Historical Anatomies

David Briggs, Julian Ashton Art School

Historical Anatomies on the Web (US National Library of Medicine).
Fabulous and growing collection of high resolution page scans of historical anatomical works, each with a linked short page describing the historical background and significance of the work. The authors of most interest to artists are cited separately below.
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/browse.html (browse authors)
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/addlinks.html (browse authors on other websites)
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/dreamanatomy/da_intro.html (Dream Anatomy exhibit)
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/dreamanatomy/da_gallery.html (Dream Anatomy gallery)
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/greek/index.html (Greek Medicine exhibit)
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/arabichome.html (Islamic Medical Manuscripts exhibit)
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/onlineexhibitions.html (home)


Choulant, Ludwig, 1852. History and Bibliography of Anatomic Illustration in Its Relation to Anatomic Science and the Graphic Arts (transl. and ed., Mortimer Frank, 1917?). Appendices: I. Chinese anatomy, by Ludwig Choulant.--II. Sculpture and painting as modes of anatomical illustration, by F. H. Garrison and E. C. Streeter.--III. Anatomical illustration since the time of Choulant [with bibliography] by F. H.Garrison.
An extensive 19th century treatise on anatomical illustration


Antiqua Medicina. From Homer to Vesalius (University of Virginia).
Terse history of medicine from antiquity to Vesalius.


Dissecting Leonardo’s Anatomy (Stanford).
"A multi-organizational gallery of Leonardo’s anatomical studies and related material".


Leonardo da Vinci Anatomical Drawings (Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research) http://www.gfmer.ch/International_activities_En/Leonardo_anatomical_drawings.htm


Dürer, Albrecht, 1528. Vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion.
Images from Durer’s studies of human proportions.
http://gallica.bnf.fr/document?O=02100148 (French edition, 1557)


Vesalius, Andreas, 1543.  De Corporis Humani Fabrica.
Three online versions of the first medical treatise on anatomy that was accurate enough to be of use to artists, it effectively ended the era when artists needed to do their own dissecting to learn anatomy. Compare the works on the same site by Ketham (1494), Berengario (1523), and Estienne (1545).
1. Selected page images with linked biographical and bibliographical pages:
 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/vesalius_home.html or
2.Turning the Pages Online - leaf through a virtual copy of Vesalius: 
 http://archive.nlm.nih.gov/proj/ttp/flash/vesalius/vesalius.html 3. Translation and zoomable illustrations, with some interesting accompanying essays
4. PDF of rhe complete work (120 MB)


Valverde de Amusco, Juan, 1556. Anatomia del Corpo Humano.
Largely copied from Vesalius, but in places correcting his source.


Cortona, Pietro da, (c. 1618, publ. 1741). Tabulae Aanatomicae.
Anatomical plates produced by Cortona before he achived fame as an artist, and not published until long after his death.


Remmelin, Johan, 1619. Catoptrum microcosmicum.
Early and elaborate "flap book" showing successive anatomical layers.


Bourdon, Amé, 1678. Nouvelles Tables Anatomiques. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/bourdon_home.html


Bidloo, Govard, 1690. Ontleding des Menschelyken Lichaams. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/bidloo_home.html


Genga, Bernardino, 1691. Anatomia per Uso et Intelligenza del Disegno.


Cowper, William, 1698. The Anatomy of Humane Bodies. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/cowper_home.html


Cheselden, William, 1733. Osteographia, or The Anatomy of the Bones. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/cheselden_home.html


Gautier d’Agoty, Jacques, 1746. Myologie Complette en Couleur et Grandeur Naturelle. http://www.library.dal.ca/kellogg/collections/Gautieratlas/Gautieratlas.htm


Gautier d’Agoty, Jacques, 1752. Anatomie Generale des Viscères en Situation, de Grandeur et Couleur Naturelle, avec L’angeologie, et la Nevrologie de Chaque Partie du Corps Humain. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/gautier_home.html


Albinus, Bernhard Siegfried, 1749. Tabulae Sceleti et Musculorum Corporis Humani.
Excellent series of plates well-known today in the Dover edition edited by Robert Beverley Hale.


Gamelin, Jacques, 1779. Nouveau Receuil d’Ostéologie et de Myologie. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/gamelin_home.html


Mascagni, Paolo, 1823-1832. Images from Anatomia Universa.  


Bourgery, J.M., 1832-1851. Traité Complet de l’Anatomie. (in French.
http://gallica.bnf.fr/scripts/ConsultationTout.exe?O=02300557 (473 pl. )


Bock, Carl Ernest, 1841. Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen (translated Ronald A. Bergman and Adel K. Afifi).


Fau, J, 1849. The Anatomy of the External Forms of Man, Intended for the Use of Artists, Painters, and Sculptors.

Gray, Henry, 1858. Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical (1870 American edition).


Gray, Henry, 1858. Anatomy of the Human Body (20th edition, 1918, revised Warren H. Lewis.)
1. http://www.bartleby.com/107/
2. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/gray/