Published Guidance and References

The most current guidance on Benefit-Cost Analysis, essential for submitting BCAs as part of competitive federal grants can be found on this USDOT webpage:

The following resources provide more information about benefit-cost analysis for transportation projects.

FHWA. (2015). Use of Benefit-Cost Analysis by State Departments of Transportation: Report to Congress.

Steve Abley, Paul Durdin and Malcolm Douglass (2010). Integrated Transport Assessment Guidelines, Report 422, Land Transport New Zealand (; at

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (2010). A Manual of User Benefit Analysis for Highways, 3rd Edition.

Anthony Boardman,et al. (2005), Cost-Benefit Analysis: Concepts and Practice, 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall / Pearson; at

CalTrans (2006), Benefit-Cost Models, Office of Transportation Economics, California Department of Transportation (; at

CALTRANS (2007), Life-Cycle Benefit-Cost Analysis - Economic Valuations, California Department of Transportation, Division of Transportation Planning, Office of Transportation Economics; at:

CASA (2010), Cost Benefit Analysis Procedures Manual, Australian Government, Civil Aviation Safety Authority; at

CTE (Center for Transportation and the Environment) (2008), Improved Methods For Assessing Social, Cultural, And Economic Effects Of Transportation Projects, NCHRP Project 08-36, Task 66, Transportation Research Board (, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO); at

DFID (2003), Social Benefits in Transport Planning, UK Department for International Development (; at Describes methodologies for more comprehensive transportation project evaluation.

DfT (2006), Transport Analysis Guidance, Integrated Transport Economics and Appraisal, UK Department for Transport (

EC (2002), Guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Projects, Evaluation Unit, DG Regional Policy, European Commission; at

EDRG (2007), Monetary Valuation of Hard-to-Quantify Transportation Impacts: Valuing Environmental, Health/Safety & Economic Development Impacts, NCHRP 8-36-61, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (; at

FAA (1999), Airport Benefit-Cost Analysis Guidance, Federal Aviation Administration. US Dept. of Transportation, Washington, DC; at

FHWA (2003), Economic Analysis Primer, Office of Asset Management, Federal Highway Administration; at

FHWA (2005), Highway Economic Requirements System (HERS): Technical Report, Federal Highway Administration (; at

FHWA (2001), Cost-Benefit Forecasting Toolbox for Highways, Federal Highway Administration. US Department of Transportation, Washington DC; at

FMT (2005), Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2003: Basic Features Of The Macroeconomic Evaluation Methodology, German Federal Ministry of Transport (; at,-13237/Federal-Transport-Infrastructu.htm

David J. Forkenbrock and Glen E. Weisbrod (2001), Guidebook for Assessing the Social and Economic Effects of Transportation Projects, NCHRP Report 456, TRB ( Available at:

Goodbody Economic Consultants (2004), Cost Benefit Parameters and Application Rules for Transport Project Appraisal. Available at:

GTKP (2011), Economic Analysis for Multilateral Development Banks, Global Transport Knowledge Partnership (; at

Hyder Consulting (2008), Understanding Transport Costs and Charges (UTCC) Phase 1, New Zealand Ministry of Transport (; at:

Todd Litman (2001), What’s It Worth? Life Cycle and Benefit/Cost Analysis for Evaluating Economic Value, Presented at Internet Symposium on Benefit-Cost Analysis, Transportation Association of Canada (; at

Todd Litman (2010), Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (; at

LTNZ (2010), Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM), Land Transport New Zealand (; at

M. Maibach, et al. (2008), Handbook on Estimation of External Cost in the Transport Sector, CE Delft (; at

MSU (undated), Benefit/Cost Analysis: Introduction. Mankato State University; at

Portney, Paul. (undated), Benefit-Cost Analysis, The Library Of Economics and Liberty; at

MNDOT (undated), Benefit Cost Analysis, MN DOT Office of Investment Management: at

TC (2003-2007), The Full Cost Investigation of Transportation in Canada (multiple documents), Transport Canada (; at Technical report, Anming Zhang, Anthony E. Boardman, David Gillen and W.G. Waters II (2005), Towards Estimating the Social and Environmental Costs of Transportation in Canada, Centre for Transportation Studies, UBC, for Transport Canada (; at

TRISP (2005), Economic Evaluation Notes, UK Department for International Development and the World Bank (; at

UNIDO (no date), A Guide to Practical Project Appraisal - Social Benefit-Cost Analysis in Developing Countries, United Nations. Available at:

United Kingdom Department for Transport, Transport Analysis Guidance (WebTAG); at:

van Essen, et al (2004), Marginal Costs of Infrastructure Use – Towards a Simplified Approach, CE Delft (; at

White House (2003), Circular No. A-94:-Guidelines and Discount Rates for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Federal Programs, Office of Management & Budget. US Government. Printing Office, Washington, DC; at

World Bank (2008), A Framework For Urban Transport Projects: Operational Guidance for World Bank Staff, Transport Sector Board, World Bank (; at