 9g of aluminum

(Al = 27 g/mol)

1.4.6 prepare solutions of given concentrations.

Brainstorm to define the concentration of a solution in units of moldm-3; gdm -3 ; part per million (ppm) and percentage.

carry out simple calculations with the relationship

Prepare solutions of a given concentration e.g. IM solution of

(a) NaOH

(b) NaCl (c) sugar

Dilute solutions of given concentrations and discuss everyday application of dilution e.g. food preparation, drug preparation.