Ujung Kulon National Park is located at the western most tip of Java, within Banten province of Indonesia.The park encompasses an area of 1,206 km2 (466 sq mi) (of which 443 km2 (171 sq mi) is marine), most of which lies on a peninsula reaching into the Indian Ocean.
FloraFlora in Ujung Kulon National Park forms various forest formations, where this forest formation is characterized by the dominance of certain species. Judging from the type of forest, flora in this region consists of coastal forests, lowland tropical rain forests, mountain tropical rain forests, freshwater swamp forests, mangrove forests and grasslands. This fairly complete forest formation contains a diversity of germplasm and very useful and rare plant species. Several types of plants are known to be rare and only on the island of Ujung Kulon, among others: Batryohora geniculata, Cleidion spiciflorum, Heritiera percoriacea, and Knema globularia. There are also many types of plants that the community has used both for woodworking, medicine, ornamental plants and food. The types that have been utilized include bayur (Pterospemum javanicum) and various rattan (Calamus sp.) As carpentry materials; eaglewood (Aquilaria malaccensis), cempaka wood (Michelia campaca) and jambe wood (Areca catechu) as medicinal ingredients; Orchid (Dendrobium sp.) As an ornamental plant; tangkil (Gnetum gnemon) and salak (Salacca edulis) as food.Coastal forests are generally characterized by the presence of nyamplung (Calophyllum innophyllum), butun (Barringtonia asiatica), Chinese Klampis (Hemandia peltata), ketapang (Terminalia catappa), cingkil (Pongamia pinnata) and others. These coastal forest formations are generally known as barringtonia formations with species that are less diverse and nyamplung are a more typical type. These formations are found along the West and Northeast coast of the Ujung Kulon Peninsula, Peucang Island, along the North coast and the Kasuaris bay of Panaitan Island. Generally these formations live on coral sand in narrow paths extending along the coast with a width of 5 to 15 meters.
FaunaUjung Kulon National Park has various types of wildlife both endemic and important to protect. In general this area is still able to accommodate the proliferation of various wildlife populations. Some important endemic species and rare species that need to be protected are Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus), Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch), Surili (Presbytis aigula) and Coyotes (Cuon alpinus javanicus).
The Ujung Kulon Peninsula is currently the most important habitat of the Javan Rhinoceros, with an estimated population of 50-60, and is the only place in the world where the Javan Rhino naturally grows in the last decade. In this national park it is estimated that there are about 30 species of mammals, consisting of ungulata mammals such as rhinos, bulls, deer, deer, mouse deer, and wild boar, predatory mammals such as leopards, coyotes, clouded tigers, civet and forest cats, small mammals such as kopo walang, tando, porcupines, soil squirrels, bats, bintarung, beavers, mice, anteaters and nettles. Among Primata there are two endemic types, namely Gibbon and Surili. While other types of Primates are Lutung (Presbytis cristata), slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have a fairly good population and are spread in some regions.
Banteng (Bos javanicus) is the largest and most populated hoofed animal (± 500 birds). These animals are only found on the Ujung Kulon Peninsula and Mount Honje, and are not found on Panaitan Island. Deer (Cervus timorensis) in the Ujung Kulon and Gunung Honje peninsulas are in very limited numbers and distribution, and in Peucang Island there are very large numbers, and on Panaitan Island there are more and more developments. Wild boar (Sus scrofa), muncak (Muntiacus muntjak) and pelanduk (Tragulus javanicus) are relatively common throughout the region, but wild boar (Sus verrucosus) is only found on the Ujung Kulon Peninsula and Mount Honje.