Foreign Affairs Canada Discussion of Visiting Schengen Zone Countries

From Government of Canada Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Website  

This one for Germany but pick any Schengen  Zone Country and you get the same wording

http://www.voyage.gc.ca

4. ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS 

It is the sole prerogative of each country or region to determine who is allowed to enter. All countries or regions have special requirements for persons intending to reside for extended periods (usually more than 90 days) or who plan to work, study, or engage in non-tourist activities. To obtain information on specific entry requirements, contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) to be visited. Violations of entry and exit requirements may result in serious penalties. 

The following information on entry and exit requirements has been obtained from the German authorities. However, these requirements are subject to change at any time. It is the traveller’s responsibility to check with the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany and its consulates, for up-to-date information.

A valid Canadian passport is required for Canadians intending to visit Germany. The passport must be valid for at least the expected duration of your stay in the country.

Tourist Visa: Not required (for stays up to 90 days within a 6-month period)*

Business Visa: Not required (for stays up to 90 days within a 6-month period)*)

Student Visa: Required

*The 90-day period starts upon the first entry into any country that is part of the Schengen Area.

EXTENSION OF TOURIST STAYS

Extensions beyond 90 days are not possible. To stay longer, Canadians must apply for a residence permit and have a valid reason, such as education or employment. In some circumstances, tourists who stay beyond the 90-day limit unexpectedly (e.g., due to illness) may contact the Foreigners' Office (Ausländerbehörde) and present their outbound ticket in order to get a certificate (Grenzuebertrittsbescheinigung) that has to be given to the border authorities upon departure. Tourists who overstay and who do not have this certificate will be fined. Canadians should not enter and exit the Schengen Area repeatedly to avoid the 90-day limit. If Canadians have many entries (documented by entry stamps) and remain in Germany for longer visits, they might be refused entry.
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