### Motion, Forces and Energy

FRICTION, OR LACK OF!!

NEWTON'S FIRST LAW - ENERGY IN MOTION

ULTIMATE NUCLEAR ENERGY

This physics unit will cover the concepts of objects in motion, friction and gravity as forces and the types of energy.

For this set of projects we will be covering two standards. You can work with partners. You need to pick at least two projects from each topic, then two more at random, for a total of eight.

HS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

HS-PS3 Energy

PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces

Learning Goal:

Through learning concepts of motion, force and energy, student will be able to design/demonstrate real life applications associated
with concepts of momentum, inertia, Newton's Laws, acceleration, electricity and magnetism

MOTION

*Describe Newton’s three laws of motion. Design an experiment demonstrating each law

 1 2 3 4 Research is emerging and experiment is still in design stage Research is evident and experiment design are completed, but there are informational gaps and/or design flaws Research is complete and accurate. Experiment fully demonstrates concept Student shows complete understanding of material and experiment is well designed and executed

*What is inertia? Describe the physics of seat belts, car crashes and the role of inertia. Design a demonstration to explain process.

 1 2 3 4 Research is emerging and experiment is still in design stage Research is evident and experiment design are completed, but there are informational gaps and/or design flaws Research is complete and accurate. Experiment fully demonstrates concep Student shows complete understanding of material and experiment is well designed and executed

*Explain the concepts of and compare the relationship between momentum and acceleration. Include the factors that influence each and the mathematical formulas for each. Design an experiment to test these concepts and to analyze the mathematical results explaining relationships. (Mousetrap car or lab experiment provided below)

 1 2 3 4 Research is emerging and experiment is still in design stage Concepts are touched upon but there are missing pieces of information. Experiment didn’t fully demonstrate each of the concepts Concepts are fully explained and experiment supports an accurate demonstration of the concepts Experiment demonstration and understanding of concepts goes above and beyond average work

FORCE

*Investigate the force considerations used in designing a football helmet or the considerations needed in making a NASCAR race safe. Design an experiment to demonstrate these concepts (egg drop?). You will need to understand how to calculate force.

 1 2 3 4 Research is emerging and experiment is still in design stage Force applications are accurate but student may not understand and/or experiment design does not use force considerations properly Information is accurate and understood and experiment properly applies force considerations Student thoroughly understands concepts and experiment demonstrates a high level of understanding force application

*Explain, including diagrams and/or videos, what the magnetosphere is and how this field protects the Earth. Also include the reasons why, and supporting evidence, that the Earth’s magnetic poles are shifting, and have done so in the past. Design a demonstration that models Earth’s magnetosphere as a magnetic field.

 1 2 3 4 Research is emerging and experiment is still in design stage Information has missing parts and/or is fully understood and/or demonstration isn’t complete Information is accurate and understood and demonstration models the magnetosphere Information is extensive and demonstration includes multi-media aspects

*Compare Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein’s Theory of space/time Relativity. How these laws combine to relate to the Earth’s tides, our solar system and the Milky Way galaxy.

 1 2 3 4 Research is emerging Either one or both has missing parts and/or is not fully understood Information is accurate and student understands the concepts Information is extensive and fully understood. Multi-media demonstrations are used

ENERGY

*Describe and include real life examples of the five forms of energy. Design an experiment/demonstration that provides a display of each form.

 1 2 3 4 Research is emerging and demonstrations are still in design stage All forms of energy are not fully represented and/or demonstrations do not describe form of energy Forms of energy are well covered and demonstrations fully represent each form Information is extensive and demonstrations provide a thorough coverage of the concepts

*Explain the Law of Conservation of Energy and the second Law of Thermodynamics. Compare how these two laws relate to the Big Bang Theory and the amount of energy available in the universe. This will include a discussion of entropy (what it is) and its role in future of the universe

 1 2 3 4 Research is emerging Information has missing parts and/or is not fully understood Information is accurate and student understands the concepts Information is extensive and fully understood. Multi-media demonstrations are used

*Describe how energy can be transferred within a system from one object to another and from one form to another.

Design a Rube Goldberg machine to demonstrate this concept.

 1 2 3 4 Research is emerging and machine is still in design stage Energy transfer is explained, but not fully understood and/or machine does not operate Information is fully understood, learning is apparent and machine demonstrates concepts. 5 steps Concepts are extensive conveyed and machine has multiple demonstrations of energy conversions. 8 steps

*How electric motors work. Design a demonstration that illustrates the process.

 1 2 3 4 Research is emerging and demonstration is still in design stage Process not fully understood and/or student has nonworking design Process of electric motors is understood and designed working demonstration Understanding is extensive and demonstration goes above and beyond average

INFORMATION TO BE INCLUDED:

Motion - Forces - Energy

Newton's Laws of Motion - what force makes an object stop moving (3types)?
What is a force that changes motion?
F=MA - Force is related to an object's mass and acceleration
What is the definition of Inertia - how does it apply to seatbelts?
Relationship between momentum, acceleration, velocity involves doing a lab, then analyzing data to make comparisons/relationship
- How to test how mass influences acceleration
- How does it relate to momentum
- Conclusions based on research and demonstration
Football helmet - what is made from, what happens to energy on impact, how is helmet tested
NASCAR - roof flaps, design of car/material, wall design, roll cage, safety harness, other
Seat belt design - parts of, how the mechanism works
Rube Goldberg - 3=7 steps, 4=10 steps (takes notes on process)
Forms of energy and math formulas can all be found on website
Egg drop - 10 feet
Force = Newtons - 1N=1kg move 1m/sec/sec
Electromagnetism = electricity and magnetism
System = anything thing that includes connected parts involving changing energy. Ex:  food chain, weather, internal combustion engine, human body

MONTHLY PROJECT SUGGESTED TOPICS

MOTION:

Newton's First law of motion
space travel, inertia
Newton's Second law of motion
acceleration, gas mileage, breaking distance, automobile designs
Newton's Third law of motion
jumping, liftoff, action reaction
Measuring motion
speed, acceleration, light speed, terminal velocity, red light blue light
Perpetual motion machines

FORCES:

Gravity
space and time
push and pull
math of space
terminal velocity
moon pulling tides
Newton's law of Universal Gravitation
Stephen Hawking's theories
Friction
sliding, rolling and fluid friction
motor oil
tire design
Magnets
Mathematics of force

ENERGY:

Potential v. kinetic
Mechanical energy
water power - dams, turbines
wind power
sound
Heat energy
thermal expansion
thermal energy - endothermic v. exothermic reactions
heat v. temperature
thermochemical reactions - heat caused from chemical reactions
Chemical energy
rocket fuel
wood burning
biochemical energy - food - how sugar gives organisms energy
electromagnetism energy
moving of electrons
power lines - electricity
electric motors
light energy
electromagnetic spectrum
shock - lightning
Nuclear energy
fission and fusion
sun
atomic bombs
nuclear power
Newton's laws of thermodynamics - two

FAMOUS SCIENTISTS

Albert Einstein
Isaac Newton
Stephen Hawking
Nikola Tesla
Thomas Edison
Georg Ohm
Marie Curie
Niels Bor
Many, Many others

STUDY GUIDE

Vocabulary

frame of reference
motion
force
friction
energy
constant speed
joules
fluid friction
sliding friction
rolling friction
gravity
inertia
speed
velocity
F=MA
acceleration
energy conversion
fusion
fission
convection
conduction
waste heat
thermal expansion
potential and kinetic energy
heat
temperature

Concepts

The five forms of energy and examples of each
Newton's first law of thermodynamics
Newton's three laws of motion
What is the difference between heat and temperature
Why do dragsters do burnouts
Math formulas
F=MA, s=d/t, final velocity-original velocity/time, momentum =massxvelocity

NOTES

FORCE:

force is a push or pull
wind pushes magnet pulls
moon pulls tides
force gives energy to an object
unit of measurement is a newton - one newton is the force needed to cause 1kg to move 1meter/sec for every second in motion

friction - force of opposites
sliding friction - solid objects slide over each other
rolling friction - solid objects roll over each other
fluid friction - friction in liquids (fluids include water, oil and air)

gravity force of attraction
depends on mass of object and distance away from each other
earth's gravity pulls down at rate of 9.8 m/sec/sec
Newton's Law of universal gravitation - all objects in the universe attract each other

MOTION:

motion - a change in position over time
frame of reference - the background or object that is compared to when describing movement
speed - distance object travel over time
s=d/t
constant speed - when object doesn't change speed
average speed - total distance divided by total time
velocity - speed in a direction (wind)
acceleration - rate which velocity changes - speed up, slow down, change direction
a = final velocity - original velocity /time
deceleration - decrease velocity
momentum - mass x velocity
any change in motion requires energy
Isaac Newton - 1665 - Three laws of motion
First law - an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by a force. An object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by force
inertia - tendency of an object to resist any change in motion - purpose of seat belts
Second law - force and acceleration are related to an object's mass
f=ma
Third law - for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction - forces act in pairs

ENERGY:

energy is the ability to do work
measured in joules
potential energy - energy at rest
kinetic energy - energy in motion
five forms energy
mechanical - energy of movement
water, wind, sound
heat - results of motion of atoms
friction converted to mechanical energy creates heat
thermal expansion - volume of object increases with motion of molecules
dragsters doing burnouts just before race
heat - how fast molecules are moving and how many there are
temperature - how fast molecules moving
heat gets transferred throughout atmosphere three ways
conduction - transfer of heat directly from one object to another - ground to air
convection - transfer of heat through fluids - warm air rises - convection currents
radiation - transfer of heat through empty space
chemical - energy required to bond atoms or break bonds - rocket fuel, wood burning, digestion
electromagnetism - moving of electrons
power lines, electric motors, light, electromagnetic spectrum, lightning
nuclear - fission, fusion
energy conversions - change in form of energy
Law of conservation - amount of energy in universe always same
Law of thermodynamics - energy cannot be created nor destroyed only changed form
whenever change in form of energy energy is lost - waste heat - lightbulb
not all energy is converted from one form to another - lighting a match

Speed lab (follows motion notes)

Lab report format will be the standard format

1. measure length of ramp - find midpoint
2. roll car from start - time to midpoint
3. roll car from start - time from midpoint to end
4. roll car from start - time length of ramp
5. 1-4 calculate speed, momentum, acceleration of car (this is the essential part for motion rubric)
Extension - Do lab with 2 different cars with different mass. Conclusion should include thoughts as to why you got two different results
6. roll car from start and time from end of ramp to stop - find speed
7. roll car from start and time until car comes to stop - find average speed
8. find acceleration of car on ramp, deceleration off ramp, calculate force

Energy conversion lab (follows energy notes)

tennis ball, racquet ball, ping pong, golf ball, super ball

Make a prediction of which ball will have the highest return height and why.

Do activity on classroom tables and on rug in hall.

1. bounce each ball 3x each from 30cm, 60cm, 90cm
2. observe height of first return bounce and record
3. why doesn't it bounce as high?
4. bounce height vs. ball type

Find average return height for each ball at each height