02 European Imperialism
Student Contribution #1
Key Vocabulary Terms:
- Classic imperialism: In this version of imperialism, the Europeans sought to to extend control over another country through conquest or through economic control. There were several motivations for this action: (a) economic self-interest to reap inexpensive raw resources that would be processed and be sold for profit after they were manufactured into a final product such as clothing, farm equipment, or other; (b) moral obligation to improve from the European's point-of-view a higher quality of life through conversion to Christianity, providing medicine, and molding them into the culture of the Europeans. The poem by Kipling is a good example of this attitude. Taking over another nation by force, usually for one nation’s own economic self interest.” This is talked about when Europeancountries took over Africa for nothing but money.
- Accommodation: Not needed for this exam
- Assimilation: Not needed for this exam
- Black Man's Burden: The poem “Black Man’s Burden” was written as a response to another poem called by Rudyard Kipling titled “White Man’s Burden.” It was written in anger that the white man claimed to have a “burden” when considering what black people dealt with. Edward Morel writes an intriguing article in where he explains his interpretation of what happens with European colonial forces enslave the Africans in their own homes and remove their culture and attempt to replace it with the European model. The poem “Black Man’s Burden” was written as a response to another poem called by Rudyard Kipling titled “White Man’s Burden.” It waswritten in anger that the white man had any sort of “burden” when considering what black people dealt with. Edward Morel writes an intriguing article in where he explains his interpretation of the poem he expresses his frustration with the white people that acknowledge that their poor treatment of the African and don’t change anything about it. He says, “Can they not close that century of that era, andpractice what they profess? And what the missionaries have taught the African?”
- Free trade: Occurred in the 19th century and its main focus was on commercial domination. Powerful countries gained economic dominance of a weaker country. The weaker countries did maintain legal independence despite this dominance. The dominant countries would use diplomatic power to force weaker countries to grant access of their markets to more powerful countries. This policy resulted in the rise of informal economic control.
- Nationalism: Consists of people’s awareness of being part of a community or a “nation”. This nation consists of common institutions, traditions, language, and customs. This commonality starts to become the focus of an individual’s primary political loyalty. Nationalism can also be seen as the idea that your country is superior to all others. Nationalists feel strong loyalty towards their country and as many countries started to conquer others, nationalism became a driving force for imperialism.
- New imperialism: A period of colonial expansion by the European powers beginning in the 1800s. The main focus was not on economic development, instead the focus was on controlling land in many different areas so that other competing countries could not. In order to do this, European nations established colonies throughout much of Asia and Africa. They used military force to take over the governments in hopes of creating new markets and more raw materials. This led to development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories.
- Economic imperialism: The main goal is for businesses to make a high profit. In order to do this, banks and corporations from economically developed nations invest in underdeveloped regions and establish a major presence there in hopes of making a high profit. Countries can be, but are not always, directly involved in this form of imperialism. This is different than colonial expansion because businesses may go beyond their own nation’s colonies. The government and top political leaders may or may not be involved in this form of imperialism except to provide protection for shiping through the nation's navy.
Potential Essay Questions:
Essay Question #1. What motivated the Europeans with their imperialistic expansion to other regions of the world? What were the results for the Europeans and the countries they interacted with?
Use what you learned from the class lecture and the assigned readings by Kipling, Morel, Porter, Decker. and Wesseling to support your essay response.
Student Response #1
1. European’s Motivation for Imperialism
a. Economic Advantage
i. Maximize profits
ii. Cheap labor
1. Slavery of Africans
iii. Natural resources/raw materials
1. Control over seaports/trade
b. Military Advantage
i. Claim territory to protect empire
ii. Military forces
c. Social Darwinism
i. Culture values
1. Christianity was the best religion
ii. “White Race” is superior
1. White Man’s Burden (Kipling).
2. “…the enemy must not only be beaten. He must be beaten thoroughly” (Wesseling).
iii. Survival of the fittest in “world of man”
2. Results of Imperialism 1871-1914
a. Increase economic competition
b. Military tensions heighted world wide
i. Long term wars and massive battles, military was prepared
c. Create environment for World War One
i. International arms race, pacification.
Essay Question #2. Analyze the nonviolent reaction movement within India that was used against the British. How did Gandhi conduct the protest, motivate the people? What was the short-term and long-term impact of the change?
This answer is based on the information from the class lecture, Gandhi's speech on the Salt March, handouts from the Gandhi protest application activity, and the video documentary that was viewed and discussed during class.
Student Response #1
Non-violent movement led by Gandhi for an independent India:
1. How it was conducted:
• Peaceful disobedience
1. Getting arrested
♣ Burning their identification cards
a. salt march
♣ several years in prison
2. Boycotting goods
• Tax on salt
• Hand-made clothing
• Purchase goods locally
• Quitting government jobs
• Withdrawing students from government funded schools
3.. Understanding how the Britain operate
• Britain could not strike back if it was non violent
• Imprisonment only fueled the movement
• Negotiating with the Britain
• Being patient and careful when making a move
2.. How it motivates the people:
• Speeches that encouraged others to follow
1. Becoming the figure for India
• Became the face of the movement: holy-like, loin-cloth, shave head.
2. Develop a plan to create a lot of controversy
♣ March to get salt
♣ Illegal act
♣ People wanted to see what happens after Gandhi defy Britain
♣ Knew salt was essential in everyday life
• Walked to towns to encourage disobediences
• Telling the people that “Britain did not take over Indian, but it was handed over to them”
• Used his gift of talking to persuade people to join the movement.
• Asking follow Indians to quit their government jobs
Short-term and long-term consequences of the protest
1. Short-term consequences: Initial victory by Gandhi and followers: negotiation began for the British to leave, protesters released from prison, beatings and mistreatment of protesters stopped, discriminatory laws were eliminated.
2. Long-term consequences: After 17 years the British leave India. Gandhi is killed by Hindu due to fear because Gandhi was trying to make peace between the Hindus and the Muslims. Some people feared the change and perceived a threat to the Hindu majority.