Trends Newsletter

   ICA Trends 
January 2017

(Chinese follows English)

中文翻譯在英文全文的下方      


How Body Language Trumps IQ, by Dr. Travis Bradberry, Feb. 2016

author of “Emotional Intelligence 2.0” and “Leadership 2.0”

When it comes to success, it’s easy to think that people blessed with brains are inevitably going to leave the rest of us in the dust, but social psychologist Amy Cuddy knows first-hand how attitude can outweigh IQ.

In Cuddy’s new book, Presence, she recounts a car crash she suffered at the age of 19. Brain damage from the crash took 30 points from Cuddy’s IQ. Before the crash she had an IQ near genius levels; her post-crash IQ was just average.

As someone who had always built her identity around her intelligence, the significant dip in Cuddy’s IQ left her feeling powerless and unconfident. Despite her brain damage, she slowly made her way through college and even got accepted into the graduate program at Princeton.

Once at Princeton, Cuddy struggled until she discovered that it was her lack of confidence that was holding her back, not her lack of brainpower. This was especially true during difficult conversations, presentations, and other high-pressure, highly important moments. 

This discovery led Cuddy, now a Harvard psychologist, to devote her studies to the impact body language has on your confidence, influence, and, ultimately, success. Her biggest findings center on the powerful effects of positive body language. Positive body language includes things like appropriate eye contact, active engagement/listening, and targeted gestures that accentuate the message you’re trying to convey. Studies show that people who use positive body language are more likable, competent, persuasive, and emotionally intelligent

Here’s how it works:

Positive body language changes your attitude. Cuddy found that consciously adjusting your body language to make it more positive improves your attitude because it has a powerful impact on your hormones.

It increases testosterone. When you think of testosterone, it’s easy to focus on sports and competition, but testosterone’s importance covers much more than athletics. Whether you are a man or a woman, testosterone improves your confidence and causes other people to see you as more trustworthy and positive. Research shows that positive body language increases your testosterone levels by 20%.

It decreases cortisol. Cortisol is a stress hormone that impedes performance and creates negative health effects over the long term. Decreasing cortisol levels minimizes stress and enables you to think more clearly, particularly in difficult and challenging situations. Research shows that positive body language decreases cortisol levels by 25%.

It creates a powerful combination. While a decrease in cortisol or an increase in testosterone is great on its own, the two together are a powerful combination that is typically seen among people in positions of power. This combination creates the confidence and clarity of mind that are ideal for dealing with tight deadlines, tough decisions, and massive volumes of work. People who are naturally high in testosterone and low in cortisol are known to thrive under pressure. Of course, you can use positive body language to make yourself this way even if it doesn’t happen naturally.

It makes you more likeable. In a Tufts University study, subjects watched soundless clips of physicians interacting with their patients. Just by observing the physicians’ body language, subjects were able to guess which physicians ended up getting sued by their patients. Body language is a huge factor in how you’re perceived and can be more important than your tone of voice or even what you say. Learning to use positive body language will make people like you and trust you more.

It conveys competence. In a study conducted at Princeton, researchers found that a one-second clip of candidates for senator or governor was enough for people to accurately predict which candidate was elected. While this may not increase your faith in the voting process, it does show that perception of competence has a strong foundation in body language.

It’s a powerful tool in negotiation (even virtually). There’s no question that body language plays a huge role in your ability to persuade others to your way of thinking. Researchers studying the phenomenon in virtual communication found that body language in video conferencing played an important role in the outcome of negotiations.

It improves your emotional intelligence. Your ability to effectively communicate your emotions and ideas is central to your emotional intelligence. People whose body language is negative have a destructive, contagious effect on those around them. Working to improve your body language has a profound effect on your emotional intelligence.

Bringing It All Together

We often think of body language as the result of our attitude or how we feel. This is true, but psychologists have also shown that the reverse is true: changing your body language changes your attitude.

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How Body Language Trumps IQ  肢體語言如何打敗智商 

作者為布萊德貝利博士(Dr. Travis Bradberry),為《Emotional Intelligence 2.0》與《Leadership 2.0》等書作者。

起成功,我們常會認為那些聰明頂的人,肯定是人生勝利組,讓我們其他凡人望塵莫及,但是社會心理學家柯蒂(Amy Cuddy)的親生經歷卻證明態度才是決定一切的王道,而非智商。

柯蒂的新書《Presence姿勢決定你是誰》中,談及她19時遭遇的嚴重車禍,導致腦部受損,估計智商減弱了至少30。受傷前她的智商可是接近天才的程度,車禍後智能僅能跟一般人沒兩樣。

對於一直以來都以高智商智能為生活中心的她,受到很大的打擊,失去信心,覺得毫無力量。但雖然腦部受損,她仍努力完成大學學業,甚至申請進普林斯頓大學的研究所。

到普林斯頓之後,柯蒂在學業上一直相當辛苦,一直到她發現阻擾自己的其實並非智能不足,而是信心的問題。進行棘手的對話、簡報和其他重要但壓力很大的場合時,信心不足更是成為很大的障礙。

這項發現讓現在已經是哈佛大學知名心理學家的她積極研究,想要更了解肢體語言對自信心、影響力和個人成就的影響。她的研究中最重要的發現,就是注意到正向肢體語言的力量。正向的肢體語言包括適度的目光接觸、積極投入對話/聆聽,還有一些強調溝通訊息的動作等等。研究顯示運用正面肢體語言的人人緣比較好、比較有能力、有服力,情緒智商也比較高。

事情是這樣運作的:

正面的肢體語言改變你的態度。柯蒂發現有意識地調整你的肢體語言,企圖展現更正面的型態,因為會隨之影響體的荷爾蒙,因此也會改變你的態度。

它會刺激睪固的分泌。想到睪固時,大家通常聯想到運動與競賽,但是它的重要性比運動還要多。身為男人或女人,睪固改善你的自信,讓他人感到你更得信賴、正面的特質。研究也發現正面的肢體語言可以增強睪固多達二成之多。

腎上皮質醇(cortisol)分泌下降。腎上皮質醇是一種壓力荷爾蒙,會妨礙表現,長期下來對身體健康有負面的影響。當腎上皮質醇減少時,就會降低焦慮感,讓你更能清晰思考,特別在困難、棘手的狀況下。研究顯示正面的肢體語言減少腎上皮質醇的分泌多達25%

這樣就創造出很強大的組合。腎上皮質醇下降或睪固上升時,本來就會有正面的影響,但是兩者同時發生時展現的效能,通常是掌權者展現的力量。雙管齊下時,一個人不但自信滿滿,頭腦清楚,最適合在時間緊迫、需要做出困難決定、工作量極大的狀況。那些睪固本來就多、腎上皮質醇原本較低的人們,通常更能因應壓力。當然,即使無法自然擁有這樣的狀態,也能透過正面的肢體語言來幫助達到此狀態。

它讓你比較討人喜歡。在一項塔夫斯大學(Tuffts University)的研究中,研究對象觀賞醫生與病患互動的無聲影片,從醫師的肢體語言中,他們就能觀察到哪些醫生最後會被病患透過法律途徑控告。肢體語言深深影響他人對你的觀感,可能比你的聲音或你的話還要重要。學習用正面的肢體語言會讓別人更喜歡、更信賴你。

它表現出個人的能力。在一份普林斯頓大學進行的研究中,研究人員發現只要觀賞國會議員影片一秒鐘,就能正確地分析出誰會當選。雖然這項研究可能不會讓你對選舉機制更有信心,卻顯示肢體語言如何影響人們對個人能力的觀感。

這是談判的重要工具(即使是虛擬的談判)。肢體語言在服對方你的想法的效能,是無庸置疑的。研究虛擬溝通的專家也發現視頻會議中的肢體語言對於談判的結果,有很大的影響。

它能改善你的情緒智商。能否有效傳達你的情緒與想法,是情緒智商的一個很重要的重點。肢體語言很負面的人,對於周圍的人有負面,感染的效果。改善你的肢體語言對於情緒智商,對有深遠的影響。

整合起來

一般人認為肢體語言反映我們的態度或感受。雖然這沒有錯,心理學家也發現反之亦然:改變肢體語言也會改變你的態度。

 

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Opportunities for Growing Your Leadership Capacities

ICA Taiwan 2017 Public Facilitation Training Schedule

培養你領導能力的契機

ICA Taiwan 2017 公共引導培訓課程時程

 

Taipei, Taiwan台北

Feb 18-19 GFM-1 Focused Conversation Method

Mar 25-26 GFM-2 Consensus Workshop Method

April 15-16 PSP  Participatory Strategic Planning

May 20-21 OSLW Open Space Learning Workshop

June 3-4 Dialogue 

July 15-16 Imaginal Learning

Sept 9-10 Transformative Action Planning  

Nov 18-19 Spirit of Facilitation 

 

Hong Kong香港

(For Hong Kong course schedule contact Katherine Sum katherines@dramdiff.com)

(香港課程詳細內容,請聯絡)

 

 

International Events國際性活動:

International Association of Facilitators, Asia Conference, 16-20 August,Korea

The Annual World Open Space Practitioners Conference, October, Tainan, Taiwan 


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