Water Quality and Water Treatment in Zoos and Aquariums 


The Aquality Manual a.k.a. Water Quality and Water Treatment in Zoos and Aquariums will consist of peer-reviewed articles presented at the 1st and 2nd Aquality Symposia on core water quality and water treatment subjects. Once the review process is complete, a hard-bound version of the Manual will be published.

The estimated release date of the hard-bound Manual is 2021. However, as each article from the symposium completes the peer review process, it will be made available on this page as a downloadable pre-publication DRAFT electronic document. We encourage you to check back periodically for new additions.

Please click on the links below to download a pre-publication DRAFT of an article.

Aquality: Water Quality and Water Treatment in Zoos and Aquariums


1 An Overview of Water Treatment Processes for Living Systems

2 The Properties and Composition of Seawater: An “Elemental” Overview

3 Seawater Extraction Techniques and Pre-treatment with Ferric Chloride

4 Techniques for Manufacturing Artificial Seawater at the Steinhart Aquarium

5 Activated Carbon and its Application in Aquariums

6 Reverse Osmosis Systems for Aquariums

7 Aquarium Pump Selection and Operation to Reduce System Noise and Vibration

8 Drum Filtration

9 A Comparison of Glass Medias used in Granular Media Filters

10 Mechanical Sand Filtration

11 Foam Fractionation versus Ozone Contacting: Impacts on Water Quality in a Natural Seawater System

12 Foam Fractionation in Marine Animal Life Support Systems

13 Ozone Management in Aquatic Life Support Systems

14 Oxidants and Hazardous Disinfection By-Products in Aquariums

15 Ultraviolet Disinfection of Aquatic Waters

16 Nitrifying Bacteria in Marine Aquaria: A Review

17 Types of Biofilters: Advantages and Disadvantages

18 Phosphate Control and Algae Management Using Lanthanum Chloride in Three Marine Aquariums

19 Denitrification in Aquaria: An Introduction

20 Heterotrophic Denitrification as a Mechanism to Control Nitrate in Multiple Marine Aquariums

21 User-Friendly, High Efficiency Denitrification 

22 Natural Substrate Filters and Refugia as Mechanisms to Manage Water Quality in Marine Aquariums

23 Algae as a Tool to Manage Nitrogen in an Outdoor Marine Exhibit

24 Aeration and Gas Exchange

25 Environmental Conditions Recommended for Coral Reef Systems

26 Water Quality Parameters for Successful Live Coral Exhibits

27 Water Quality Considerations and Life Support System Design for Cephalopods

28 Heavy Metals: A Brief Overview

29 Ecological Purification in a Coral Reef Mesocosm

30 Calcium Consumption and Supplementation in Seawater Exhibits

31 Critical Water Quality Parameters And Their Measurement

32 Water Quality Monitoring Protocols and Record-keeping Techniques

33 Green Chemistry in the Water Quality Laboratory

34 Development and Use of Nitrate and Total Ammonia Testing Procedures

35 Monitoring Bacteria Counts in Fish Exhibits for Diver Safety