Motion, Forces and Energy

     FORCE OF FRICTION, OR LACK OF!!






NEWTON'S FIRST LAW - ENERGY IN MOTION


ULTIMATE NUCLEAR ENERGY



This physics unit will cover the concepts of objects in motion, friction and gravity as forces and the types of energy. The unit will involve taking notes with a test to follow, include the  labs "bouncing ball" and "matchbox car speeds" along with classroom activities. There will also be a monthly project.



MONTHLY PROJECT SUGGESTED TOPICS

MOTION:

Newton's First law of motion
    space travel, inertia
Newton's Second law of motion
    acceleration, gas mileage, breaking distance, automobile designs
Newton's Third law of motion
    jumping, liftoff, action reaction
Measuring motion
    speed, acceleration, light speed, terminal velocity, red light blue light
Perpetual motion machines

FORCES:

Gravity
    space and time
    push and pull
    math of space
    terminal velocity
    moon pulling tides
    Newton's law of Universal Gravitation
    Stephen Hawking's theories 
Friction
    sliding, rolling and fluid friction
    motor oil
    tire design
Magnets
Mathematics of force

ENERGY:

Potential v. kinetic
Mechanical energy
    water power - dams, turbines
    wind power
    sound
Heat energy
    thermal expansion
    thermal energy - endothermic v. exothermic reactions
    conduction, convection, radiation
    heat v. temperature
    thermochemical reactions - heat caused from chemical reactions
Chemical energy
    rocket fuel
    wood burning
    biochemical energy - food - how sugar gives organisms energy
electromagnetic energy
    moving of electrons
    power lines - electricity
    electric motors
    light energy
    electromagnetic spectrum
    shock - lightning
Nuclear energy
    fission and fusion
    sun
    atomic bombs
    nuclear power
Newton's laws of thermodynamics - two
Hadron collider


FAMOUS SCIENTISTS

Albert Einstein
Isaac Newton
Stephen Hawking
Nikola Tesla
Thomas Edison
Georg Ohm
Marie Curie
Niels Bor
Many, Many others





STUDY GUIDE

Vocabulary

frame of reference
motion
force
friction
energy
constant speed
joules
fluid friction
sliding friction
rolling friction
gravity
inertia
speed
velocity
F=MA
acceleration
energy conversion
fusion
fission
convection
conduction
radiation
waste heat
thermal expansion
potential and kinetic energy
heat
temperature

Concepts

The five forms of energy and examples of each
Newton's first law of thermodynamics
Newton's three laws of motion
What is the difference between heat and temperature
Why do dragsters do burnouts
Math formulas
    F=MA, s=d/t, final velocity-original velocity/time, momentum =massxvelocity




    NOTES

FORCE:

force is a push or pull
    wind pushes magnet pulls
    moon pulls tides
force gives energy to an object
unit of measurement is a newton - one newton is the force needed to cause 1kg to move 1meter/sec for every second in motion

friction - force of opposites
    sliding friction - solid objects slide over each other
    rolling friction - solid objects roll over each other
    fluid friction - friction in liquids (fluids include water, oil and air)

gravity force of attraction
    depends on mass of object and distance away from each other
    earth's gravity pulls down at rate of 9.8 m/sec/sec
Newton's Law of universal gravitation - all objects in the universe attract each other

MOTION:

motion - a change in position over time
frame of reference - the background or object that is compared to when describing movement
speed - distance object travel over time 
    s=d/t
    constant speed - when object doesn't change speed
    average speed - total distance divided by total time
velocity - speed in a direction (wind)
acceleration - rate which velocity changes - speed up, slow down, change direction
    a = final velocity-original velocity/time
    deceleration - decrease velocity
momentum - mass x velocity
any change in motion requires energy
Isaac Newton - 1665 - Three laws of motion
    First law - an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by a force. An object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by force
        inertia - tendency of an object to resist any change in motion - purpose of seat belts
    Second law - force and acceleration are related to an object's mass     
        f=ma 
    Third law - for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction - forces act in pairs

ENERGY:

energy is the ability to do work
measured in joules
potential energy - energy at rest
kinetic energy - energy in motion
five forms energy
    mechanical - energy of movement 
        water, wind, sound
    heat - results of motion of atoms 
        friction converted to mechanical energy creates heat    
        thermal expansion - volume of object increases with motion of molecules 
            dragsters doing burnouts just before race
        heat - how fast molecules are moving and how many there are
        temperature - how fast molecules moving
        heat gets transferred throughout atmosphere three ways
            conduction - transfer of heat directly from one object to another - ground to air
            convection - transfer of heat through fluids - warm air rises - convection currents
            radiation - transfer of heat through empty space
    chemical - energy required to bond atoms or break bonds - rocket fuel, wood burning, digestion
    electromagnetic - moving of electrons
            power lines, electric motors, light, electromagnetic spectrum, lightning
    nuclear - fission, fusion
energy conversions - change in form of energy
    Law of conservation - amount of energy in universe always same
    Law of thermodynamics - energy cannot be created nor destroyed only changed form
whenever change in form of energy energy is lost - waste heat - lightbulb
    not all energy is converted from one form to another - lighting a match

    



    Speed lab (follows motion notes)

Lab report format will be the standard format
 
    1. measure length of ramp - find midpoint
    2. roll car from start - time to midpoint
    3. roll car from start - time from midpoint to end    
    4. roll car from start - time length of ramp
    5. 1-4 calculate speed
    6. roll car from start and time from end of ramp to stop - find speed 
    7. roll car from start and time until car comes to stop - find average speed
    8. find acceleration of car on ramp, deceleration off ramp, calculate force
    
Do lab with 2 different cars. Conclusion should include thoughts as to why you got two different results




Energy conversion lab (follows energy notes)

tennis ball, racquet ball, ping pong, golf ball, super ball

Make a prediction of which ball will have the highest return height and why.

Do activity on classroom tables and on rug in hall.

    1. bounce each ball 3x each from 30cm, 60cm, 90cm
    2. observe height of first return bounce and record
    3. why doesn't it bounce as high?
    4. bounce height vs. ball type

Find average return height for each ball at each height
         

        
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