Water Quality and Water Treatment in Zoos and Aquariums


Aquality I: The 1st International Symposium on Water Quality and Water Treatment in Zoos and Aquariums was held at the Oceanário de Lisboa, Portugal in 2004. Following its resounding success a second meeting, Aquality II, was held at the Atlantis Resort in the Bahamas in 2014. Over 500 participants from more than 30 countries attended the two meetings.

A list of the presentations from each of the meetings has been summarized below. A copy of the presentations given at the 1st Symposium can be downloaded here: Aquality I: Archive and presentations from the 2nd Symposium can be viewed at the Animal Professional website here: Aquality II: Archive.

Each of the presenters submitted manuscripts to the organizers of the Aquality initiative. These manuscripts are being peer reviewed and published as a hard-bound manual: The Aquality Manual: Water Quality and Water Treatment in Zoos and Aquariums. Over 1,000 copies of the manual will be made available free of charge to Zoos and Aquariums globally. In addition, downloadable PDFs of each chapter will be made available free-of-charge here.

AQUALITY 1: Lisbon, Portual, 2004


Water Chemistry, Sources & Management

1 Seawater and Its Constituents,

2 Natural Seawater Sources & Pre-treatment,

3 Artificial Seawater Manufacturing & Trace Element Supplementation

4 Heavy Metals and Other Toxins,

5 Critical Water Parameters and Their Measurement

6 ATP-metry: a Tool in Water Quality Management

7 Development and Application of a Method to Detect and Quantify Praziquantel in Seawater,

8 Water Quality Monitoring Protocol and Record Keeping Techniques

9 Effluent Treatment and Legislation

10 Water Quality Data and Trends Processing in a Manatee Facility

11 Logic Control for Life Support Systems

12 Design Considerations for Water Recovery Systems

Physical and Physio-Chemical Processes

13 Protective Coatings & Linings for Zoos & Aquariums

14 Basic Hydraulics

15 Pumping Equipment

16 Water Movement Modes and Their Potential Effects on Biology, Exhibitry and Water Treatment

17 Reverse Osmosis & Ion Exchange

18 Sand Filtration in Public Aquaria

19 Use of Foam Fractionation for Improving Water Quality in Marine Aquarium Waters

20 Importance of and Design Considerations for Aeration and Gas Exchange

21 Heat Exchangers and Temperature Control

22 Activated Carbon

23 Acid Leaching & Concrete Pretreatment

Chemical Processes

24 Ozone Generation, Transport and Destruct

25 Safe and Effective Application of Ozone Via Applied Dose, Redox Potential and Husbandry Techniques

26 Use of Ozone for Improvement of Water Quality in Aquaria

27 Foam Fractionation Versus Ozone Contacting: Impacts on Water Quality

28 Use of Ultraviolet Light for Disinfection of Aquaria Waters

29 Photobiological Effects of Medium-Pressure Ultraviolet (UV) Lamps

30 Calcium Consumption and Supplementation in Seawater Exhibits

31 Algae Control

32 Use of Chlorine in Aquaria

Biological Processes

33 Biological Cycles

34 Nitrifying Bacteria

35 Types of Biofilters: Advantages and Disadvantages

36 Continuous Flow Heterotrophic Denitrification Systems in Closed Saltwater Aquaria

37 Autotrophic De-nitrification: Theory and Application in Marine Aquaria

38 Refugia and the Natural Approach to Water Quality Management: Part 1, System Review and Plant Filters

39 Refugia and the Natural Approach to Water Quality Management: Part 2, Sediments and Live Food Production

40 Comparison of Bacterial Populations Associated With Water of Different Aquaria, Intestinal Flora of Fish and Feeding

41 Algae in an Outdoor Seawater Exhibit: Nuisance or Benefit?

42 History and Evolution of Biological Filtration in Aquaria in Europe

Life Support System Design Considerations

43 Life Support Design Considerations for Marine Fishes: Duplicating Natural Water Quality Parameters

44 Life Support Design Considerations for Marine Mammals: Duplicating Natural Water Quality Parameters

45 Life Support Design Considerations for Live Corals: Duplicating Natural Water Quality Parameters

46 Life Support Design Considerations for Amazon Species: Duplicating Natural Water Quality Parameters

AQUALITY 2: Paradise Island, Bahamas, 2014


Supply and Pre-Treatment

1 Artificial Seawater Manufacture

2 Reverse Osmosis

3 Ultrafiltration, Microfiltration, Nanofiltration

Chemical and UV

4 Ion Exchange in Aquatic LSS

5 Activated Carbon

6 Use of Ultra Violet Processing in Aquatic Life Support Systems


Fractionation and Ozone

8 Foam Fractionation

9 Ozone in Aquaria: Safe Installation and Application - The SEA LIFE Way

10 Energy and Maintenance Cost Savings via Air-Fed Ozone Generation

11 Energy Savings and Noise Reduction in LS Systems Based on Flow Control

12 Safe and Effective Application of Ozone in Aquatic Life Support Systems


13 Activated Glass Filter Media

14 Bead Filtration

15 Drum Filtration in Aquatic Life Support Systems

16 Reduction of Nitrogen Supersaturation in an Open System at Sea World Durban


17 Pre-nitrification via Temporary Processing Loop: Reduce Exhibit Construction Time

18 Nitrification in Marine Aquaria

19 Aquaponics

20 Open and Semi-Open Aquatic Life Support Systems

Marine Mammals and Friends

21 Cephalopod LSS Requirements

22 Speciation and Pathways of Oxidants Resulting From Ozone or Chlorine Application in Seawater

23 Management of Chloramines in Marine Mammal Pools

24 Maintaining Water Quality in a Marine Mammal Pool Without Chlorine Injection

25 Control and Removal of Perchlorate Ion Generated by Chlorine use in Marine Mammal Pool Waters


26 Maintaining Water Quality at Urban Aquaria

27 Biogeochemical Cycles, Imports and Exports of Heavy Metals and Nutrients in the Seas Main Tank System

28 New method for P removal

29 Methods to Control Phosphate for Algae Management


30 Denitrification in Aquatic LS Systems - Options and Overview

31 Solid Phase Denitrification

32 Nitrate Control at Oceanário de Lisboa Large Aquariums via Heterotrophic Denitrification

33 Autotrophic Denitrification at National Aquarium - 600,00 gallons under 15 mg/L

Corals and Jellies

34 LSS and Exhibit Design for Pelagic Gelatinous Species

35 Water Chemistry Requirements for Live Corals

36 Ecological Filtration for Live Corals

37 LSS Design for Live Corals

38 Water Motion for Live Corals – Options and Advances


39 Diagnostic Approach to Biofilms in Biofilters

40 The Role of the Aquarium Microbiome: Implications for Simulated Environments and Animal Health

41 Coliform Bacteria Monitoring in Large, Mixed Species Marine Fish Exhibits

42 Developing an Environmental Testing Program


43 Development and use of Nitrate and Total Ammonia Testing Procedures

44 Effectively Monitoring Praziquantel in Immersion Baths

45 Benefits of Spectral Wavelength Analysis for Aquarium Health

46 Green Chemistry in the Water Quality Laboratory