Motion, Forces and Energy

     FORCE OF FRICTION, OR LACK OF!!






NEWTON'S FIRST LAW - ENERGY IN MOTION


ULTIMATE NUCLEAR ENERGY



This physics unit will cover the concepts of objects in motion, friction and gravity as forces and the types of energy. 


For this set of projects we will be covering two standards. You can work with partners. These projects will be a part of the TnT Exposition that will be presented to high school students and Ridgeview students on March 30. You need to pick at least two projects from each topic, then one more at random, for a total of seven.


HS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

PS2.B: Types of Interactions


HS-PS3 Energy

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer

PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces

Learning Goal:

    Through learning concepts of motion, force and energy, student will be able to design/demonstrate real life applications associated
    with concepts of momentum, inertia, Newton's Laws, acceleration, electricity and magnetism






MOTION


*Describe Newton’s three laws of motion. Design an experiment demonstrating each law

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4

Research is emerging and experiment is still in design stage

Research is evident and experiment design are completed, but there are informational gaps and/or design flaws

Research is complete and accurate. Experiment fully demonstrates concept

Student shows complete understanding of material and experiment is well designed and executed




*What is inertia? Describe the physics of seat belts, car crashes and the role of inertia. Design a demonstration to explain process.

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3

4

Research is emerging and experiment is still in design stage

Research is evident and experiment design are completed, but there are informational gaps and/or design flaws

Research is complete and accurate. Experiment fully demonstrates concep

Student shows complete understanding of material and experiment is well designed and executed




*Explain the concepts of and the relationship between momentum, acceleration, speed and velocity. Include the factors that influence each and the mathematical formulas for each. Design an experiment to test these concepts. (Mousetrap car or lab experiment)

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4

Research is emerging and experiment is still in design stage

Concepts are touched upon but there are missing pieces of information. Experiment didn’t fully demonstrate each of the concepts

Concepts are fully explained and experiment supports an accurate demonstration of the concepts

Experiment demonstration and understanding of concepts goes above and beyond average work









FORCE


*Explain the force considerations used in designing a football helmet or the considerations needed in making a NASCAR race safe. Design an experiment to demonstrate these concepts (egg drop?). You will need to understand how to calculate force.  

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Research is emerging and experiment is still in design stage

Force applications are accurate but student may not understand and/or experiment design does not use force considerations properly

Information is accurate and understood and experiment properly applies force considerations

Student thoroughly understands concepts and experiment demonstrates a high level of force application




*Explain, including diagrams and/or videos, what the magnetosphere is and how this field protects the Earth. Also include the reasons why and supporting evidence that the Earth’s magnetic poles are shifting, and have done so in the past. Design a demonstration that models Earth’s magnetosphere as a magnetic field.

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4

Research is emerging and experiment is still in design stage


Information has missing parts and/or is fully understood and/or demonstration isn’t complete

Information is accurate and understood and demonstration models the magnetosphere

Information is extensive and demonstration includes multi-media aspects




*Explain Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein’s Theory of space/time Relativity. How these laws combine to relate to the Earth’s tides, our solar system and the Milky Way galaxy.

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Research is emerging

Either one or both has missing parts and/or is not fully understood

Information is accurate and student understands the concepts

Information is extensive and fully understood. Multi-media demonstrations are used








ENERGY


*Describe and include real life examples of the five forms of energy. Design an experiment/demonstration that provides a display of each form.

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4

Research is emerging and demonstrations are still in design stage

All forms of energy are not fully represented and/or demonstrations do not describe form of energy

Forms of energy are well covered and demonstrations fully represent each form

Information is extensive and demonstrations provide a thorough coverage of the concepts




*Explain the Law of Conservation of Energy and the second Law of Thermodynamics. How do these two laws relate to the Big Bang Theory and the amount of energy available in the universe.

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4

Research is emerging

Information has missing parts and/or is not fully understood

Information is accurate and student understands the concepts

Information is extensive and fully understood. Multi-media demonstrations are used




*Describe how energy can be transferred within a system from one object to another and from one form to another.

Design a Rube Goldberg machine to demonstrate this concept.

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4

Research is emerging and machine is still in design stage

Energy transfer is explained, but not fully understood and/or machine does not operate

Information is fully understood, learning is apparent and machine demonstrates concepts. 5 steps

Concepts are extensive conveyed and machine has multiple demonstrations of energy conversions. 8 steps



*How electric motors work. Design a demonstration that illustrates the process.

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4

Research is emerging and demonstration is still in design stage

Process not fully understood and/or student has nonworking design

Process of electric motors is understood and designed working demonstration

Understanding is extensive and demonstration goes above and beyond average



INFORMATION TO BE INCLUDED:

Motion - Forces - Energy

Football helmet - what is made from, what happens to energy on impact, how is helmet tested
NASCAR - roof flaps, design of car/material, wall design, roll cage, safety harness, other
Seat belt design - parts of, how the mechanism works
F=MA - Force is related to an object's mass and acceleration
What is a force that changes motion?
Rube Goldberg - 3=5 steps, 4=8 steps (takes notes on process)
Forms of energy and math formulas can all be found on website
- How to test how mass influences acceleration
- How does it relate to momentum
- Conclusions based on research and demonstration
Egg drop - 3=6 feet, 4=8 feet
Force = Newtons - 1N=1kg move 1m/sec/sec
Electromagnetic = electricity and magnetism
Entropy and its role in future of the universe
System = anything thing that includes connected parts involving changing energy. Ex:  food chain, weather, internal combustion engine, human body






MONTHLY PROJECT SUGGESTED TOPICS

MOTION:

Newton's First law of motion
    space travel, inertia
Newton's Second law of motion
    acceleration, gas mileage, breaking distance, automobile designs
Newton's Third law of motion
    jumping, liftoff, action reaction
Measuring motion
    speed, acceleration, light speed, terminal velocity, red light blue light
Perpetual motion machines

FORCES:

Gravity
    space and time
    push and pull
    math of space
    terminal velocity
    moon pulling tides
    Newton's law of Universal Gravitation
    Stephen Hawking's theories 
Friction
    sliding, rolling and fluid friction
    motor oil
    tire design
Magnets
Mathematics of force

ENERGY:

Potential v. kinetic
Mechanical energy
    water power - dams, turbines
    wind power
    sound
Heat energy
    thermal expansion
    thermal energy - endothermic v. exothermic reactions
    conduction, convection, radiation
    heat v. temperature
    thermochemical reactions - heat caused from chemical reactions
Chemical energy
    rocket fuel
    wood burning
    biochemical energy - food - how sugar gives organisms energy
electromagnetic energy
    moving of electrons
    power lines - electricity
    electric motors
    light energy
    electromagnetic spectrum
    shock - lightning
Nuclear energy
    fission and fusion
    sun
    atomic bombs
    nuclear power
Newton's laws of thermodynamics - two
Hadron collider


FAMOUS SCIENTISTS

Albert Einstein
Isaac Newton
Stephen Hawking
Nikola Tesla
Thomas Edison
Georg Ohm
Marie Curie
Niels Bor
Many, Many others





STUDY GUIDE

Vocabulary

frame of reference
motion
force
friction
energy
constant speed
joules
fluid friction
sliding friction
rolling friction
gravity
inertia
speed
velocity
F=MA
acceleration
energy conversion
fusion
fission
convection
conduction
radiation
waste heat
thermal expansion
potential and kinetic energy
heat
temperature

Concepts

The five forms of energy and examples of each
Newton's first law of thermodynamics
Newton's three laws of motion
What is the difference between heat and temperature
Why do dragsters do burnouts
Math formulas
    F=MA, s=d/t, final velocity-original velocity/time, momentum =massxvelocity




    NOTES

FORCE:

force is a push or pull
    wind pushes magnet pulls
    moon pulls tides
force gives energy to an object
unit of measurement is a newton - one newton is the force needed to cause 1kg to move 1meter/sec for every second in motion

friction - force of opposites
    sliding friction - solid objects slide over each other
    rolling friction - solid objects roll over each other
    fluid friction - friction in liquids (fluids include water, oil and air)

gravity force of attraction
    depends on mass of object and distance away from each other
    earth's gravity pulls down at rate of 9.8 m/sec/sec
Newton's Law of universal gravitation - all objects in the universe attract each other

MOTION:

motion - a change in position over time
frame of reference - the background or object that is compared to when describing movement
speed - distance object travel over time 
    s=d/t
    constant speed - when object doesn't change speed
    average speed - total distance divided by total time
velocity - speed in a direction (wind)
acceleration - rate which velocity changes - speed up, slow down, change direction
    a = final velocity-original velocity/time
    deceleration - decrease velocity
momentum - mass x velocity
any change in motion requires energy
Isaac Newton - 1665 - Three laws of motion
    First law - an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by a force. An object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by force
        inertia - tendency of an object to resist any change in motion - purpose of seat belts
    Second law - force and acceleration are related to an object's mass     
        f=ma 
    Third law - for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction - forces act in pairs

ENERGY:

energy is the ability to do work
measured in joules
potential energy - energy at rest
kinetic energy - energy in motion
five forms energy
    mechanical - energy of movement 
        water, wind, sound
    heat - results of motion of atoms 
        friction converted to mechanical energy creates heat    
        thermal expansion - volume of object increases with motion of molecules 
            dragsters doing burnouts just before race
        heat - how fast molecules are moving and how many there are
        temperature - how fast molecules moving
        heat gets transferred throughout atmosphere three ways
            conduction - transfer of heat directly from one object to another - ground to air
            convection - transfer of heat through fluids - warm air rises - convection currents
            radiation - transfer of heat through empty space
    chemical - energy required to bond atoms or break bonds - rocket fuel, wood burning, digestion
    electromagnetic - moving of electrons
            power lines, electric motors, light, electromagnetic spectrum, lightning
    nuclear - fission, fusion
energy conversions - change in form of energy
    Law of conservation - amount of energy in universe always same
    Law of thermodynamics - energy cannot be created nor destroyed only changed form
whenever change in form of energy energy is lost - waste heat - lightbulb
    not all energy is converted from one form to another - lighting a match

    



    Speed lab (follows motion notes)

Lab report format will be the standard format
 
    1. measure length of ramp - find midpoint
    2. roll car from start - time to midpoint
    3. roll car from start - time from midpoint to end    
    4. roll car from start - time length of ramp
    5. 1-4 calculate speed
    6. roll car from start and time from end of ramp to stop - find speed 
    7. roll car from start and time until car comes to stop - find average speed
    8. find acceleration of car on ramp, deceleration off ramp, calculate force
    
Do lab with 2 different cars. Conclusion should include thoughts as to why you got two different results




Energy conversion lab (follows energy notes)

tennis ball, racquet ball, ping pong, golf ball, super ball

Make a prediction of which ball will have the highest return height and why.

Do activity on classroom tables and on rug in hall.

    1. bounce each ball 3x each from 30cm, 60cm, 90cm
    2. observe height of first return bounce and record
    3. why doesn't it bounce as high?
    4. bounce height vs. ball type

Find average return height for each ball at each height
         

        
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