4 Key Elements of Core Interaction
Orchestration Roles and their Activities
Earlier research suggests that the so-called player orchestrators and non-players (Roijakkers et al., 2013) have different approaches toward orchestration activities, and different means to conduct them.
A player orchestrator typically is an actor that has relatively strong individual incentives within the networks and ecosystems that it aims to influence, such as a company that competes with other actors in the end markets.
A non-player orchestrator influences and supports the network without being an active competitor in the end market (Leten et al., 2013; Roijakkers et al., 2013). These non-players can be further divided into facilitators and sponsors. The latter type of orchestrators have their individual goals coupled with collective goals (consider, for example, venture capitalists and business incubators; Comacchio et al., 2012; Napier et al., 2012), whereas the facilitators’ main concern is the wellbeing and functioning of the network: they are not as interested in utilizing the innovation outcomes themselves, nor are they orchestrating the networks for financial gain (see Fichter, 2009; Hurmelinna-Laukkanen & Nätti, 2012; Metcalfe, 2010).