'Even if for every hundred correct things we did, we committed ten thousand mistakes, our revolution would still be - and it will be in judgment of history - great and invincible; for this is the first time that working people are themselves building a new life' V. I. Lenin

Specific primary documents and questions will be assigned to augment topics discussed in lecture. Please see below or the lecture schedule for specific dates.  Each response must be 2-3 pages long depending on the topic. Responses are worth 20 points. There is not necessarily a correct answer, but students must refer to the documents in question in order to receive full points. Please reference in-text (Perry, p. #) or footnotes: Perry, p. #

All documents are from  Sources of European History unless otherwise indicated

1 -Issues at the turn of the century - in class only - Jan 12
Pankhurst, Why We are Militant, p. 11-14
Wright, The Unexpurgated Case Against Woman Suffrage, p. 15-18 
Chamberlain, The Importance of  Race, p. 18-20
Pearson, Social Darwinism, p. 24-26
Drumont, Jewish France, p. 29-31

These documents all reflect the rise of trends that would profoundly influence and shape the 20th century.  Pay attention to the theme of each document and the supportive arguments provided.

2 -Attitudes before the war- 2 pages - Jan 17
von Treitschke, The Greatness of War, p. 42-43
von Bernhardi, Germany and the Next War, p. 43-44
Massis, The Young People of Today, pp. 44-45
War as Celebration, pp. 49-54

1. Some historians would argue that the 19th century did not end in 1900, but in 1914 and that it was World War I that created the clear break with the Enlightenment and ideals of the earlier century. Looking at these documents, what was the general attitude towards war and nationalism?

2. What attitudes to you see as most responsible for moving Europe towards war?

3 - Total War- 3 pages - Jan 24
Hoshschild, To End All Wars

1.  Why did England decided that Germany was the threat in Europe?

2.  Why did most people support the war whenk it began?

3.  What were some of the reasons that the conscientious objectors objected to the war?

4.  Why, once it became clear that the war would not go as planned, did the generals not change their strategies?

5. What happened to the COs during the war?

6.  How did the attitudes of the soldiers change during the course of the war?

4 -Impact of the War - (in class only) - Feb 2
Valery, Disillusionment, pp. 77-78
Remarque, The Lost Generation, pp. 78-79
Von Salomon, Brutalization of the Individual, pp. 79-80
Freud, A Legacy of Embitterment, 81-82
1. In reality, how much had Europe been changed by the war?

5. Propaganda and Charisma- 2 pages - Feb 9
Junger, Antidemocratic Thought in the Weimar Republic, pp. 145-48
Hauser, With German's Unemployed, p. 151-54
Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 154-58
Ludecke, The Demagogic Orator, p. 159-60
Mann, An Appeal to Reason, p. 160-61
Huber, The Authority of the Fuhrer, p. 161-62
Hamilton, The Youth Who are Hitler's Strength, to be handed out

1. Discuss why Hitler was able to gain such support.  How was his power justified?

6. The Collapse of Civilization?- 2-2 1/2 pages - Feb 16
Coudenhove-Kalergi, Pan-Europe, p. 180-83
Huizinga, In the Shadow of Tomorrow, pp. 183-85
Koestler, I was Ripe to be Converted, pp. 185-87
Berdyaev, Modern Ideologies at Variance with Christianity, pp. 188-90

1. According to these documents, what had gone wrong with European society? What will the future hold?

2. Are there parallels between what the intellectuals of the 1930's saw as wrong with their society and what we today see as the breakdown of our culture?


7-Holocaust Historiography - 2 pages - Feb 28

Vogt, The Burden of Guilt, p. 294-96
Weizsacer, A German Plea for Remembrance, p. 399-400
Wiesel, Reflections of a Survivor, p. 400-03
Vatican, We Remember, p. 403-408
Documents to be handed out

1. What do these documents reveal about the difficulties of studying and analyzing the Holocaust?

2. According to these articles, what are the lessons of the Holocaust?

8.  Ordinary Men -in class only - Mar 6

Browning, Ordinary Men

1.  What does this book reveal about how these ordinary men were able to become full participants in the Holocaust?

2. What aspect(s) of this book did you find the most surprising or unsettling?

3. Do you think that this book teaches us any lessons if we are going to be successful in making sure genocide does not happen again in the future?

9.  Conscience and Courage - in class only -Mar 13

Fogelman, Conscience and Courage

1. Unlike the people in Ordinary Men, this book discusses those who risked their lives to oppose what was happening within Nazi occupied Europe. What does this book say about why some people are able to stand up for what they believe is right?

2. How did the rescuers suffer and continue to suffer?

3. Think about the issues of Christian morality, situational morality and how these relate to what the rescuers had to do to save people.

10.  Post-War Europe- 2-3 pages - Mar 22
Cassirer, The Myth of the State, p. 280-82
Hallowell, The Sickness of the Modern World, p. 283-285
Adenauer, Democratic Politics and Christian Ideals, p. 289-91
Fischer, The Alteration of Industrial Society, p. 360-63
Djilas, The New Class, p. 338-41
Heller, The Hungarian Revolution, p. 341-44
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Action Program, p. 344-46

1. In the first three documents, discuss the problem highlighted and what these men suggest as solutions

2. Outline the main arguments of the Green Movement using the 4th document

3. What were those in the Eastern Bloc calling for?

11. USSR and Russia -in class - April 5
Arbatov, The Negative Consequences of Shock Therapy Capitalism, p. 446-47 
Glinkina, et.al., Crime and Corruption, p. 448-50
Chivers, Putin: A New Tsar in the Kremlin?, p. 468-74

1. What problems did Russia face in the 1990s?  Why has Putin been so popular? 

12.  Current Issues - 2-3 pages - April 17
Haider, Multiculturalism and Love of One's Country, p. 376-81
Hasselbach, Inside the Neo-Nazi Scene, p. 381-86
Onder, Muslim-Turkish Children in Germany, p. 390-383
Krautz, The Grapes of Neglect, p. 393-97
Ahern, Enlargement is about Opening Minds as Well as Borders, p. 459-461 
Joffe, The Rise of Anti-Americanism, 462-65 
Cox, Europe's Enduring Anti-Americanism, p. 465-67
Benedict XVI, Europe's Crisis of Culture, p. 497-500

1. Discuss the issues raised in these documents.