Cause


Cause


How do you know whether your intervention had an effect.


See our pamphlet on experimental design   https://sites.google.com/site/gsocialchange/basicguides/Evaluationbeginnersguide_cause.pdf  


Study design 101   http://himmelfarb.gwu.edu/tutorials/studydesign101/   brief overview of several designs (randomized control trial, cohort, case control).  2011.


Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer   http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED499991   Skidmore, Susan. Online Submission, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, Feb 6, 2008)


Research Methods Knowledge Base, chapter on design  http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/design.htm


Allpsych on line texts   http://allpsych.com/onlinetexts.html   the research methods text   http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/   is mainly about design, see chapters 5 and 6 especially. Also has an on line text on stats.


When to Use a Randomized Controlled Trial and When Not to   http://meaningfulevidence.com/publications  April 2013, from Dr. Bernadette Wright, Meaningful Evidence. This paper is also available as pdf on her resource page.


Quasi-Experimental Evaluation  http://www.childtrends.org/?publications=quasi-experimental-evaluations     Kristin Anderson Moore, Ph.D. 2008.


Research Design Lessons   http://core.ecu.edu/psyc/wuenschk/DesignLessons.htm   lectures in word. Dr. Karl Wuensch, last revised 2016


Anol Bhattacherjee  Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices   http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/oa_textbooks/3/   from 2012. On line text book, complete book. Chapters 5 and 10 are about research design, but other chapters are useful too.


How Random Must Random Assignment Be in Random Assignment Experiments?   http://www.srdc.org/publications/How-Random-Must-Random-Assignment-Be-in-Random-Assignment-Experiments-details.aspx     by Paul Gustafson, 2003, "This technical paper reviews options for different approaches to randomization used in experimental studies that measure program impacts"


Quasi-Experimental Design and Methods   https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/753/   Howard White; Shagun Sabarwal, 2014.
Also see their methodological briefs   https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/series/23/  


The Core Analytics of Randomized Experiments for Social Research, by Howard S. Bloom, 2006      
http://www.mdrc.org/publication/core-analytics-randomized-experiments-social-research  


Tom Knapp's books, articles   http://www.statlit.org/Knapp.htm   on various statistical topics, including percentages, statistical testing, reliability. One book, Quantitative Research Methods (2016) explains some aspects of design. Some of these books are also available here   http://www.tomswebpage.net/                                 


Research Design   http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-modules/ProgramEvaluation/ProgramEvaluation7.html   This is in an evaluation module, from Lynsie Ranker, William DeJong, Rob Schadt, Boston University School of Public Health. 2015.


Threats to Validity

Internal and External Validity   http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-modules/ProgramEvaluation/ProgramEvaluation6.html   This is in an evaluation module, from Lynsie Ranker, William DeJong, Rob Schadt, Boston University School of Public Health. 2015.
 

Basic Threats to Internal Validity   http://web.pdx.edu/~newsomj/da1/default.htm   Jason T. Newsom PhD, Spring 2013. (Also mentions, briefly, self selection bias)


Internal Validity   http://www.pt.armstrong.edu/wright/hlpr/text/3.7.intval.htm   Basics of Research for the Health Professions. Linda L. Wright & David A. Lake, includes a short description of selection bias. Not sure of the date.


What researchers mean by... validity and reliability.   http://www.iwh.on.ca/wrmb/validity-and-reliability   from Institute for Work and Health. 2016.


Threat to validity   http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/Validity/   overview of threats to validity. See part 1. Dr. David Polson, last modified 2016


Nursing Resources: Threats to Validity of Research Designs   http://researchguides.ebling.library.wisc.edu/c.php?g=293229&p=1953398   nice overview. Also see the page on types of designs   http://researchguides.ebling.library.wisc.edu/c.php?g=293229&p=1953448   


The Threats to Validity page above says they got information from this page   http://www.creative-wisdom.com/teaching/WBI/threat.shtml   Threats to Validity, Chong-ho Yu, Associate Professor of Psychology at Azusa Pacific University. 2017.


Selection Bias


What researchers mean by... selection bias   http://www.iwh.on.ca/wrmb/selection-bias   At Work, Issue 76, Spring 2014: Institute for Work & Health, Toronto


Avoiding Bias in Observational Studies.  Part 8 in a Series of Articles on Evaluation of Scientific Publications.  
https://fhs.mcmaster.ca/anesthesiaresearch/documents/Hammer2009AvoidingBiasinObservationalStudies.pdf    
Gaël P Hammer, Jean-Baptist du Prel, Maria Blettner  

  
Controlling for Program Participation Self-Selection Bias. Shawn Bodmann, et al.   https://www.iepec.org/conf-docs/conf-by-year/2013-Chicago/112.pdf   International Energy Program Evaluation Conference, Chicago, 2013. An example of using propensity scores to try to account for self selection bias. 2013 conference here   https://www.iepec.org/?page_id=8932  
       

Soumerai SB, Starr D, Majumdar SR. How Do You Know Which Health Care Effectiveness Research You Can Trust? A Guide to Study Design for the Perplexed. Prev Chronic Dis 2015;12:150187. DOI:    http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd12.150187   or   https://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2015/15_0187.htm   


Boston University School of Public Health module on bias   http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/EP/EP713_Bias/   unclear who the author is. From 2016. Many other modules are here   http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/Menu/index.html   MPH on line learning modules


 Last updated and reviewed 5/2/2017

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