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Wildlife conservation organizations

ORGANIZATIONS, CONVENTIONS, PROTOCOLS, SUMMITS ON CONSERVATION

 

World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) : This is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. Founded in 1948, its headquarters is located in the Lake Geneva area in Gland, Switzerland. The IUCN brings together 83 states, 108 government agencies, 766 NGOs and 81 international organizations and about 10,000 experts and scientists from countries around the world. IUCN's mission is to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable. The Union has three components: its member organizations, its 6 scientific commissions and its professional secretariat.

 

The six Commissions that assess the state of the world’s natural resources and provide the Union with sound know-how and policy advice on conservation issues are:

1.         Commission on Ecosystem Management (CEM): It provides expert guidance on integrated ecosystem approaches to the management of natural and modified ecosystems. Members: 400.

2.         Commission on Education and Communication (CEC): It champions the strategic use of communication and education to empower and educate stakeholders for the sustainable use of natural resources. Members: Over 500.

3.         Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy (CEESP): It provides expertise and policy advice on economic and social factors for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. Members: 500.

4.         Commission on Environmental Law (CEL): It advances environmental law by developing new legal concepts and instruments, and by building the capacity of societies to employ environmental law for conservation and sustainable development. Members: 800.

5.         Species Survival Commission (SSC): It advises the Union on the technical aspects of species conservation and mobilizes action for those species that are threatened with extinction. It produces the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Members: 7000.

6.         World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA): It promotes the establishment and effective management of a worldwide representative network of terrestrial and marine protected areas. It consists of over 1300 protected areas experts worldwide.

 

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), created in 1963, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. The IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction.

Species are classified in nine groups, set through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation.

1.         Extinct (EX) : In biology and ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a species or group of taxa, reducing biodiversity. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that species (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point). eg. Thylacine, Dodo, Passenger Pigeon

2.         Extinct in the Wild (EW) : This is a conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa, the only living members of which are being kept in captivity or as a naturalized population outside its historic range. Examples of such animals include: Barbary Lion, Dromedary, Spix's Macaw etc.

3.         Critically Endangered (CR) : Organisms with a conservation status of critically endangered have an extremely high risk of becoming extinct in the wild in the immediate future. eg. Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Arakan Forest Turtle, Javan Rhino

4.         Endangered (EN) : An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is either few in number, or threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters. The IUCN has calculated the percentage of endangered species as 40 percent of all organisms based on the sample of species that have been evaluated through 2006. eg. Elephant, Tiger, Snow Leopard

5.         Vulnerable (VU) : A vulnerable species is a species which is likely to become endangered unless the circumstances threatening its survival and reproduction improve. eg. Gaur, Lion

6.         Near Threatened (NT) : This is a conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. eg. California Red-legged Frog, Silvery Woolly Monkey

7.         Least Concern (LC): This is an IUCN category assigned to species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. As such they do not qualify as threatened, nor Near Threatened eg. Norway Rat, Nootka Cypress

8.         Data Deficient (DD) : This is a category applied by the IUCN to a species when the available information is not sufficient for a proper assessment of conservation status to be made. This does not necessarily indicate that the species has not been extensively studied; but it does indicate that little or no information is available on the abundance and distribution of the species.

9.         Not Evaluated (NE) : A taxon is not evaluated when it has not yet been assessed against the criteria.

 

When discussing the IUCN Red List, the official term "threatened" is a grouping of three categories: Critically Endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable.

 

Trade Record Analysis of Flora & Fauna in Commerce (TRAFFIC) International : This is an international network for monitoring wildlife trade. Established in 1976 as a joint program of World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and World Conservation Union (IUCN). Based in Cambridge, Great Britain and having offices in Africa, Asia, the Americas, Europe and Oceania. The Organization is sponsored by charitable foundations, private persons and other donors. TRAFFIC's vision is of a world in which trade in wild plants and animals will be managed at sustainable levels without damaging the integrity of ecological systems and in such a manner that it makes a significant contribution to human needs, supports local and national economies and helps to motivate commitments to the conservation of wild species and their habitats.

 

The declared objectives of TRAFFIC International include:

-            protecting wild animal and plant species from endangerment by trade,

-            safeguarding priority ecoregions from the negative effects of wildlife trade,

-            conserving particularly valuable wildlife resources for human needs,

-            promoting international agreements and policies that encourage sustainability in wildlife trade.

 

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) : This is an international agreement between governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants. Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected by CITES against over-exploitation through international trade. The endangered species are grouped in the Appendices according to how threatened they are by international trade and the measures that apply to their trade.

 

Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System (WEMS) : This is a GIS based model developed to monitor wildlife law enforcement in the Asian region. It was started as a joint initiative by the United Nations University and the Asian Conservation Alliance. It is also supported financially by the International Fund for Animal Welfare.

 

UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) : The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB), proposes an interdisciplinary research agenda and capacity building aiming to improve the relationship of people with their environment globally. Launched in the early 1970s, it notably targets the ecological, social and economic dimensions of biodiversity loss and the reduction of this loss. It uses its World Network of Biosphere Reserves as vehicles for knowledge-sharing, research and monitoring, education and training, and participatory decision-making.

 

World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) : It provides the most comprehensive dataset on protected areas worldwide and is managed by UNEP-WCMC in partnership with the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) and the World Database on Protected Areas Consortium. The WDPA is a fully relational database containing information on the status, environment and management of individual protected areas.

 

Convention on Biological Diversity : It is an international treaty that was adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Convention has three main goals:

-            conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity);

-            sustainable use of its components; and

-            fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.

 

In other words, its objective is to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. It is often seen as the key document regarding sustainable development. It was opened for signature on 5 June 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993. The convention recognized for the first time in international law that the conservation of biological diversity is "a common concern of humankind" and is an integral part of the development process. The agreement covers all ecosystems, species, and genetic resources. It links traditional conservation efforts to the economic goal of using biological resources sustainably. It sets principles for the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources, notably those destined for commercial use. It also covers the rapidly expanding field of biotechnology through its Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, addressing technology development and transfer, benefit-sharing and biosafety issues.

 

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (also known as CMS or the Bonn Convention ) : It aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range. It is an intergovernmental treaty, concluded under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme, concerned with the conservation of wildlife and habitats on a global scale. Since the Convention's entry into force, its membership has grown steadily to include over 100 Parties from Africa, Central and South America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. The Convention was signed in 1979 in Bonn (hence the name) and entered into force in 1983.

 

Ramsar Convention : This is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i.e. to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of wetlands now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value. The official title is The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat. The convention was developed and adopted by participating nations at a meeting in Ramsar, Iran on February 2, 1971 and came into force on December 21, 1975. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance now includes over 1,616 sites (known as Ramsar sites) covering around 1,455,000 km². The headquarters is located in Gland, Switzerland shared with the IUCN.

 

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) : It is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund. It is the world's largest independent conservation organization with over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 90 countries, supporting 15,000 conservation and environmental projects around the world. It is a charity, with approximately 90% of its funding coming from voluntary donations by private individuals and businesses. The group’s mission is "to halt and reverse the destruction of our natural environment". Currently, much of its work focuses on the conservation of three biomes that contain most of the world's biodiversity: forests, freshwater ecosystems, and oceans and coasts. Among other issues, it is also concerned with endangered species, pollution and climate change. The organization runs more than 1,200 field projects worldwide in any given year. The organization was formed by Julian Huxley and Max Nicholson and registered as a charitable trust on 11 September 1961, in Morges, Switzerland.

 

World Wilderness Congress : This is the longest-running, public international environmental forum. The 1st WWC was held in South Africa in 1977 and has had a total of 7 meetings. It was founded by South African conservationist Dr Ian Player and Laurens van der Post. It is an international high profile event attracting delegates from around the world, often from non-developed countries, and includes many heads of state. The focus is on environmental issues with a global perspective. It is one of the most prestigious international environmental forums.

 

United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) : Also called the Law of the Sea Convention, it is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea that took place from 1973 through 1982 with modifications that were made by the 1994 Agreement on Implementation. The Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the seas, establishes clear guidelines for businesses, protects the environment, and improves the management of marine natural resources.

 

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling : It is an international agreement signed in 1946 designed to make whaling sustainable. It governs the commercial, scientific, and aboriginal subsistence whaling practices of fifty-nine member nations. It was signed by 42 nations in Washington, D.C. on December 2, 1946 and took effect on November 10, 1948. Objectives are protection of all whale species from overhunting, establishment of a system of international regulation for the whale fisheries to ensure proper conservation and development of whale stocks, and safeguarding for future generations the great natural resources represented by whale stocks. The primary instrument through which these aims were followed was the establishment of the International Whaling Commission.

 

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas : This is an agreement that was designed to solve through international cooperation the problems involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas, considering that because of the development of modern technology some of these resources are in danger of being overexploited.

 

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) : It coordinates United Nations environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and encourages sustainable development through sound environmental practices. It was founded as a result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in June 1972 and is headquartered in Gigiri, Nairobi, Kenya. UNEP also has six regional offices and various country offices. UNEP is the designated authority of the United Nations system in environmental issues at the global and regional level. Its mandate is to coordinate the development of environmental policy consensus by keeping the global environment under review and bringing emerging issues to the attention of governments and the international community for action. Its activities cover a wide range of issues regarding the atmosphere, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. It has played a significant role in developing international environmental conventions, promoting environmental science and information and illustrating the way those can work in conjunction with policy, working on the development and implementation of policy with national governments and regional institution and working in conjunction with environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). UNEP has also been active in funding and implementing environmentally related development projects.

 

Agenda 21 : It is a programme run by the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development. It is a comprehensive blueprint of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organisations of the UN, governments, and major groups in every area in which humans impact on the environment. The number 21 refers to the 21st century. The full text of Agenda 21 was revealed at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit), held in Rio de Janeiro on June 14th where 179 governments voted to adopt the program. The final text was the result of drafting, consultation and negotiation, beginning in 1989 and culminating at the two-week conference. In 1997, the General Assembly of the UN held a special session to appraise five years of progress on the implementation of Agenda 21 (Rio +5). The Assembly recognised progress as 'uneven' and identified key trends including increasing globalization, widening inequalities in income and a continued deterioration of the global environment.

 

World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) or Earth Summit 2002 took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002. It was convened to discuss sustainable development by the United Nations. WSSD gathered a number of leaders from business and non-governmental organizations, 10 years after the first Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. (It was therefore also informally nicknamed "Rio+10".) The Johannesburg Declaration was the main outcome of the Summit; however, there were several other international agreements. An agreement was made to restore the world's depleted fisheries by 2015.

 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) : It was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans. The IPCC does not carry out research, nor does it monitor climate or related phenomena. One of the main activities of the IPCC is to publish special reports on topics relevant to the implementation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

 

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) : This is an amendment to the international treaty on climate change, assigning mandatory emission limitations for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the signatory nations. The objective of the protocol is the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.". As of December 2006, a total of 169 countries and other governmental entities have ratified the agreement (representing over 61.6% of emissions from Annex I countries). Notable exceptions include the United States and Australia. Other countries, like India and China, which have ratified the protocol, are not required to reduce carbon emissions under the present agreement. The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the year 1990 (but note that, compared to the emissions levels that would be expected by 2010 without the Protocol, this limitation represents a 29% cut). The goal is to lower overall emissions of six greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs, and PFCs - calculated as an average over the five-year period of 2008-12.

 

Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) : The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of the southern 60th parallel. The treaty has now been signed by 46 countries, including the now-defunct Soviet Union and the United States, and set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation and banned military activity on that continent. This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War.

 

Friends of the Earth : It is an international network of environmental organizations in 70 countries. It is structured as a confederation, each member organization being autonomous. In turn the national groups are composed of grassroots local groups working in their own areas. The groups which make up Friends of the Earth conduct their own campaigns and coordinate their activities through the umbrella body Friends of the Earth International (FOEI).

 

Greenpeace : It is an international environmental organization founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1971. It is best known for its campaigns against whaling. In later years, the focus of the organization turned to other environmental issues, including bottom trawling, global warming, ancient forest destruction, nuclear power, and genetic engineering. Greenpeace has national and regional offices in 42 countries worldwide, all of which are affiliated to the Amsterdam-based Greenpeace International. The global organization receives its income through the individual contributions of an estimated 2.8 million financial supporters, as well as from grants from charitable foundations, but does not accept funding from governments or corporations.

 

World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) :It is the "umbrella" organization for the world zoo and aquarium community. Members of WAZA include leading zoos and aquariums, regional and national Associations of Zoos and Aquariums, and some affiliate organizations, such as zoo veterinarians or zoo educators, from all around the world. In 1935, the International Union of Directors of Zoological Gardens (IUDZG) was founded at Basel, Switzerland. During World War II this organisation ceased to exist, but in Rotterdam (the Netherlands) a new IUDZG was founded by a group of zoo directors from allied or neutral countries in 1946. In 2000, the IUDZG was renamed as World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) to reflect a more modern and global institution.

 

INDIAN AGENCIES

Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) : It is the nodal agency in the administrative structure of the Government of India for the planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of environmental and forestry programmes. The Ministry is also the Nodal agency in the country for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The principal activities undertaken by Ministry of Environment & Forests, consist of conservation & survey of flora, fauna, forests and wildlife, prevention & control of pollution, afforestation & regeneration of degraded areas and protection of environment, in the frame work of legislations. The main tools utilized for this include surveys, impact assessment, control of pollution, regeneration programmes, support to organizations, research to solve solutions and training to augment the requisite manpower, collection and dissemination of environmental information and creation of environmental awareness among all sectors of the country's population.

 

Indian Board For Wildlife (IBWL) : It is the apex advisory body in the field of Wildlife Conservation in the country and is headed by the Honorable Prime Minister of India. The IBWL has been reconstituted w.e.f. 7.12.2001. The XXI meeting of the IBWL was held on 21.1.2002 under the Chairmanship of the Honorable Prime Minister of India at New Delhi. Following resolutions were adopted as part of the Wildlife Conservation Strategy 2002:-

1.         Wildlife and forests shall be declared priority sector at the national level for which funds should be earmarked.

2.         Law enforcement agencies must ensure that those engaged in poaching, illicit trade in wildlife and wildlife products, destruction of their habitat, and such other illegal activities are given quick and deterrent punishment.

3.         We should fully tap the potential in wildlife tourism and at the same time take care that it does not have adverse impact in wildlife and protected areas. The revenue earned from increased tourism should be used entirely to augment available resources for conservation.

4.         Protecting interests of the poor and tribals living around protected areas should be handled with sensitivity and with maximum participation of the affected people. They should have access to the minor forest produce, in the forest outside of national parks and sanctuaries. Employment and means generation for these people is crucial for maintaining symbiosis between the forests, wildlife and the people. People should be encouraged to take up afforestation and conservation in new areas.

5.         While strengthening protective measures against traditional threats to wildlife, we should also respond to newer threats such as toxic chemicals and pesticides.

6.         There should be greater governmental as well as societal recognition and support for the many non-governmental organisations engaged in wildlife conservation. Mainstream media to better highlight their activities as also successess of governmental initiatives that have worked.

7.         Creatively produced Television Programmes on wildlife and ecology are widely appreciated by young and old as seen from the popularity of dedicated T.V. channels like Discovery, National Geographic and Animal Planet. It is proposed that Prasar Bharati and our private channels alongwith with agencies like WWF for Nature should collaborate and increase original Indian content in different languages on our television.

8.         No diversion of forest land for non-forest purposes from critical and ecologically fragile wildlife habitat shall be allowed.

9.         Lands falling within 10 km. of the boundaries of National Parks and Sanctuaries should be notified as eco-fragile zones under section 3(v) of the Environment (Protection) Act and Rule 5 Sub-rule 5(viii) & (x) of the Environment (Protection) Rules.

10.      Removal of encroachments and illegal activities from within forest lands and Protected Areas.

11.      No commercial mono-culture to replace natural forests.

12.      The settlement of rights in National Parks and Sanctuaries should not be used to exclude or reduced the areas that are crucial and integral part of the wildlife habitat.

13.      Every protected area should be managed by forest officers trained in wildlife management.

14.      Mitigation measures for human-animal conflict and mechanism for crop insurance as also expeditious disbursements of ex-gratia payments, should be instituted by States.

15.      Forest Commission should be set up to look into restructuring, reform and strengthening the entire forest set up and affiliated institutions in the country.

16.      A working group shall be constituted to monitor implementation of Wildlife Action Plan.

 

Central Zoo Authority of India (CZA) : In India, functioning of zoos is regulated by an autonomous statutory body called Central Zoo Authority which has been constituted under the Wild Life (Protection) Act.  The Authority consists of a Chairman, ten members and a Member Secretary. The main objective of the authority is to complement the national effort in conservation of wild life. Standards and norms for housing, upkeep, health care and overall management of animals in zoos has been laid down under the Recognition of Zoo Rules, 1992.

Every zoo in the country is required to obtain recognition from the Authority for its operation.  The Authority evaluates the zoos with reference to the parameters prescribed under the Rules and grants recognition accordingly.  Zoos which have no potential to come up to the prescribed standards and norms may be refused recognition and asked to close down.   Since its inception in 1992, the Authority has evaluated 347 zoos, out of which 164 have been recognized and 183 refused recognition.   Out of 183 zoos refused recognition, 92 have been closed down and their animals relocated suitably. Cases of the remaining 91 derecognized zoos are currently under review. The Authority’s role is more of a facilitator than a regulator.  It, therefore, provides technical and financial assistance to such zoos which have the potential to attain the desired standard in animal management.   Only such captive facilities which have neither the managerial skills nor the requisite resources are asked to close down.

Apart from the primary function of grant of recognition and release of financial assistance, the Central Zoo Authority also regulates the exchange of animals of endangered category (Listed under Schedule-I and II of the Wildlife Protection Act) among zoos.  Exchange of animals between Indian and foreign zoos is also approved by the Authority before the requisite clearances under EXIM Policy and the CITES permits are issued by the competent authority.  The Authority also coordinates and implements programmes on capacity building of zoo personnel, planned breeding programmes and ex-situ research including biotechnological intervention for conservation of species for complementing in-situ conservation efforts in the country.  Some of the major initiatives undertaken by the Authority since its inception include Establishment of Laboratory for Conservation of Endangered Species at Hyderabad for carrying out research in biotechnology, planned breeding of Red Panda and its restocking into the wild, upgradation of diagnostic facilities for disease diagnosis at selected veterinary institutions and their networking with zoos on regional basis for better health care of animals

 

Wildlife Institute of India (WII) : It is a government institution run by the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education which trains wildlife managers and wildlife researchers. Trained personnel from WII have contributed in studying and protecting wildlife in India. WII has also popularized wildlife studies and careers. The institute is based in Dehradun, India. It is located in Chandrabani, which is close to the southern forests of Dehradun. The mission of the Wildlife Institute of India is to:

-            Train managers and biologists for protected area management and wildlife research

-            Train education and extension specialists for those involved in landuse management.

-            Provide orientation courses for those involved in landuse management

-            Conduct and coordinate applied wildlife research and evolve relevant techniques suited to Indian conditions

-            Create a database for building up a wildlife information system employing modern computerized analytical techniques; and

-            Provide advisory and consultancy services to central and state governments, universities, research institutions and other official and non-official agencies.

 

Zoo Outreach Organization (ZOO) : This started off as an NGO primarily focusing on training Zoo staff and bettering the circumstances of captive animals in Indian zoos. It has since evolved into an overall nature and wildlife conservation NGO. Zoo Outreach Organisation (ZOO) was so named because its initial activity involved primarily zoos, and its purpose was to "reach out" and involve more people with zoos. Also its acronym itself is "Z.O.O." in order to make a strong statement of support of zoos and their potential. ZOO was founded in 1985 with funds and mandate from the then Department of Environment, Government of India, to provide technical and educational support for zoos, enhance the public image of zoos, and liaise between local, national, international interests for the benefit of Indian zoos. It also lobbied for organizations and legislation affecting zoos and animal welfare in zoos.

Zoos are not just captive wildlife, however and ZOO is not just about zoos. In order for zoos to be relevant to conservation they must have extensive knowledge of wildlife in the wild. Field personnel and policy makers need to know what zoos can do for them. Therefore Zoo Outreach Organization concerns in situ conservation as much as ex situ. Zoo personnel were not in communication with one another, with field personnel or with their colleagues in the rest of the world. There was not much published information or training going on. It’s publications and networks have addressed this problem for the last 15 years: The Magazine and Journal are generated and edited in- house as well as all the newsletters and compendiums. ZOOS' PRINT magazine (ZP) starts 19 years of regular publication this year. ZOOS' PRINT is the oldest and the only regular zoo publication in all of Asia.

 

Bombay Natural History Society : It is today the largest non-government organization (NGO) in the Indian sub-continent engaged in nature conservation research. Since its establishment in 1883, its commitment has been, and continues to be, the conservation of India's natural wealth, protection of the environment and sustainable use of natural resources for a balanced and healthy development for future generations. The Society's guiding principle has always been that conservation must be based on scientific research - a tradition exemplified by its late president, Dr. Sálim Ali. Realising the importance of the Bombay Natural History Society's vital role in documenting and conserving India's natural heritage, the Government of India agreed to fund the building of 'Hornbill House' to house the Bombay Natural History Society and its valuable collections of natural history specimens representing India's faunal biodiversity.

 

Wildlife Protection Society of India (WPSI) : It was founded in 1994 by Belinda Wright, its Executive Director, who was an award-winning wildlife photographer and filmmaker till she took up the cause of conservation. From its inception, WPSI's main aim has been to bring a new focus to the daunting task of tackling India's growing wildlife crisis. It does this by providing support and information to government authorities to combat poaching and the  escalating illegal wildlife trade - particularly in wild tigers. It has now broadened its focus to deal with human-animal conflicts and provide support for research projects. It is a registered non-profit organisation, funded by a wide range of Indian and international donors.

 

Wildlife Trust of India (WTI) : It is a non profit conservation organization based in New Delhi. Its principal concerns are crisis management to prevent destruction of India's wildlife and the provision of quick, efficient aid to those areas that require it the most. In the longer term it hopes to achieve, through proactive reforms, an atmosphere conducive to conserving India's wildlife and its habitat. WTI was formed in November 1998 in response to the rapidly deteriorating condition of wildlife. WTI is a registered charity in India