Deep Sky Objects

Gamma Cygni Nebula - Sadr Region

Here is a wide field view of the Gamma Cygni Nebula (Sadr Region) in the constellation Cygnus. The bright star in the middle of the image is the star Sadr, the central star in the Northern Cross asterism (inside the constellation Cygnus). While it looks like Sadr is buried inside the nebula complex, it is not. Sadr is about 1,800 light years away while the nebula is about 4,900 light years away. On the far right edge you can see the open cluster IC 1311 which I hope to image soon.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, ZWO ASI2600MC-P camera, 33 x 300 seconds at 0C with darks and flats, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini. Captured using ZWO AAP and processed using PixInsight. Autofocus using the ProAstroGear Black-CAT and ZWO EAF. Image date: August 2, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

IC1396 Elephant Trunk Nebula in False SHO

This is the faint emission nebula designated as IC 1396 in the constellation Cepheus. This region is energized by the bright, bluish central multiple star HD 206267. You can see the Elephant’s Trunk Nebula, IC 1396A, on the lower edge of this image. This has been processed using false SHO (Hubble Palette) in PixInsight. From NASA APOD, “Stars could still be forming inside the dark shapes by gravitational collapse. But as the denser clouds are eroded away by powerful stellar winds and radiation, any forming stars will ultimately be cutoff from the reservoir of star stuff.”
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, ZWO ASI2600MC-P camera, 36 x 300 seconds at 0C with darks from the library and flats taken the next morning, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini. Captured using ZWO AAP and processed using PixInsight. Autofocus using the ProAstroGear Black-CAT and ZWO EAF. Image date: August 5, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4 zone).

The Ghost of Cassiopeia - Widefield

IC 59 and IC 63 are found in the constellation Cassiopeia very near the bright star Gamma Cassiopeia. This set of objects is also known as the Ghost of Cassiopeia. Gamma Cassiopeia also has the informal nickname of Navi. The “IC” designation comes from a group of objects discovered between 1888 and 1907, most made possible by photography, and known as the Index Catalogue.
These nebulae are a combination of emission and reflection, they are located about 610 light years from Earth and are about 10 light years across. Gamma Cassiopeia provides the radiation to light up this area of dust and gas, eventually dissipating the area.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, ZWO ASI2600MC-P camera, 36 x 300 seconds at 0C with darks from the library and flats taken the next morning, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini. Captured using ZWO AAP and processed using PixInsight. Autofocus using the ProAstroGear Black-CAT and ZWO EAF. Image date: August 5, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

Veil Nebula Complex in Cygnus

Here is a wide field view of the Veil Nebula Complex found in the constellation Cygnus. This is the remnants of a supernova that is about 1,470 light years from Earth and nearly 50 light years across. The Veil Nebula Complex has about two dozen components that have their own designations including the Eastern Veil, Western Veil, The Funnel, Pickering’s Triangle and more.
Observation data: J2000.0 epochRight ascension: 20h 45m 38.0s[1]Declination: +30° 42′ 30″[1]Distance: 1470 lyApparent magnitude (V): 7.0Apparent dimensions (V): 3 degrees (diameter)Constellation: CygnusDesignations: NGC 6960, 6992, 6995, 6974, and 6979, IC 1340, Cygnus Loop, Cirrus Nebula, Filamentary Nebula, Witch's Broom Nebula (NGC 6960), Caldwell 33/34.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, ZWO ASI2600MC-P camera, 36 x 300 seconds at 0C with darks and flats, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini. Captured using ZWO AAP and processed using PixInsight. Autofocus using the ProAstroGear Black-CAT and ZWO EAF. Image date: August 2, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

Planetary Nebula NGC 7048

This is the planetary nebula NGC 7048 found in the constellation Cygnus. This planetary nebula has an apparent magnitude of 12.1 and is about 5,260 light years away.
Observation data: J2000 epochRight ascension: 24h 14m 15.25sDeclination: +46° 17′ 16.1″Distance: 5260 lyApparent magnitude (V): 12.1Apparent diameter: 1.02′Constellation: CygnusDesignations: PK 088-01 1, PN ARO 41, IRAS 21124+4604
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Celestron CGEM-DX pier mounted, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, Antares Focal Reducer, 54 x 60 second at 0C with darks and flats, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using ZWO AAP and processed using PixInsight. Image date: August 2, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

Campbell’s Hydrogen Star

I found this object to be interesting, although not very photogenic. The reddish-orange “star” in the central part of the image is called Campbell’s Hydrogen Star. Astronomer William Wallace Campbell spotted this unusual star-like object through a visual spectroscope at Lick Observatory in 1893. He could tell immediately from its spectrum that, despite its stellar appearance, he was not seeing an ordinary star at all. Instead, he had spotted an uncharted planetary nebula. With some extreme processing, I could make out the small reddish disk, but no central star.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Celestron CGEM-DX pier mounted, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, Antares Focal Reducer, 48 x 60 second at 0C with darks and flats, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using ZWO AAP and processed using PixInsight. Image date: August 2, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

Globular Cluster NGC 7006

From SpaceTelescope.org, “NGC 7006 resides in the outskirts of the Milky Way. It is about 135,000 light-years away, five times the distance between the Sun and the center of the galaxy, and it is part of the galactic halo. This roughly spherical region of the Milky Way is made up of dark matter, gas and sparsely distributed stellar clusters.”
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Celestron CGEM-DX pier mounted, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, Antares Focal Reducer, 28 x 60 second at -10C with darks and flats, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using ZWO AAP and processed using PixInsight. Image date: July 28, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

Planetary Nebula NGC 6781

NGC 6781 is a planetary nebula a few thousand light years away in the constellation Aquila. The planetary nebula is about two light-years across. Within NGC 6781, shells of gas blown off from the faint, but very hot, central star’s surface expand out into space. These shells shine under the harsh ultraviolet radiation from the progenitor star in intricate and beautiful patterns. The central star will steadily cool down and darken, eventually disappearing from view into cosmic oblivion (https://www.eso.org/public/images/ngc6781-potw/).
These nebulae are formed when a star begins reaching its end of life. The star begins throwing off shells of gas that expand away from the star. This forms a ring of hot ionized gas that we see as a planetary nebula. If you look closely, you can see a small blue star in the center of the nebula, this is the star that created the nebula.
Location:Right Ascension (J2000) 19h 18m 28sDeclination (J2000) +06° 32’ 22”Visual Magnitude: 11.8
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Celestron CGEM-DX pier mounted, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, Antares Focal Reducer, 56 x 60 second at 0C with darks and flats, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using ZWO AAP and processed using PixInsight. Image date: July 30, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

North American Nebula in Cygnus - NGC 7000

The North America Nebula (NGC 7000) is an emission nebula in the constellation Cygnus. Can you see how it looks like the North American continent complete with a prominent Gulf of Mexico? The name “North America Nebula” was coined by Dr. Max Wolf (ref: Burnham’s Celestial Handbook, Volume 2, by Robert Burnham Jr.) no doubt from his work with E.E. Barnard on dark nebulae. No summer imaging session is complete without putting a little bit of time on this deep space object.
The North America Nebula covers a region more than ten times the area of the full moon, but its surface brightness is low, so normally it cannot be seen with the unaided eye (Wikipedia).
Observation data: J2000.0 epochRight ascension: 20h 59m 17.1sDeclination: +44° 31′ 44″Distance: 2,590 ± 80 lyApparent magnitude (V): 4Apparent dimensions (V): 120 × 100 arcminConstellation: CygnusDesignations: NGC 7000, Sharpless 117, Caldwell 20
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, ZWO ASI2600MC-P camera, 49 x 300 seconds at 0C with darks and flats, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini. Captured using ZWO AAP and processed using PixInsight. Autofocus using the ProAstroGear Black-CAT and ZWO EAF. Image date: July 30, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

Fireworks and an Open Cluster

NGC 6946, sometimes referred to as the Fireworks Galaxy, is a face-on intermediate spiral galaxy with a small bright nucleus, whose location in the sky straddles the boundary between the northern constellations of Cepheus and Cygnus. Its distance from Earth is about 25.2 million light-years. NGC 6939 is an open cluster and is located 4,000 light-years from our solar system.
NGC 6946 also appears in Arps Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies as ARP 29. It was placed in the “Peculiar Galaxy” category since it has one spiral arm that is larger than the others.
Tech Specs: Sky Watcher Esprit 120ED, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at 0C, Celestron CGEM-DX Mount Pier Mounted, ZWO EAF, 60 x 60 second exposures with dark/flat frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro. Image date: May 31, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle 4 Zone).

Arp 286 Trio in the Constellation Virgo

Here is a trio of interacting galaxies almost 90 million light-years away, toward the constellation Virgo. NGC 5566, the largest galaxy in this image, is HUGE, about 150,000 light-years across. Just below it is NGC 5569. To the upper left is the third galaxy, NGC 5560, stretched and distorted by its interaction with NGC 5566. The galaxy trio is also included in Halton Arp's 1966 Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies as Arp 286.
Tech Specs: Sky Watcher Esprit 120ED, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at 0C, Celestron CGEM-DX Mount Pier Mounted, ZWO EAF, 72 x 60 second exposures with dark/flat frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro. Image date: June 6, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle 4 Zone).

Globular Cluster NGC 6934 in Delphinus

Here is a view of the globular cluster NGC 6934 in the constellation Delphinus. It is about 54,000 light years away from Earth.
Observation data (J2000 epoch)Class: VIIIConstellation: DelphinusRight ascension: 20h 34m 11.37sDeclination: +07° 24′ 16.1″Distance: 52 kly (16 kpc)Apparent magnitude (V): 8.83
Tech Specs: Sky Watcher Esprit 120ED, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at 0C, Celestron CGEM-DX Mount Pier Mounted, ZWO EAF, ZWO AAP, 75 x 60 second exposures with dark/flat frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: June 5, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle 4 Zone).

Open Cluster NGC 6819

This is the open cluster NGC 6819 located in the constellation Cygnus. I have seen references calling the cluster the Fox Head Cluster, personally I just don’t see a fox head in this. It is about 7,200 light years away from Earth and has a visual magnitude of 7.3, thus you’ll need a small pair of binoculars to enjoy this jewel.
Tech Specs: Sky Watcher Esprit 120ED, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at 0C, Celestron CGEM-DX Mount Pier Mounted, ZWO EAF, 44 x 60 second exposures with dark/flat frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro. Image date: May 17, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle 4 Zone).

Elliptical Galaxy Messier 60 (M60) ARP 116

Messier 60 or M60, also known as NGC 4649, is an elliptical galaxy approximately 57 million light-years away in the constellation of Virgo. Together with NGC 4647, a spiral galaxy, it forms a pair known as Arp 116.
The Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies is a catalog of peculiar galaxies produced by Halton Arp in 1966. A total of 338 galaxies are presented in the atlas, which was originally published in 1966 by the California Institute of Technology. The primary goal of the catalog was to present photographs of examples of the different kinds of peculiar structures found among galaxies.
A 2012 Hubble image of this galaxy seems to confirm they are indeed interacting with each other.
Tech Specs: Sky Watcher Esprit 120ED, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at 0C, Celestron CGEM-DX Mount Pier Mounted, ZWO EAF, 95 x 60 second exposures with dark/flat frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro. Image date: May 31, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle 4 Zone).



Galaxy NGC 4725

This is galaxy NGC 4725 in the constellation Coma Berenices. What is interesting with this galaxy is that it only has one large spiral arm. Most spiral galaxies, including our Milky Way, have two or more arms.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Celestron CGEM-DX pier mounted, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, Antares Focal Reducer, 108 x 60 second at -10C, 30 darks and 30 flats, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: March 20, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

Globular Cluster NGC 5466

NGC 5466 is a globular cluster that exhibits a low surface brightness and a less dense core compared to other globular clusters. Burnham lists this cluster at a magnitude of 9.0 and gives it a Class XII (in the Shapley–Sawyer Concentration Class, this is the lowest concentrated center of globular clusters).
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Celestron CGEM-DX pier mounted, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, Antares Focal Reducer, 107 x 60 second at -10C, 30 darks and 30 flats, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: April 3, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

Leo I Dwarf Galaxy

Leo I is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the constellation Leo. At about 820,000 light-years distant, it is a member of the Local Group of galaxies and is thought to be one of the most distant satellites of the Milky Way galaxy. Can you see the little blurry object to the right of Regulus? That is the Leo I dwarf galaxy. I previously imaged this using the Meade 12” and wanted to try out the Sky Watcher Esprit 120ED on the same target.
Tech Specs: Sky Watcher Esprit 120ED, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -20C, Celestron CGEM-DX Mount Pier Mounted, ZWO EAF, 18 x 60 second exposures with dark/flat frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: April 7, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle 4 Zone).

Planetary Nebula Sharpless 200

Here is a view of an ancient planetary nebula in the constellation Cassiopeia and known by several names including Sharpless 2-200 and HDW 2 (Hartl-Dengl-Weinberger 2). It was discovered in the early 1980’s by examining the 1960’s Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. You can read more about the discovery in an article titled “A newly discovered nearby planetary nebula of old age” by Authors: Weinberger, R., Dengel, J., Hartl, H., & Sabbadin, F. Tech Specs: Sky Watcher Esprit 120ED, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -20C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 3 hours 55 minutes of 300 second exposures with dark/flat frames, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: December 2020 and January 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle 4 Zone).

NGC 5907 - The Splinter Galaxy of Draco

This is a view of the Knife Edge or Splinter Galaxy (NGC 5907) located in the constellation Draco and is about 50 million light years away from Earth. Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Celestron CGEM-DX pier mounted, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, Antares Focal Reducer, 54 x 60 second at -10C, 30 darks and 30 flats, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: March 7, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

The Whale and the Pup Galaxies

Here is a view of the Whale and the Pup Galaxies (NGC 4631 and NGC 4627) found in the constellation Coma Berenices. This galaxy is roughly 22 million light years away from Earth. You can see a few more distant background galaxies on the lower edge of the image. Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Celestron CGEM-DX pier mounted, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, Antares Focal Reducer, 81 x 60 second at -10C, 30 darks and 30 flats, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: March 19, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

NGC 2264 - Christmas Tree Cluster

Here is a wide field view of NGC 2264, the Cone Nebula and the Christmas Tree Cluster. This is located in the constellation Monoceros and is about 2,600 light years away from Earth. There are other jewels in this image, but it will have to wait until next season to add more time. Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT, Sky Watcher EQ6R-Pro Mount, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro (-10C), Optolong L-eNhance 2” filter, ZWO ASIAir Pro, 24 x 300 seconds with dark and flat frames, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini. Processed using PixInsight. Image date: March 9, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle Class 4).

The Monkey Head Nebula - NGC 2174

The Monkey Head Nebula (NGC 2174) is an emission nebula located in the constellation Orion. The nebula is an H II region, a large cloud of ionized gas in which new stars are being formed. The Monkey Head Nebula lies about 6,400 light years from Earth.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 24 x 300 second (2 hours) exposures with dark frames, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: November 7, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle 4 Zone).

The Lion Nebula SH2-132

The Lion Nebula, or Sh2-132 has an extended emission nebula visible in the constellation of Cepheus. Can you spot the MANE and the TAIL of the lion? This nebula is located on the southern edge of Cepheus, at a distance of almost 10,400 light years. Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -20C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 2 hours of 300 second exposures with dark/flat frames, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: November 7, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA (Bortle 4 Zone).

Planetary Nebula Abell 12

This is the planetary nebula called Abell 12, also called “The Hidden Planetary” since it is somewhat masked by the star Mu Orionis. You can see the dim circle with a reddish border just to the upper left of the star. Once zoomed in and further processed I can just make out the 19.1 magnitude central star.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Celestron CGEM-DX pier mounted, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, Antares Focal Reducer, 60 x 30 second at -10C, 30 darks and 30 flats, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: March 2, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Leo I Dwarf Galaxy

Leo I is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the constellation Leo. At about 820,000 light-years distant, it is a member of the Local Group of galaxies and is thought to be one of the most distant satellites of the Milky Way galaxy. It was discovered in 1950 by Albert George Wilson on photographic plates of the National Geographic Society – Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, which were taken with the 48-inch Schmidt camera at Palomar Observatory. (from Wikipedia)
This was a real processing challenge for me. The bright star Regulus and my focal reducer created all types of reflection and glare on the stacked image. Trying to process out the glare resulted in a dimmer view of the galaxy. Will try this again without the focal reducer at some point.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Celestron CGEM-DX pier mounted, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, Antares Focal Reducer, 60 x 60 second at -10C, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: March 2, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Galaxy NGC 2841

To me NGC 2841 looks like a miniature Andromeda Galaxy. It is often listed on various “best of the” NGC objects lists. NGC 2841 is an unbarred spiral galaxy in the northern constellation of Ursa Major and is about 46 million light-years away from Earth.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Celestron CGEM-DX pier mounted, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, Antares Focal Reducer, 60 x 60 second at -10C, 30 darks and 30 flats, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: March 2, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Seagull Nebula - IC 2177

This is another test image using a Canon lens with an attached ZWO ASI071mc-Pro camera. This is a region northwest of the star Sirius (near the lower right corner) called the Seagull Nebula (IC 2177).
Tech Specs: Canon EF70-200mm f/2.8L USM lens set at 70mm, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro camera, 1 hour and 30 minutes total exposure (calibrated with darks from the library and flats the next morning) using 300 second subs, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software, processed in PixInsight. Image date: January 11, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Lobster Claw Nebula

Sharpless 157, sometimes referred as the Lobster Claw Nebula, is an emission nebula in the constellation Cassiopeia, at a distance of approximately 11050 light years (3390 parsecs) from the Earth. The small open star cluster NGC 7510 is located at the bottom right part.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 48 x 300 second exposures with dark frames, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: November 4th, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Horsehead Nebula

The Horsehead Nebula is a diffuse dark nebula in the constellation Orion. The Horsehead Nebula is also referred to as Barnard 33 and is located inside the emission nebula IC 434 (the reddish background), it lies about 1,500 light-years away. The bright star to the left of the Horsehead Nebula is actually the star Alnitak, the left most star in the belt of Orion.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 18 x 300 second exposures with dark frames, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: November 7th, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Cocoon Nebula - IC 5146

The Cocoon Nebula (IC 5146) in the constellation Cygnus. This is a reflection/emission nebula, note the dark trail behind it, a dark nebula called Barnard 168, it forms the appearance of a trail behind the Cocoon.
Image taken with a 98% illuminated moon.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120ED, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, 48 x 300 second exposures (calibrated with darks from the library), 2" Optolong L-eNhance filter, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software, processed in PixInsight. Image date: November 28, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 6888 Crescent Nebula Region

This is a wide field view of the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888, Sharpless 105) located in the constellation Cygnus. The Crescent Nebula is about 5,000 light years away from Earth. The Crescent Nebula was formed by the central star shedding its outer layers. According to NASA, “Burning fuel at a prodigious rate and near the end of its stellar life this star should ultimately go out with a bang in a spectacular supernova explosion”.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 48 x 300 second (4 hours) exposures with dark frames, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: September 20, 2020 and November 4th and 5th, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Tadpole Nebula in Auriga

IC410 is a faint and dusty emission nebula of more than 100 light-years across approximately 12,000 light-years away from Earth in the northern constellation of Auriga. NGC 1893, an open cluster, is embedded inside IC410. This nebula is also referred to as the Tadpole Nebula - can you see the two tadpole looking objects in the image swimming toward the center?
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, ZWO ASI081mc-Pro camera, 4 hours and 50 minutes total exposure (calibrated with darks from the library and flats the next morning) using 300 second subs, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software, processed in PixInsight. Image date: December 10, 2020, January 7 and 10, 2021. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

IC 5070 - The Pelican Nebula

This is the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070) in the constellation Cygnus and located adjacent to the North America nebula. Can you spot the pelican in the image?
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 24 x 300 second (2 hours) exposures with dark frames, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: November 4, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Open Cluster NGC 1245

NGC 1245 is a beautiful open cluster that is found in the constellation Perseus. Visible with binoculars, the majority of the stars in this cluster hover around magnitude 12. Another nice region with a scattering of yellow/orange and blue stars.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, 20 x 60 second exposures (calibrated with darks from the library and flats taken the next morning), guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software, processed in PixInsight. Image date: December 6, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 7380 The Wizard Nebula

The Wizard Nebula envelopes the open cluster designated NGC 7380. It is about 8,000 light years away from Earth in the constellation Cepheus.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120ED, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, 36 x 300 second exposures (calibrated with darks from the library), 2" Optolong L-eNhance filter, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software, processed in PixInsight. Image date: December 7, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.
All equipment used to capture this image can be purchased from Agena AstroProducts (www.agenaastro.com).

NGC 457 - The Owl Cluster

Here is the Owl Cluster in Cassiopeia, also known as NGC 457. The Owl Cluster is about 7,900 light-years away. The two bright stars inside this cluster are magnitude 5 Phi-1 Cassiopeia and magnitude 7 Phi-2 Cassiopeia.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, 20 x 60 second exposures (calibrated with darks from the library and flats taken the next morning), guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software, processed in PixInsight. Image date: November 9, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Rosette Nebula - Sharpless 275

The Rosette Nebula (Number 275 in the Sharpless Catalog) is a large spherical ionized atomic hydrogen region in the constellation Monoceros. The nebula is about 5,200 light-years away and spans nearly 65 light-years.
Imaged under an 89% illuminated moon.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at 0C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 48 x 300 second exposures, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 software, stacked in DSS and processed using PixInsight and Adobe Lightroom. Image date: November 3, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Open Cluster NGC 1193

NGC 1193 is a faint open cluster found in the constellation Perseus. I haven't seen very many images of this open cluster, I sure love some of the star colors in this region. There are also a few dozens galaxies hidden in the background stars.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, 20 x 60 second exposures (calibrated with darks from the library and flats taken the next morning), guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software, processed in PixInsight. Image date: December 6, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Bubble Nebula Region

Here is a wide-field image of the Bubble Nebula region including several Sharpless Objects as well as the open cluster Messier 52.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -5C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, 4 hours total using the Optolong L-eNhance filter, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: October 13 and November 3, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Pacman Nebula - NGC 281/Sh2-184

NGC 281 is an HII region in the constellation of Cassiopeia and part of the Perseus Spiral Arm. NGC 281 is also known as the Pacman Nebula for its resemblance to the video game character and in the Sharpless Catalog, Sh2-184.
This was a test image adding 2.5 hours of data under an 89% illuminated moon to an existing stack of 2 hours of data collected back in September.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at 0C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 30 x 300 second exposures, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 software, stacked in DSS and processed using PixInsight and Adobe Lightroom. Image date: September 19, 2020 (2 hours) and November 3, 2020 (2.5 hours). Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 7789 and Rho Cassiopeiae

This is the open cluster NGC 7789 and the unusual orange star Rho Cassiopeiae (Rho Cas) in the lower right corner. Rho Cas is designated as a yellow hypergiant star, these stars are massive and have a short life of only a few million years. There have only been seven yellow hypergiant stars found in the Milky Way. NGC 7789 contains about 1000 stars and an area of the sky almost half the size of the full moon.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, 20 x 60 second exposures (calibrated with darks from the library and flats taken the next morning), guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software, processed in PixInsight. Image date: November 9, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Heart Nebula - IC1805

The Heart Nebula (IC 1805) lies about 7,500 light years away from Earth in the Perseus Arm of the Galaxy in the constellation Cassiopeia. The brightest part of the nebula (a knot at its western edge) is separately classified as NGC 896, because it was the first part of the nebula to be discovered. The nebula's intense red output and its morphology are driven by the radiation emanating from a small group of stars near the nebula's center. This open cluster of stars, known as Melotte 15, contains a few bright stars nearly 50 times the mass of our Sun, and many more dim stars that are only a fraction of our Sun's mass. The Heart Nebula is located adjacent to the Soul Nebula forming a view referred to as the Heart and Soul Nebula.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -5C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 24 x 300 second (2 hours) exposures combined with 12 x 300 (1 hour) second exposures from 2019, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: October 13, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Jellyfish Nebula - IC443

IC 443 (also known as the Jellyfish Nebula and Sharpless 248) is a galactic supernova remnant in the constellation Gemini. On the plane of the sky, it is located near the star Eta Geminorum. Its distance is roughly 5,000 light years from Earth (ref: Wikipedia).
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -5C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 30 x 300 second (2.5 hours) exposures, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: October 13, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Perseus Double Cluster

This is the double cluster in the constellation Perseus (between Perseus and Cassiopeia), they are also designate NGC 869 and NGC 884. Check out the red supergiants in this view! Did you know that the Perseus Double Cluster is surrounded by one of the largest concentrations of red supergiants stars in the sky? (Red supergiants, neutrinos and the Double Cluster, Tristram Brelstafff, 1996).
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -5C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, 80 x 60 seconds, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: November 8, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Crescent Nebula - NGC 6888

This is a clip from a larger image showing the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888, Sharpless 105) located in the constellation Cygnus. Just trying to figure out how much detail can be captured using the Williams Optics REDCAT on a wide field image. The Crescent Nebula is about 5,000 light years away from Earth. The Crescent Nebula was formed by the central star shedding its outer layers. According to NASA, “Burning fuel at a prodigious rate and near the end of its stellar life this star should ultimately go out with a bang in a spectacular supernova explosion”.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -10C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 56 x 300 second (4 hours and 40 minutes) exposures with dark frames, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: September 20, 2020 and November 4, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Flaming Star Nebula - IC405

This is the Flaming Star Nebula (IC 405) located in the constellation Auriga. The comma shaped object contains both emission and reflection nebulae.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -5C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 24 x 300 second (2 hours) exposures with dark frames, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: October 13, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Soul Nebula - IC1848

This large star forming region is called the Soul Nebula (or Embryo Nebula) and is found in the constellation Cassiopeia. This nebula is often shown next to the Heart Nebula (IC 1805). The Soul Nebula is about 6,500 light years away from Earth. The nebula contains several open clusters and there are few smaller emission nebulas around the perimeter. The star clusters are surrounded by hydrogen, which glows red from the young hot stars nearby.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -5C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 24 x 300 second (2 hours) exposures combined with 12 x 300 (1 hour) second exposures from 2019, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: October 13, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Ghost of Cassiopeia - Widefield

IC 59 and IC 63 are found in the constellation Cassiopeia very near the bright star Gamma Cassiopeia. This set of objects is also known as the Ghost of Cassiopeia. Gamma Cassiopeia also has the informal nickname of Navi. The “IC” designation comes from a group of objects discovered between 1888 and 1907, most made possible by photography, and known as the Index Catalogue.
These nebulae are a combination of emission and reflection, they are located about 610 light years from Earth and are about 10 light years across. Gamma Cassiopeia provides the radiation to light up this area of dust and gas, eventually dissipating the area.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at -5C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 36 x 300 second (3 hours) exposures with dark frames, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 Beta software. Image date: September 19, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Planetary Nebula NGC 6765

NGC 6765 is a small dim planetary nebula in the constellation Lyra, overshadowed by the Ring Nebula (Messier 57) which is only about 4-degrees away. The magnitude of this planetary nebula hovers around 13 and it only measures 0.67 arcmin wide. You can just start to see evidence of an outer shell on the upper part of the nebula.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90 (f/10), ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, 54x60 second exposures, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: October 8, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Galaxy NGC 1023 in Perseus

Here is galaxy NGC 1023 in the constellation Perseus. From Wikipedia: NGC 1023 is a barred lenticular galaxy (magnitude 9.4) and a member of the NGC 1023 group of galaxies in the Local Supercluster. Distance measurements vary from 9.3 to 19.7 million parsecs (30 to 64 million light-years).
NGC 1023 was discovered by William Herschel in 1786. If you look close you can see a small companion on the right-hand side, this is designated as PGC 10139 (also referred to as NGC 1023A because of its possible connection to the main galaxy). It is a magnitude 13.6 irregular galaxy. It is also cataloged in the ARP Atlas (Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies) as ARP 135.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90 (at f/10), ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, 108 x 60 second exposures, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: September 18, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 7331 and the Deer Lick Group

Here is an image of NGC 7331, the most prominent member of the Deer Lick Group of galaxies in the constellation Pegasus.
The name of the group was reportedly given by Tomm Lorenzin, author of "1000+ The Amateur Astronomers' Field Guide to Deep Sky Observing". This name was given in honor of the Deer Lick Gap in the mountains of North Carolina where he observed and had an especially fine view of this group of galaxies.
NGC 7331 is about 40 million light years away from Earth and has an apparent magnitude of 10.4.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90 (at f/10), ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, 108 x 60 second exposures, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: September 18, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Emission Nebula IC 1396

This is the faint emission nebula designated as IC 1396 in the constellation Cepheus. This region is energized by the bright, bluish central multiple star HD 206267. You can see the Elephant’s Trunk Nebula, IC 1396A, on the lower edge of this image. From NASA APOD, “Stars could still be forming inside the dark shapes by gravitational collapse. But as the denser clouds are eroded away by powerful stellar winds and radiation, any forming stars will ultimately be cutoff from the reservoir of star stuff.”
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at 0C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 32 x 300 seconds (2hr40min), guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 software, stacked in DSS and processed using PixInsight and Adobe Lightroom. Image date: September 19th and 20th, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Stephen's Quintet Galaxies

Stephan’s Quintet can be found in the constellation Pegasus, the apparent magnitude of these galaxies hovers around 14.0, making this a tough object to capture. This group of galaxies was discovered by Edouard Stephan in 1877 at Marseille Observatory. Although referred to as a quintet, only four of the five galaxies are interacting with each other at a distance of about 300 million light years! NGC 7320 is actually much closer at a distance of “only” 40 million light years.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, 88x60 second exposures, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: August 10, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Pacman Nebula - NGC 281

NGC 281 - NGC 281 is an H II region in the constellation of Cassiopeia and part of the Perseus Spiral Arm. It includes the open cluster IC 1590, the multiple star HD 5005, and several Bok globules. NGC 281 is also known as the Pacman Nebula for its resemblance to the video game character.
** An H II region is a large, low-density cloud of partially ionized gas in which star formation has recently taken place.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at 0C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 30 x 300 second exposures, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 software, stacked in DSS and processed using PixInsight and Adobe Lightroom. Image date: September 19, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The California Nebula - NGC1499

The California Nebula (NGC 1499) is an emission nebula in the constellation Perseus. This nebula is about 1,000 light years from the Earth. The nebula is being lit up by the star Menkib which is the brightest star in the center of my image.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at 0C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 42 x 300 second exposures, guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 software, stacked in DSS and processed using PixInsight and Adobe Lightroom. Image date: September 19, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

ARP 278 Interacting Galaxies

Here is a view of a pair of interacting galaxies listed in the Arp Catalog of Unusual Galaxies as ARP 278, they are also designated as NGC 7253A and 7253B. These galaxies are currently merging and producing significant star formation, they are about 200 million light years away from Earth in the constellation Pegasus.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, 86x60 second exposures, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: August 14, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Planetary Nebula NGC 40

From Wikipedia: NGC 40 (also known as the Bow-Tie Nebula and Caldwell 2) is a planetary nebula discovered by William Herschel on November 25, 1788, and is composed of hot gas around a dying star. The star has ejected its outer layer which has left behind a smaller, hot star with a temperature on the surface of about 50,000 degrees Celsius. Radiation from the star causes the shed outer layer to heat to about 10,000 degrees Celsius, and is about one light-year across. About 30,000 years from now, scientists theorize that NGC 40 will fade away, leaving only a white dwarf star approximately the size of Earth.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, 142 mixed 1-second, 5-second, and 10-second exposures, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: August 16, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Elephant Trunk Nebula

Here is a small clip from a larger view of IC 1396 in the constellation Cepheus called the Elephant Trunk Nebula. The Elephant Trunk Nebula is about 2,400 light years from Earth and stretches for over 20 light years. This area is also a star forming region containing over 250 young stars both in it, and around it.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics REDCAT51, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro running at 0C, Sky-Watcher EQ6R-Pro mount, Optolong L-eNhance filter (2”), 32 x 300 seconds (2hr40min), guided using a ZWO 30mm f/4 mini guide scope and ZWO 120 Mini, controlled with a ZWO ASIAir Pro running v1.5 software, stacked in DSS and processed using PixInsight and Adobe Lightroom. Image date: September 19th and 20th, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

ARP 86 Interacting Galaxies

Here is a pair of interacting galaxies known as NGC 7753 and NGC 7752, collectively known as ARP 86 (as listed in Arp's ATLAS OF PECULIAR GALAXIES). The pair are located in the constellation Pegasus and are about 272 million light years away from Earth.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, 81x60 second exposures, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: August 14, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Fireworks Galaxy NGC 6946

From Wikipedia: NGC 6946, (also known as the Fireworks Galaxy, Arp 29, and Caldwell 12), is an intermediate spiral galaxy about 18 million light-years away, in the constellations Cepheus and Cygnus. It was discovered by William Herschel on September 9, 1798. NGC 6946 is highly obscured by interstellar matter of the Milky Way galaxy, as it is quite close to the galactic plane. The diameter of the galaxy is approximately 40,000 light-years or just about a third of the size of the Milky Way.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, 59 x 60 second exposures, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: June 14, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 2903

NGC 2903 is a barred spiral galaxy about 30 million light-years away in the constellation Leo. It was discovered by William Herschel who cataloged it on November 16, 1784. NGC 2905 is a bright star cloud within this galaxy.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Canon 6D (stock), 60 x 60 second exposures, ISO 3200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: February 22, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Globular Cluster NGC 6426

NGC 6426 is a globular cluster located in the constellation Ophiuchus. It is designated IX in the galaxy morphological classification scheme and was discovered by the British astronomer William Herschel on 3 June 1786. It is at a distance of 67,500 light years away from earth. (from Wikipedia)
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, 30 x 60 second exposures, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: July 20, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 2261 - Hubble’s Variable Nebula

Here is a view of NGC 2261 also known as Hubble’s Variable Nebula. The dust cloud is being illuminated by the star R Monocerotis, the brightest area on the left of the fan-shaped nebula. It is thought the condensation near the star varies over time changing the illuminations of the fan. The star is roughly 2,500 light-years away from Earth.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro running at -20C, 15 x 120 second exposures, GAIN 200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2. Image date: January 22, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The UFO Galaxy NGC 2683

Here is the spiral galaxy NGC 2683 in the constellation Lynx. If you look close, to the right of this glaxy is the galaxy PGC 2030408 at magnitude 16.8. I found a reference nicknaming NGC 2683 the UFO Galaxy, it is about 20 million light-years away from Earth.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Canon 6D (stock), 60 x 60 second exposures, ISO 3200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: February 22, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Galaxy NGC 4274

From Wikipedia: NGC 4274 is a barred spiral galaxy located in the constellation Coma Berenices. It is located at a distance of about 45 million light years from Earth. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1785.
NGC 4274 is characterized by its overlapping outer arms, forming a ring structure. The inner arms begin near the edge of the bulge and they are bright and dusty, with dust lanes that more prominent at the near side. Outside the near-ring a set of fainter outer arms. These outer arms also form a ring. A third rings exists near the nucleus.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Canon 6D (stock), 60 x 60 second exposures, ISO 3200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: February 22, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Open Cluster NGC 1664 in Auriga

NGC 1664 is an open cluster in the constellation of Auriga, it has a magnitude of 7.6 and is about 3,910 light years away from Earth. It is also referred to as the “Kite Cluster”, I also found references to a heart-shaped balloon (which I really do not see). Can you find the kite in the center of the image?
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro running at -25C, 20 x 60 second exposures, GAIN 200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2. Image date: January 15, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Eskimo Nebula – NGC 2392

Here is my first light image using the ZWO ASI071mc-Pro and the Meade 12” LX-90 at f/10. This is the planetary nebula called The Eskimo Nebula or NGC 2392. It is a double-shell planetary nebula located in the constellation Gemini and is about 2,900 light-years away from Earth at a magnitude of 10.1. Radial velocity measurements reveal that this diameter of the cloud is growing at a rate of 68 miles per second (Burnham, 1978).
It is interesting to compare the same image taken last year using my stock Canon 6D with the image taken using the ASI071, what a difference in the internal details and colors of this planetary nebula, I’ll share the comparison later.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, ZWO ASI071mc-Pro, 24 x 10 second exposures, Gain 200, Temp -3C, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SGP v3.1. Image date: February 28, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Witch Head Nebula (IC 2118)

Here is an early work in progress showing my first attempt at imaging the Witch Head Nebula (IC 2118) in the constellation Orion. The bright star in this image is Rigel. With Orion now in the western skies after sunset, I will probably not be able to add additional data to this until next season. Still, happy to have finally imaged this one!
Tech Specs: Williams Optic’s Redcat 51, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro running at -10C, 30 x 120 second exposures, GAIN 200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2. Image date: January 29, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Open Cluster NGC 2169

NGC 2169 is a small open cluster found in the constellation Orion. It is about 3,600 light years away from Earth and is nicknamed "The 37 Cluster", can you see the 37 in the image?
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro running at -25C, 20 x 60 second exposures, GAIN 200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2. Image date: January 1, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Open Cluster NGC 2194 in Orion

NGC 2194 is a rich moderately concentrated open cluster found in the arm of Orion. It has a magnitude of 8.5 and is about 12,300 light years away from Earth. The cluster has 140+ stars down to magnitude 15. The bright star on the lower left is 73 Orionis, a main sequence star, magnitude 5.43.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro running at -25C, 20 x 60 second exposures, GAIN 200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2. Image date: January 1, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Open Cluster NGC 2141 in Orion

NGC 2141 is another rich open cluster found in Orion's Club. It has a magnitude of 9.3 and is about 13,100 light years away from Earth. This is an old open cluster with estimates in the 1.7 billion year range, the age of the stars and the location behind Orion have a reddening effect on the stars color. Not many young blue stars in this group.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro running at -25C, 20 x 60 second exposures, GAIN 200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2. Image date: January 1, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Open Cluster NGC 2126

NGC 2126 is a small open cluster found in the constellation Auriga. It has a magnitude of 10.2 and is about 3,600 light years away from Earth. The cluster is dominated by the magnitude 6.1 star SAO 40801 which is the bright star in the center of the image.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro running at -25C, 20 x 60 second exposures, GAIN 200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2. Image date: January 1, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Globular Cluster NGC 2419 in Lynx

Here is a view of the most distant globular cluster in the Milky Way, NGC 2419, some have postulated that this may be an extra-galactic object. I have seen distances listed as high as 285,000 light-years away from Earth. It appears small and dim, but it is actually very large and very bright (if it was a bit closer to us), there are estimates of 300-400 million solar masses in this cluster.
You can also make out the galaxy NGC 2424, a barred spiral galaxy with a magnitude of 12.6. The view is dominated by the red giant star HD61294 in the lower right, magnitude 5.75, and 41 times larger than our Sun.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro running at -25C, 30 x 60 second exposures, GAIN 200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2. Image date: December 20, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Open Cluster NGC 2281

NGC 2281 is another small open cluster found in the constellation Auriga. It has a magnitude of 5.4 and is about 1,800 light years away from Earth.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro running at -25C, 20 x 60 second exposures, GAIN 200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2. Image date: January 1, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Open Cluster NGC 2192

NGC 2192 is a nice little open cluster found in the constellation Auriga. It has a magnitude of 10.9 and is about 11,300 light years away from Earth. The Sky Watcher Esprit frames this cluster nicely mixed in with some brighter 6th and 7th magnitude stars. This size of the cluster is roughly 5-6 arc-minutes wide.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro running at -25C, 20 x 60 second exposures, GAIN 200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2. Image date: January 1, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Flaming Star and Tadpole Nebula

I’ve been wanted to image this section of the sky for some time, this is the Flaming Star Nebula (IC405) and the Tadpole Nebula (IC410). The Flaming Star Nebula is the coma-shaped nebula on the top, the Tadpole Nebula is the large, circular nebula near the center. The open cluster Messier 38 is in the bottom left corner.
From Wikipedia: IC405 is an emission and reflection nebula in the constellation Auriga, surrounding the bluish star AE Aurigae. It shines at magnitude +6.0.
IC410 is a faint and dusty emission nebula of more than 100 light-years across approximately 12,000 light-years away from Earth in the northern constellation of Auriga. NGC 1893, an open cluster, is embedded inside IC410
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat 51 APO, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro, Optolong L-eNhance 2” filter, two image mosaic, each image 24 x 300 second exposures at a GAIN of 200, two hour total exposure, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro (SGP) v3.03. Image date: November 25, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Open Cluster NGC 2129

NGC 2129 is a small open cluster in the constellation Gemini, it is about 7,200 light years away from Earth.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro running at -25C, 20 x 60 second exposures, GAIN 200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2. Image date: January 1, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Heart Nebula (IC 1805)

The Heart Nebula (IC 1805) lies about 7,500 light years away from Earth in the Perseus Arm of the Galaxy in the constellation Cassiopeia. The brightest part of the nebula (a knot at its western edge) is separately classified as NGC 896, because it was the first part of the nebula to be discovered. The nebula's intense red output and its morphology are driven by the radiation emanating from a small group of stars near the nebula's center. This open cluster of stars, known as Melotte 15, contains a few bright stars nearly 50 times the mass of our Sun, and many more dim stars that are only a fraction of our Sun's mass. (ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_Nebula)
The Heart Nebula is located adjacent to the Soul Nebula forming a view referred to as the Heart and Soul Nebula. Now to splice the images together into a mosaic of the region.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat 51 APO, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro, Optolong L-eNhance 2” filter, 60 x 60 second exposures at a GAIN of 200, one hour total exposure with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro (SGP) v3.03. Image date: November 25, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

FLICK EXPLORER Image of the Day for December 7, 2019.

The Heart and Soul Nebula Mosaic

The Heart and Soul Nebula (IC 1805 and IC 1848) two panel mosaic. This two panel mosaic shows a wide field view of the Heart and Soul Nebula (previously imaged separately). Each panel was a combined 60-minute exposure, the final mosaic stitched together using Microsoft Image Composite Editor (ICE).
The Heart Nebula is masking two deep sky objects that I was surprised to pick up in a wide field view, I'll share these in the next image.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat 51 APO, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro, Optolong L-eNhance 2” filter, each panel was 60 x 60 second exposures at a GAIN of 200, one hour total exposure with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro (SGP) v3.03. Image date: November 25, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Galaxy NGC 2403 in the Constellation Camelopardalis

Test exposure of NGC 2403 using the ASI071MC-Pro camera, no darks or bias frames used. NGC 2403 is an intermediate spiral galaxy in the constellation Camelopardalis. NGC 2403 is an outlying member of the M81 Group, and is approximately 8 million light-years distant. Star forming regions can be seen in this galaxy.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro, 11 x 60 second exposures, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2 live stacking and saved in FITS format for processing. Image date: November 24, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Veil Nebula Complex

Here is a wide field view of the Veil Nebula Complex found in the constellation Cygnus. This is the remnants of a supernova. This is about 1,470 light years from Earth and nearly 50 light years across. The Veil Nebula Complex has about two dozen components that have their own designations including the Eastern Veil, Western Veil, The Funnel, Pickering’s Triangle and more.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat 51 APO, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, Optolong L-eNhance 2” filter, ISO 3200, 4 hours total exposure time using 300 second subs with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: November 02, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Soul Nebula (IC 1848)

This large star forming region is called the Soul Nebula (or Embryo Nebula) and is found in the constellation Cassiopeia. This nebula is often shown next to the Heart Nebula (IC 1805). The Soul Nebula is about 6,500 light years away from Earth. The nebula contains several open clusters and there are few smaller emissions nebula around the perimeter. The star clusters are surrounded by hydrogen, which glows red from the young hot stars nearby.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat 51 APO, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro, Optolong L-eNhance 2” filter, 60 second exposures at a GAIN of 200, one hour total exposure with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro (SGP) v3.03. Image date: November 25, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Owl Cluster (NGC 457)

Short test exposure using the ASI071MC-Pro on the Sky Watcher, this is the Owl Cluster in Cassiopeia, also known as NGC 457. The smaller open cluster in the upper right is NGC 436. The Owl Cluster is about 7,900 light-years away.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount (pier mounted), ZWO ASI071MC-Pro, 6 x 60 second exposures, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using SharpCap v3.2 live stacking and saved in FITS format for processing. Image date: November 24, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Orion and Horsehead Nebula

Here is a work in progress - the Orion and Horsehead Nebula in the constellation Orion. The three bright stars on the top represent the belt of Orion. This is two-hours of five minute exposures, I plan on adding another 10+ hours to this over the coming month in addition to many short exposure to bring out the central details of the Orion Nebula.
Tech Specs: Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat 51 APO, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, Optolong L-eNhance 2” filter, ISO 3200, 24 x 300 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. PixInsight and Adobe Lightroom. Image date: November 2, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Ghost of Cassiopeia

IC 59 and IC 63 are found in the constellation Cassiopeia very near the bright star Gamma Cassiopeia. This set of objects is also known as the Ghost of Cassiopeia. Gamma Cassiopeia also has the informal nickname of Navi. The “IC” designation comes from a group of objects discovered between 1888 and 1907, most made possible by photography, and known as the Index Catalogue.
These nebulae are a combination of emission and reflection, they are located about 610 light years from Earth and are about 10 light years across. Gamma Cassiopeia provides the radiation to light up this area of dust and gas, eventually dissipating the area.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat 51 APO, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, Optolong L-eNhance 2” filter, ISO 3200, 12 x 300 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: October 23, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

North America Nebula

The North America Nebula (NGC 7000) is an emission nebula in the constellation Cygnus. Can you see how it looks like the North American continent complete with a prominent Gulf of Mexico?
The name “North America Nebula” was coined by Dr. Max Wolf (ref: Burnham’s Celestial Handbook, Volume 2, by Robert Burnham Jr.) no doubt from his work with E.E. Barnard on dark nebulae. I find it hard to not image this region at least once per year, such a beautiful area of the sky! Really impressed by the Optolong L-eNhance filter with bringing out the details using a standard issue Canon 6D camera.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat 51 APO, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, Optolong L-eNhance 2” filter, ISO 3200, 75 minutes total exposure time using 300 second subs with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: November 16, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Planetary Nebula NGC 2371/2

Still finding some unprocessed images from earlier this year. Here is a different looking planetary nebula designated as NGC 2371 and 2372 found in the constellation Gemini. You can just start to make out the “wings” on either side of this nebula with a 30-minute exposure. Distance to this planetary nebula is listed at 4,400 light-years.
Tech Specs: This image is composed of 30 x 60 second images at ISO 3,200 with darks, bias and flat frames using a Meade LX90 12” telescope and Canon 6D camera mounted on a Celestron CGEM-DX mount. Date: March 4, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 2841 in Ursa Major

NGC 2841 is a spiral galaxy found in the constellation Ursa Major. It has an apparent magnitude of 10.1 and is about 46 million light years from Earth.
Tech Specs: Meade 12” LX-90, Canon 6D (stock), 60 x 60 second exposures, ISO 3200, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Captured using Sequence Generator Pro and processed using PixInsight. Image date: February 21, 2020. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

IC 1396 and the Elephant Trunk Nebula

Here is a wide field view of IC 1396 and the Elephant Trunk Nebula in the constellation Cepheus. The section called the Elephant Trunk Nebula is on the bottom and is an active star forming region. This emission nebula is about 2,400 light years away from Earth. This represents three hours of exposure time.
Tech Specs: Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat 51 APO, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, Optolong L-eNhance 2” filter, ISO 3200, 36 x 300 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: October 24, 2019 and November 2, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Caph, NGC 7789 and Rho Cassiopeiae

This wide field image shows the bright star Caph (Beta Cassiopeiae), the open cluster NGC 7789 and the unusual orange star Rho Cassiopeiae (Rho Cas). Rho Cas is designated as a yellow hypergiant star, these stars are massive and have a short life of only a few million years. There have only been seven yellow hypergiant stars found in the Milky Way. NGC 7789 contains about 1000 stars and an area of the sky almost half the size of the full moon.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat 51 APO, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 10 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: September 25, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Globular Cluster NGC 5634

[From Wikipedia] NGC 5634 is a globular cluster in the constellation Virgo, located about 82,000 light years away. NGC 5634 has an apparent magnitude of about 10. Its Shapley–Sawyer Concentration Class is IV, meaning the cluster shows intermediate rich concentrations with stars in the 19th magnitude. There is also a bright orange giant, HD 127119, about 1.3 arcminutes away from the cluster.
NGC 5634 was likely a member of the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy. The galaxy itself is being pulled apart by tidal forces from the Milky Way, similar to how NGC 5634 was pulled from the Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, ISO 3200, 29 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: June 22, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

California Nebula NGC 1499

The California Nebula (NGC 1499) is an emission nebula in the constellation Perseus. Can you see how it looks like the state of California? This nebula is about 1,000 light years from the Earth. The nebula is being lit up by the star Menkib located at the 1-2 o’clock position from the nebula. This is my first attempt at processing images using the Optolong L-eNhance filter, definitely a different processing approach for me.
Tech Specs: Williams Optics Redcat 51 APO, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, Optolong L-eNhance 2” filter, ISO 3200, 12 x 300 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: October 23, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 6366 in Ophiuchus

NGC 6366 is a loose globular cluster found in the constellation Ophiuchus. It has a Shapley–Sawyer Concentration Class of XI, which gives it a real loose central core (XII having almost no central core).
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, ISO 3200, 20 x 60 seconds (with darks and bias frames), guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and 60mm guide scope. Stacked with DSS and processed in ImagesPlus. Image date: 29 July 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory in Weatherly, PA, USA.

Arp 84 in Canes Venatici

NGC 5395 is a spiral galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici that is interacting with an adjacent galaxy (NGC 5394). It is also listed in the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies as Arp 84. This system is about 160 million light years away from Earth.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, ISO 3200, 30 x 60 seconds (with darks and bias frames), guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and 60mm guide scope. Stacked with DSS and processed in ImagesPlus. Image date: 30 June 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory in Weatherly, PA, USA.

Collinder 399 - Brocchi's Cluster in Vulpecula

Here is a two image mosaic view of Brocchi's Cluster, also known as Collinder 399. It forms an asterism called the Coathanger, can you see it? If you look to the right of my image, you'll also spot the open cluster NGC 6802. The top two stars in the Coathanger are M and K class stars and have a noticeable orangish color to them.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, ISO 3200, 10 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: June 22, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Globular Cluster NGC 6749 in Aquila

After reading a few articles on the globular cluster and the difficulties many amateur astronomers have had with this (at least on visual observations), I was curious if I could capture any data at all. NGC 6749 is nestled a dusty region of the constellation Aquila and has a magnitude of roughly 12.4. It is very faint and has a low surface brightness. Some references state that this is one of the faintest globular clusters in the entire NGC catalog.
The image shown is 21-minutes of collected data and you can clearly see the reddish glow in both images caused by looking “through” the Milky Way’s dust and gas. The cropped and zoomed image was further processed to boost the signal and clearly resolves some of the stars in this glob.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, ISO 3200, 21 x 60 seconds (with darks and bias frames), guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and 60mm guide scope. Stacked with DSS and processed in ImagesPlus. Image date: 29 July 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory in Weatherly, PA, USA.

Zoomed View Globular Cluster NGC 6749 in Aquila


Globular Cluster NGC 5466

NGC 5466 is a globular cluster that exhibits a low surface brightness and a less dense core compared to other globulars. Burnham lists this cluster at a magnitude of 9.0 and gives it a Class XII (in the Shapley–Sawyer Concentration Class, this is the lowest concentrated center of the globulars).
• Class: XII• Constellation: Boötes• Right ascension: 14h 05m 27.29s• Declination: +28° 32′ 04.0″• Distance: 51,900 ly• Apparent magnitude (V): 10.5• Estimated age: 13.57 billion years
Imaging Specs: Meade 12" LX90, Canon 6D, 27 x 60 seconds at ISO 3200 (includes darks, bias and flats), guided, stacked with DSS, processed with ImagesPlus. Image Date: April 22, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

An Open Cluster Paired with a Galaxy

Here is a wide-field shot of the open cluster NGC 6939 paired with a background galaxy, NGC 6949, also known as the Fireworks Galaxy. Both deep sky objects appear in the constellation Cepheus.
The open cluster lies about 4,000 light years away, while the galaxy is about 22.5 million light years from Earth.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, ISO 3200, 60 x 60 seconds (with darks and bias frames), guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and WO Redcat 51as a guide scope. Image date: 30 June 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory in Weatherly, PA, USA.

Globular Cluster NGC 6760

NGC 6760 is a dim globular cluster found in the constellation Aquila. It has a Shapley–Sawyer Concentration Class of IX, which gives it a rather loose central core. It is approximately 24,000 light years away and depending on the source, listed as magnitude 9.0. It is somewhat buried in the plane of the Milky Way, masked with some dust/gas giving it a bit reddish hue.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, ISO 3200, 15 x 60 seconds (with darks and bias frames), guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and 60mm guide scope. Stacked with DSS and processed in ImagesPlus. Image date: 29 July 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory in Weatherly, PA, USA.

Flaming Star Nebula IC 405

Here is a view of the Flaming Star Nebula, IC 405, in the constellation Auriga. This is both an emission and reflection nebula and is about 1500 light-years away from Earth. Processed using PixInsight. TECH SPECS: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, ISO 3200, 60 x 60 second exposures. Image date: December 4, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Cocoon Galaxy System ARP 269

Arp 269 consists of NGC 4490 and is a peculiar barred spiral interacting with the smaller irregular dwarf NGC 4485. In the Arp Catalog, it is part of the ‘Connected Arms’ class, these are located approximately 25 million light-years away in Canes Venatici.
The Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies is a catalog of peculiar galaxies produced by Halton Arp in 1966. A total of 338 galaxies are presented in the atlas, which was originally published in 1966 by the California Institute of Technology. (https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Arp/Arp_contents.html)
Technical Card:• Magnitude: 9.8• Absolute magnitude: -19.5• Apparent size (V): 6′.3 × 3′.1• Constellation: Canes Venatici• Apparent magnitude (V): 9.8• Distance: 25.1 ± 5.0 Mly
Imaging Specs: Meade 12" LX90, Canon 6D, 55 x 60 seconds at ISO 3200 (includes darks, bias and flats), guided, stacked with DSS, processed with PixInsight. Image Date: April 1, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 4244 - The Silver Needle Galaxy

NGC 4244, also known as the Silver Needle Galaxy, is found in the constellation Canes Venatici. Fairly low surface brightness requires some long exposures to bring out much detail, this is only just under one hour of exposure time. This spiral galaxy is orientated sideways, from our view, thus hiding the spiral arms typically seen. You can still see some dark dust lanes and clumps of gas in the profile.
Technical Card:· Constellation: Canes Venatici· Right ascension: 12h 17m 29.6s· Declination: +37° 48′ 26″· Distance: 13 million ly· Apparent magnitude (V): +10.2/+10.6
Imaging Specs: Meade 12" LX90, Canon 6D, 54 x 60 seconds at ISO 3200 (includes darks, bias and flats), guided, stacked with DSS, processed with ImagesPlus. Image Date: April 11, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Eskimo Nebula – NGC 2392 in Gemini

Here is a combined 4-minute exposure of the double-shell planetary nebula called The Eskimo Nebula or NGC 2392. It is located in the constellation Gemini and is about 2,900 light-years away at a magnitude of 10.1. Radial velocity measurements reveal that this diameter of the cloud is growing at a rate of 68 miles per second (Burnham, 1978).
Tech Specs: Meade 12" LX90, Canon 6D, 4-minutes total using many short 1 to 3 second images at f/10 (includes darks, bias and flats), guided, processed with DSS and PixInsight. Image Date: March 4, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Twin Quasars in Ursa Major

The two tiny dots inside the yellow circle are the most distant "objects" I have ever imaged, and are also the most unusual. This is called the Twin Quasar. What makes this a twin quasar is gravitational lensing, there is a galaxy between the Earth and the quasar. This galaxy bends the light from the quasar so it shows up, to us, as two sources! The Twin Quasar is approximately 8.7 billion light-years away and the galaxy causing the gravitational lens is a mere 3.7 billion light-years away. Both quasars are about magnitude 17.
Our SUN and Solar System are only about 4.6 billion years old, the light arriving to my telescope left the quasars about 4 billion years before our solar system was formed, hard to comprehend, it is amazing.
The galaxy in the lower right is NGC 3079, a barred spiral galaxy about 50 million light-years away from Earth (magnitude about 10.6).
Tech Specs: Meade 12" LX90, Canon 6D, 60 x 60 seconds at ISO 3200 (includes darks, bias and flats), guided, stacked with DSS, processed with PixInsight. Image Date: March 6, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Pacman Nebula - NGC 281

Here is an image I captured back in December but was not able to process very well until now using PixInsight. This is the Pacman Nebula, NGC 281, in the constellation Cassiopeia. It is an emission nebula that surrounds the open cluster IC 1590 that you can see in the center.
TECH SPECS: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, ISO 3200, 60 x 60 second exposures. Image date: December 10, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Spiral Galaxy NGC 1032

NGC 1032 is a spiral galaxy located in the constellation Cetus, it is about 117 million light-years away from Earth. This is a very small portion of a larger image containing Messier 77 thus it appears over processed in an attempt to bring out details of this magnitude 12.64 galaxy. Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 88 x 60 second exposures. Image date: November 11, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 1514 – The Crystal Ball Nebula of Taurus

This planetary nebula is located right on the border of Taurus and Perseus. It is cataloged as NGC 1514 and is also known as the Crystal Ball Nebula. The magnitude, depending on the source, is listed at 10.9.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 30 x 60 second exposures. Image date: December 11, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

The Horsehead Nebula in Orion

The Horsehead Nebula is a diffuse dark nebula in the constellation Orion. The Horsehead Nebula is also referred to as Barnard 33 and is located inside the emission nebula IC 434 (the reddish background), it lies about 1,500 light-years away. The bright star in this image is actually the star Alnitak, the left most star in the belt of Orion.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D stock camera, 110 minutes total integration time at ISO 3200, imaged on January 25 and 28, 2019. Location: The Dark Side Observatory in Weatherly, PA.

Galaxy NGC 2403 in the Constellation Camelopardalis

NGC 2403 is an intermediate spiral galaxy in the constellation Camelopardalis. NGC 2403 is an outlying member of the M81 Group, and is approximately 8 million light-years distant. Star forming regions can be seen in this galaxy. Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, 60 x 60 seconds, ISO 3200, Image Date: December 7, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory in Weatherly, PA.

Galaxy NGC 772 (Arp 78)

When I first imaged The Nautilus Galaxy (NGC 772/ARP 78) I was fascinated by its shape, one spiral arm stretched outward from the center. This is probably an effect of being tugged on by a satellite galaxy designated as NGC 770 (the bright fuzzy ball of light at the two o'clock position). NGC 772 is also listed as ARP 78 in the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. This catalog was compiled by Dr. Halton C. Arp and it details 338 peculiar galaxies. It is estimated that NGC 772 is twice the size of our Milky Way Galaxy! TECH SPECS: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, ISO 3200, 61 x 60 second exposures. Image date: November 11, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 708 and Abell 262 Cluster

Here is a view of NGC 708 in the galaxy cluster known as Abell 262. In this view are at least 17 galaxies of the 200 members of this group. Abell 262 is part of the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster.
TECH SPECS: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D, ISO 3200, 60 x 60 second exposures. Image date: December 4, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 6755 - Open Cluster in Aquila

Open clusters NGC 6755 (center) and NGC 6756 (upper right) in the constellation Aquila. This is a clip from a larger frame. Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 17 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: October 13, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Helix Nebula (NGC 7293)

The Helix Nebula, also known as The Helix, NGC 7293, is a large planetary nebula located in the constellation Aquarius. Really wanted to add more data to this, but the weather never cooperated. Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 25 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: October 13, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888) in Cygnus

Here is a view of the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888 or Caldwell 27) in the constellation Cygnus. This is about the best I can get using a standard DSLR camera. Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 60 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: November 10, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 457 – The Owl Cluster

Here is an image of the Owl Cluster in Cassiopeia, also known as NGC 457. The smaller open cluster in the upper left is NGC 436. The Owl Cluster is about 7,900 light-years away. The two bright stars are magnitude 5 Phi-1 Cassiopeia and magnitude 7 Phi-2 Cassiopeia. Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 15 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: October 13, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 404 – Mirach’s Ghost

Located near the bright star Mirach is the galaxy NGC 404. Lying so close to Mirach, a second magnitude star, has earned it the name "Mirach's Ghost". Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 15 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: October 13, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

NGC 663 - Open Cluster

Here is a view of the open cluster NGC 663 (also known as Caldwell 10), a young cluster of about 400 stars in Cassiopeia. Two other NGC clusters are also in this view, NGC 654 to the upper left and NGC 659 in the upper right. Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 15 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: October 13, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Barnard 174 - Dark Nebula in Cepheus

This is dark nebula Barnard 174 in the constellation Cepheus. 1.5 hours just starts to bring out some edge details, so I'll call this a work in progress for now. E.E. Barnard published a list of dark nebulae in 1919, known as Barnard objects, they number from Barnard 1 to Barnard 370. Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 88 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: October 3, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Perseus Double Cluster (NGC 869 and NGC 884)

Here is a view of the famous double cluster in the constellation Perseus (between Perseus and Cassiopeia), they are also designate NGC 869 and NGC 884. Check out the red supergiants in this view! Did you know that the Perseus Double Cluster is surrounded by one of the largest concentrations of red supergiants stars in the sky? (Red supergiants, neutrinos and the Double Cluster, Tristram Brelstafff, 1996). Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 20 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: October 1, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Supernova 2018ivc in Galaxy M77

Finally had the opportunity to image the new bright supernova in galaxy Messier 77 (M77) designated as Supernova 2018ivc. The left image is from November 11, 2018 (pre-supernova) and the right image from December 4, 2018. Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, left image 60-minutes, right image 30-minutes with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: November 11 and December 4, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

North America Nebula in Cygnus

The North America Nebula (NGC 7000 or Caldwell 20) is an emission nebula in the constellation Cygnus, you can see how it resembles the continent of North America, complete with a prominent Gulf of Mexico. Even using the wide-field of the Sky-Watcher, it will take several more imaging sessions to cover this area.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 14 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: July 7, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Eastern Veil Nebula - Caldwell 33

Here is the Eastern Veil Nebula in the constellation Cygnus.This section is also known as Caldwell 33 and includes a bright area named NGC 6992. This was caused by an exploding star known as a supernova. It is estimated this explosion occurred between 3,000 BC to 6,000 BC.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 53 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: June 11, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.
Additional Info:
Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veil_Nebula)

Brocchi's Cluster and NGC 6802

Here is a view of Brocchi's Cluster, also known as Collinder 399. It forms an asterism called the Coathanger. If you look to the right of my image, you'll also spot the open cluster NGC 6802. The top two stars are M and K class stars and have a noticeable orangish color to them.
Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 10 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: July 7, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA. Three composite images.
Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brocchi%27s_Cluster)EarthSky (http://earthsky.org/favorite-star-patterns/the-coathanger-a-binocular-star-hop-adventure)

The Whale and the Pup Galaxies

Here is a view of the Whale and the Pup Galaxies (NGC 4631 and NGC 4627) found in the constellation Coma Berenices. Even with a 60-minute exposure you can see details and clusters inside the Whale Galaxy, they are more than 22 million light years away. Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 61 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: April 10, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

North America Nebula - A Wide-Field View

Here is a quick image of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000 or Caldwell 20) using a piggy-backed Canon 6D and 200mm f/2.8 lens. Tech Specs: Canon 6D, Canon EF70-200mm f/2.8 lens, 31 x 60 seconds, ISO 3200, 200mm. Date: September 29, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.

Barnard's Galaxy and NGC 6818

Here is a short wide-field view of NGC 6822 (Barnard's Galaxy) and the blue dot in the lower right corner in the planetary nebula NGC 6818. Barnard's Galaxy is about 1.6 million light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius and is one of the closer galaxies to the Milky Way. Tech Specs: Sky-Watcher Esprit 120mm ED Triplet APO Refractor, Celestron CGEM-DX mount, Canon 6D stock camera, ISO 3200, 14 x 60 second exposures with dark/bias frames, guided using a ZWO ASI290MC and Orion 60mm guide scope. Image date: August 9, 2018. Location: The Dark Side Observatory, Weatherly, PA, USA.