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09 Re-Emerging Africa

Unit Overview

Student Contribution #1 
During the 1950s, Africa have been occupied by the independence countries and French. Africa also experience genocides from different tribes new ideas such as the introduced of Western European countries. The suppression of indigenous culture is introduced and deadly European diseases. Their resources of oil in their environment are discovered and it leads to violence and war. Africa faces challenges such as military conflicts and rivals, natural and financial resource management, and a change from colonial to national to dictator control.

In the military conflicts and rivals, newly liberated colonies have difficulties instituting a new political system. For instances, in Libya, tribal, regional, and ethnic disputes divide everything and the military leaders appointed to gov. positions by weak leaders. Now, Libya became two countries and divided into two copies of government. In the natural and financial resource management, religious reverence for the land and economic development of resources are affecting the violence in Sudan. The main sources of oil and widespread of weapons has spread chaos but more importantly different tribes claiming the territory. 

In the change of colonial to national to dictator, The Charter of Organization of African Unity (OAU), was created in the 1963 and then became African Union (AU) in 2002. It establishes inalienable rights of all country destiny, freedom, equality, justified and dignity. Also, created peace and security to fight against neocolonialism.  Socialism is introduced to benefit all people and human equality. To serve man and not the state or government. The natural environments have shown industrialized disadvantaged in which lacks the access of coastline, trade barriers between others, and lack raw resources needed for industry. Population size, discourages interaction with large countries to maintain independence and cultural integrity. Many tribes are invaded by Belgians and Germans in which involvement of Europeans governments influence the castes sides of the Hutus and the Tutsi. 

The Hutus were not favored by the European since their physical appearance did not compare and were low status because of small. However, Belgians supported the Hutus by provided government jobs and limit the Tutsis. They also provide education to raise their knowledge and support them out of the lower status.   Tutis tribe are favored because their appearance is compared to the European and their group were focus more on education and got involved with politics by position in government leadership. Checkpoints are made to identify the Tutsi and Hutu by their identification cards. The technology of radio station promoted stereotypes of Tutsis and lead the genocide of the Tutsi into making their population smaller.                                  

Student Contribution #2

The Re-emerging of Africa in the 20th and 21st centuries has many major events that happened. Give in the power point; some of the challenges with rapid changes in Africa are the natural resource management, military conflict and rivals, and the shift from imperial to national to dictator control.

Discussion of the article New Rwanda made by Orphans.
New Rwanda consists of many different aspects that would benefit all people. Education would be improved and there would be more primary schools through college-level schools that give people a variety of degrees based on what they want to go into as a career. They would have better career goals. There would be financial aid and academic support for education. More people would benefit from education and would be able to further their education in a higher level if the people choose. Moving past the genocide to build a better future, Rwanda needs the improvement of education systems, the government, and technology systems.  There are many unsolved issues still in Africa. Challenges that are still faced throughout Africa include political issues being unsolved, social issues, and economic issues. Economic issues are still being faced because of problems that have happened many years ago. 

The creation of the Charter Organization of African Unity (OAU) was created in 1963. The Charter of the OAU is the
inalienable right of all people to control their own destiny, 
gives the African people the freedom, equality, justice, and dignity, 
control over the natural and human resources for all the African people.

The Charter of the OAU plays a very big role and signifies many different areas within the African people.  
Earth and the Environment is a big part of the re-emerging of Africa. The location of Africa has an impact on the different events that happen inside or outside of the country. They land that is best for agriculture and livestock production and the way of transportation of resources has an impact on Africa. New ideas that were formed by the Belgians and Germans were the idea of having “different tribes” through categorization. The Tutsi tribe and the Hutu tribe, which were both, favored or unflavored based on physical appearance and how they were educated and the involvement with the government. One tribe, which was seen, favored over the other was the Tutsi that were favored over the Hutus.  Identification cards were used for the Tutsi and Hutu tribes and mountains channeled people into roads and checkpoints by soldiers. Another way technology played a role in re-emerging Africa was the role of radio stations and how they portrayed the tribes. It would promote stereotypes for the Tutsis. Between the two tribes, there were a lot of different views on families and cultural traditions played a significant role in this. 

Key Vocabulary Terms
Set #1:
  • Uhuru Movement: The Uhuru Movement (Swahili for freedom) is lead and built by the African People’s Socialist Party (APSP). They are committed to uniting people as one for liberation, social justice, self-reliance, and economic development. This movement was founded in 1972 by Omali Yeshitela and is based in St. Petersburg, Florida. 
  • African National Congress (ANC):  The African National Congress was founded in 1912. This is the social democratic political party of South Africa and was created to unite the African people and free them of the oppressive ways. The ANC declares that the people shall govern, that people should have equal rights and share the countries wealth, and that there should be peace and comfort.
  • Organization of African Unity (OAU):  The Organization of African Unity was founded in 1963 in Ethiopia. OAU has now transitioned into the AU (African Union). There are 54 states that are AU members whose main goals are to unify and solidify the African States and follow the United Nations framework of international cooperation. The difference between the OAU and the AU is that the AU has special organs such as the Peace and Treaty Council, African Bank, and an African Standby Force. The AU was created to keep improving ways of living into the 21st century. 
  • Pan-Africanism:  Pan-Africanism reflects a wide-range of political views. Fundamentally it is the belief that African Peoples share not only a common history but a common destiny and that all African Peoples should be unified. 

  • National Truth and Reconciliation Commission:  
  • The South African’s National Truth and Reconciliation Commission lasted from 1995-2002. It was created in part to investigate human rights violations that happened during the African apartheid regime which involved abductions, killings, and tortures of the African people. This Commission took about 21,000 testimonies of victims. 
Set #2:
  • Apartheid

  • Tutsi and Hutu

  • Militarism

  • Neocolonialism.  

  • Desertification:  
Potential Essay Questions
Essay Question #1. What were the immediate and long-term events and history forces impacting Rwanda that influenced the civil strife that eventually led to the genocide and continuing strife today? 
In addition to the lecture notes and videos played during class, readings related to this essay question include "Shaddox's "Simply Rwandan: The new Rwanda, made by orphans."

Student Contribution #1

I. Introduction 
    a. Briefly mention the topics that will be talked about in the body paragraphs

II. Immediate Events
    a. European government leaving 
    b. Power vacuum
    c. Young age of reemerged countries
    d. No stable government after Europeans left

III. Long-term Events
    a. 500 year conflict between the Hutu and the Tutsi tribes
    b. Rwandan Genocide 
    c. Orphanages overcrowded
        i. Orphans grew out of the orphanage and had no means of support
    d. Shaddox’s “Simply Rwandan: The new Rwanda, made by orphans”

IV. History Forces
    a. Earth and Environment
        i. Impact of geography 
            1. Small and landlocked
        ii. Land best for agriculture
        iii. Industrialization disadvantages
            1. Lack of access to a coast
        2. Lack of raw resources
    b. Interaction and Exchange 
        i. European interaction with Belgians and Germans
        ii. Indirect and direct control of society by Europeans
        iii. Current investigations on European government involvement
    c. Arts and New Ideas
        i. Historically Hutus and Tutsi tribes considered equal
        ii. New ideas brought in by the Belgians and Germans
        iii. Favoritism shown to Tutsi tribe/ non favoritism shown to Hutu
        iv. Role reversal of Tutsi and Hutu favoritism 
    d. Science and Technology
        i. Identification cards
        ii. Checkpoints in the roads
        iii. Role of radio stations

V. Conclusion
    a. Summarize the past and continuing strife in Rwanda 
    b. Continuing education of the young population

Essay Question #2. What are the economic, social, and political challenges for Africa since World War Two? What events and history forces both within the African countries and those in other parts of the world continue to influence events inside of Africa? 
Some of the readings that have especially relevant information are "Descent from Arab Spring to factional chaos"; Armah's "Stealing the nation's riches"; Gettleman's "Roots of bitterness in a region threaten Sudan's future"; and Nyerere's "Socialism is not racialism".

Student Contribution #1

1. Discuss the overall history force changes 
    o (select a few of the following)
        -Politics and government: trying to create new countries
        -economics: many new countries had very little wealth
        -new ideas: Tribal difference
        -group identities: Tribal differences led to violence
        -earth and environment: Many natural resources
        -interaction and exchange: Introduction of western culture
2. Economic Challenges
    a. Reference Stealing the Nations Riches
        i. Exploiters continued to replace each other
        ii. The OAU harnessed natural and human resources for the advancement of all
3. Social Challenges
    a. Reference Stealing the Nation’s Riches
        i. OAU had a desire to establish and security 
    b. Reference Socialism is Not Racialism
        i. Socialism would benefit all people
4. Political Challenges
    a. Reference Nigerian Rulers
        i. Terrorists were angry because their leader had been assassinated
        ii. Police were brutal and corrupt 
    b. Reference Descent from Abrab Spring…
        i. Militaries didn’t recognize political parties
        ii. Central government was the weak vs warlords
        iii. Libya essentially became 2 countnries
5. Discuss how these issues relate to each other as a whole.