Indian subcontinent is one of the 12 mega biodiversity centres and represents two of the eight Vavilovian centres of origin and diversity of crop plants (Harlan 1971). Two of the eighteen globally identified ‘hot spots’ of biological diversity occur in India, one each in the Western Ghats and the Northern Himalyas. The biological diversity is the fundamental basis of agricultural production and is being rapidly eroded and disappearing throughout the world because of several developmental changes. Hence, there is an increasing realization to conserve germplasm in view of continuous replacement of cultivars and land races with new improved varieties. To accomplish this, a new department “ Department of Plant Genetic Resources” has been established at Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University on 1st of August 2009.